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1. Brief history of the Public Telephone Network in the Philippines

1873 The first telegraph line was opened between Manila and island of Corregidor.
1890 The country’s first telephone system was established in Manila during the administration of Governador-General
Valeriano Meyler y Nicolao.
1895 Electric lines were first installed.
1897 More telegraph lines were installed. There were already 65 government telegraph offices in operation in the
country of which 49 were in Luzon, 9 in Panay, 4 in Negros and 3 in Cebu. The stations were interconnected by
2,8180 kilometers of telegraph lines

2. Describe the numbering plan of each telephone network.

The country code for the Philippines is 63.
The international trunk access code is 00.
The national/long distance trunk access code is 0.
Subscriber numbers within an area code are typically 7 digits long, while area codes can vary in length from 1 digit to 3 digits, as such, phone
numbers are not of a fixed length.
Within an area code the 7 digit subscriber number can be dialled without the area code or national/long distance trunk access code.
Numbers should be written in one of the following formats:
For landline access within a single area code only:
<subscriber number> e.g. 1234567 or 123 4567
For access from any phone in the country:
<national/long distance trunk access code><areacode> <subscriber number> e.g. 02 1234567 or 02 123
For access from anywhere in the world:
+<country code> <area code> <subscriber number> e.g. +63 2 1234567 or +63 2 123 4567

3. How are service area code allocated in the Philippines?

Philippine area codes for fixed-line or landline telephones are fixed at two digits, excluding Metro Manila, the province of Rizal and the cities
of Bacoor in Cavite and San Pedro in Laguna, which use the area code 2. Some smaller carriers concentrated within a specific geographic area
may issue four- or five-digit area codes, but these are being phased out in favour of the standard two-digit area codes.

4. Illustrate the telephone sets (milestone) in the Philippines.

1. Define the terms communications and telecommunications.
-Communications is the process of conveying information from one place to another. Telecommunications is long-distance

2. Define plain old telephone service.

-The simplest and most straightforward form of telephone service.

3. Describe a local subscriber loop.

-Most fundamental component of a telephone circuit.

4. Where in a telephone system is the local loop?

-In manholes.

5. Briefly describe the basic functions of a standard telephone set.

-Notify the subscriber when there is an incoming call. Provide a signal to the telephone network. Convert acoustic to electrical energy.
Incorporate some method of inputting and sending destination telephone numbers. Regulate the amplitude of the speech signal.

6. What is the purpose of the RJ-11 connector?

-Used as phone plugs and jacks.

7. What is meant by the terms tip and ring?

-1/4-inch-diameter two-conductor phone plugs and patch cords

8. List and briefly describe the essential components of a standard telephone set.
-On/Off Hook Circuit – used as a switch placed across the tip and ring
-Equalizer Circuit – used to regulate the amplitude and frequency of voice signals
-Speaker – receiver for the telephone
-Microphone – transmitter for the telephone
-Hybrid Network – used to convert the local loop into the telephone set
-Dialing circuit – enables the subscriber to output signals

9. Briefly describe the steps involved in completing a local telephone call

-Step 1: Calling station goes off hook
-Step 2 Dial tone returns to the calling station
-Step 3 Dial telephone number
-Step 4 Removes the dial tone from the loop
-Step 5 Interprets the number and locates the local loop
-Step 6 Test to see if it is idle or in use
-Step 7 If off hook, sends a station busy signal back to the calling station
-Step 8 When answers the telephone, it completes the loop
-Step 9 Switch removes the ringing and ring-back signals and completes the path through the switch
-Step 10 Drops the connections through the switch

10. Explain the basic purpose of call progress tones and signals
-Are acknowledgment and status signals that ensure the processes necessary to set up and terminate a telephone call are completed in
an orderly and timely manner

11. List and describe the two primary categories of signaling

-Station signaling – exchange of signaling messages between stations
-Interoffice signaling – exchange of signaling messages between switching machines.

12. Describe the following signaling messages: alerting, supervising, controlling, and addressing
-Alerting – indicate a request for service
-Supervising – provide call status information
-Controlling – provide information in the form of announcements
-Address – provide the routing information

13. What is the purpose of dial tone, and when is it applied to a telephone circuit?
-It informs subscribers that they have acquired access to the electronic switching machine and can now dial.

14. Briefly describe dual tone multifrequency and multifrequency signaling and tell where they are used.
-DTMF is a simple two-of-eight encoding scheme where each digit is represented by the linear addition of two frequencies.
-MF is a two-of-six code designed to be used only to convey information between two electronic switching machines.

15. Describe dial pulsing.

-Is the method originally used to transfer digits from a telephone set to the local switch.
16. What is the difference between a station busy signal and an equipment busy signal?
-Station busy signal is sent whenever the telephone number is off hook. Equipment busy signal is sent whenever the system cannot
complete the call because of equipment unavailability

17. What is the difference between a ringing and a ring-back signal?

-Ringing signal is sent to alert the subscriber that there is an incoming call. Ring-back signal is sent to give some assurance to the calling
party that the destination telephone number has been accepted, processed, and is being rung.

18. Briefly describe what happens when a telephone set is taken off hook.
-A switch closes in the telephone that completes a dc path between the two wires of the local loop.

19. Describe the difference between the operation of a cordless telephone and a standard telephone.
-The interface unit functions in much the same way as a standard telephone set in that its primary function is to interface the cordless
telephone with the local loop.

20. Explain how caller ID operates and when it is used.

-It is transmitted and received using Bell System 202-compatible modems and it has a 3-second window

21. Briefly describe how a paging system operates.

-Relay radio signals and messages from wireline and cellular telephones to subscribers carrying portable receivers.

1. Briefly describe a local subscriber loop
-It provide subscribers access to the public telephone network.

2. Explain what loading coils and bridge taps are and when they can be detrimental to the performance of a telephone circuit.
-Loading coils increase the effective distance that a signal must travel between two locations and cancels the capacitance that builds up
between wires with distance. Bridge tap is an irregularity found in cables serving subscriber locations.
3. What are the designations used with loading coils?
-It can be placed on telephone poles, in manholes, or on cross-connect boxes.

4. What is meant by the term loop resistance?

-The total resistance through two conductors looped at one end of the link.

5. Briefly describe C-message noise weighting and state its significance.

-A noise spectral weighting used in a noise power measuring set to measure noise power on a line that is terminated by a 500-type set.

6. What is the difference between dB and dBm?

-dB is the ratio of one power level to another while dBm is used to reference the power level at a given point to 1 milliwatt

7. What is the difference between a TLP and DLP?

-TLP is the optimum level of a test tone on a channel while DLP is a parameter equivalent to TLP except TLP is used for voice circuits.

8. What is meant by the following terms: dBmO, rn, dBrn, dBrnc, and dBrncO?
-dBmO is dBm reference to a zero transmission level point
-rn is the dB value used as the reference for noise readings
-dBrn is the dB level of noise with respect to reference noise
-dBrnc is similar to dBrn except dBrnc is the dB value of noise with respect to reference noise using C-message weighting
-dBrncO is the amount of noise in dBrncs corrected to a 0 TLP

9. What is the difference between psophometric noise weighting and C-message weighting?
-The difference between the two is so small that the same conversion factor may be used for both.

10. What are the three categories of transmission parameters?

-Bandwidth, interface, and facility parameters

11. Describe attenuation distortion: envelope delay distortion.

-Attention distortion is simply the frequency response of a transmission medium. Envelope delay distortion is the phase difference at the
difference at the different carrier frequencies.

12. What is the reference frequency for attenuation distortion? Envelope delay distortion?
-Attenuation distortion referenced to a 1004-Hz test tone. Envelope delay distortion reference to 1800 Hz

13. What is meant by line conditioning? What types of line conditioning are available?
-Line conditioning is the process used to improve a basic telephone channel. C-type and D-type line conditioning.

14. What kind of circuits can have C-type line conditioning; D-type line conditioning?
-C-type have common-usage access line and trunks. D-type can be applied to private-line data circuits
15. When is D-type conditioning mandatory?
-When the data transmission rate is 9600 bps

16. What limitations are imposed with D-type conditioning?

-It does not add anything to the circuit, and it cannot be used to improve a circuit.

17. What is meant by nonlinear distortion? What are two kinds of nonlinear distortion?
-Nonlinear distortion is an example of correlated noise and is produced from nonlinear amplification. Two types are harmonic distortion
and intermodulation distortion.

18. What considerations are addressed by the interface parameters?

-The electrical protection of the telephone network and its personnel standardization of design arrangements.

19. What considerations are addressed by facility parameters?

-Telephone company equipment and the limits specified pertain to all private-line data circuits using voice-band facilities.

20. Briefly describe the following parameters: 1004-Hz variation, C-message noise, impulse noise, gain-hits and dropouts, phase hits, phase
jitter, single-frequency interference, frequency shift, phase intercept distortion, and peak-to-average ratio.
-1004-Hz variation the standard test-tone frequency
-C-message noise measurements determine the average weighted rms noise power
-Impulse noise is characterized by high-amplitude peaks of short duration having an approximately flat frequency spectrum
-Gain-hit is a sudden, random change in the gain of a circuit resulting in a temporary change in the signal level. Dropout is a decrease in
circuit gain of more than 12 dB lasting longer than 4 ms.
-Phase hits are sudden random changes in the phase of a signal
-Phase jitter is a form of incidental phase modulation
-Single-frequency interference is the presence of one or more continuous, unwanted tones within a message channel
-Frequency shift is when the frequency of a signal changes during transmission
-Phase intercept distortion occurs in coherent SSBSC systems
-Peak-to-average ratio developed due to the difficulties encountered in measuring true phase distortion or envelope delay distortion

21. Describe what is meant by a two-wire circuit; four-wire circuit?

-Two-wire circuit involves two wires (one for the signal and one for a reference or ground) Four-wire circuit involves four wires (two for
each direction – a signal and a reference)

22. Briefly describe the function of a two-wire-to-four-wire hybrid set

-The hybrid set is used to match impedances and to provide isolation between the two directions of signal flow.

23. What is the purpose of an echo suppressor; echo canceler?

-Echo suppressor suppresses the returned echo. Echo canceler eliminate the echo by electrically subtracting it from the original signal
rather than disabling the amplifier in the return circuit.

24. Briefly describe crosstalk

-Crosstalk cab be defined as any disturbance created in a communications channel by signals in other communications channels.

25. What is the difference between intelligible and unintelligible crosstalk?

-Intelligible crosstalk is annoying and objectionable because the listener senses a real or fancied loss of privacy. Unintelligible crosstalk
does not violate privacy, although it can still be annoying.

26. List and describe three types of crosstalk

-Nonlinear crosstalk is a direct result of nonlinear amplification in analog communication systems
-Transmittance crosstalk caused by inadequate control of the transfer characteristics or transmittance of networks
-Coupling crosstalk electromagnetic coupling between two or more physically isolated transmission media.

27. What is meant by near-end crosstalk; far-end crosstalk?

-Near-end crosstalk s crosstalk that occurs at the transmit end of a circuit and travels in the opposite direction as the signal in the
disturbing channel. Far-end crosstalk occurs at the far-end receiver and is energy that travels in the same direction as the signal in the
disturbing channel.

1. What are the purposes of telephone network signaling functions?
-The signaling functions supply and interpret control and supervisory signals needed to perform the operation.

2. What are the two types of subscribers to the public telephone network? Briefly describe them.
-Subscribers to the private sector are customers who lease equipment, transmission media, and services from telephone companies on
a permanent basis. Subscribers to the public sector of the PTN share equipment and facilities that are available to all the public
subscribers to the network.

3. What is the difference between dedicated and switched facilities?

-A switched is a temporary connection while a dedicated is a permanent connection.
4. Describe the term service provider
-Sometimes called public telephone companies as they lease equipment and provide services to other private companies.

5. Briefly describe the following terms: instruments, local loops, trunk circuits, and exchanges
-Instrument is any device used to originate and terminate calls and to transmit and receive signals into and out of the telephone network.
-Local loop is the dedicated cable facility used to connect an instrument at a subscriber’s station to the closest telephone office.
-Trunk circuit is similar to a local loop excerpt trunk circuits are used to interconnect two telephone offices.
-Exchange is a central location where subscribers are interconnected, either temporarily or on a permanent basis.

6. What is a local office telephone exchange?

-Is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network.

7. What is an automated central office switch?

-Is a system of sensors, switches, and other electrical and electronic device devices that allows subscribers to give instructions directly
to the switch without having to go through an operator.

8. Briefly describe the following terms: circuits, circuit switches, and circuit switching
-Circuit is the path over which voice, data, or video signals propagate. Circuit switch is a programmable matrix that allows circuits to be
connected to one another. Circuit switching is the switching process.

9. What is the difference between a local telephone exchange and an exchange area?
-Telephone exchange is strategically placed around a city to minimize the distance between a subscriber’s location

10. Briefly describe interoffice trunks, tandem trunks, and tandem switches
-Telephone-switching machines in local exchanges are interconnected to other local exchange offices on special facilities called
interoffice trunks. Tandem trunks are an exchange without any local loops connected to it. Tandem switch is called a switcher’s switch

11. Briefly describe toll-connecting trunks, intertoll trunks and toll offices
-The local exchange connects the caller to a toll office trough a facility called a toll-connecting trunk. Intertoll trunks connect toll offices to
other toll offices. Toll office is interstate long-distance telephone calls require a special a special telephone office.

12. Briefly describe the North American Telephone Numbering plan

-The North American Telephone Numbering plan was established to provide a telephone numbering system for the United States,
Mexico, and Canada that would allow any subscriber in North America to direct dial virtually any other subscriber without the assistance
of an operator.

13. What is the difference between an area code, a prefix, and an extension?
-Area code is a three-digit number assigned from NPA, prefix is a three-digit number assigned from further subdivided smaller service
area of NPA, and extension number is a four-digit assigned in each subscriber to a central office

14. What is meant by the term common usage?

-The line from a concentrator to the central office is essentially a trunk because it is shared or common usage among many subscribers
on an ‘’as needed’’ basis

15. What does Blocking mean? When does it occur?

-Blocking is when a call cannot be completed because the necessary trunk circuits or switching paths are not available, the calling part
receives an equipment busy signal.

16. Briefly describe the pre-divestiture North American Telephone Switching Hierarchy
-The highest-ranking office was the regional center, the lowest-ranking office was the end office

17. Briefly describe the five classes of the pre-divestiture North American Switching Hierarchy
-Class 5 end office for local subscribers and performed some of the functions of a class
-Class 4 toll center for long-distance calls.
-Class 3 primary center provided service to small groups of class 4 offices within a small area of a state.
-Class 2 sectional center provide service to geographical regions varying in size from part of a state to all of several states.
-Class 1 regional centers were highest-ranking office in the DDD network.

18. What is meant by the term switching route?

-The switching hierarchy provided a systematic and efficient method of handling long-distance telephone calls.

19. What is meant by the term progressive switching scheme?

-Progressive switching scheme is a five-class hierarchy that establishes an end-to-end route mainly through trial and error.

20. What is SS7?

-A global standard for telecommunications define by the International Telecommunications Union Telecommunication Sector.

21. What is common channel signaling?

-Common channel signaling is use to a facility for transferring control and signaling information between telephone offices.
22. What is meant by the term local number portability?
-Local number portability requires all telephone companies to support the porting of a telephone number

23. What is meant by the term plain old telephone service?

-Plain old telephone service required changing telephone numbers

24. Briefly describe postdivestiture North American Switching Hierarchy

-Today, the NA telephone system is divided into two distinct functional areas: signaling which is used to determine how subscriber’s
voice and data signal are routed through the network and switching that transport the voice and data from one subscriber to another.

25. What is a LATA?

-Local Access and Transport Areas

26. What is meant by the term point-of-presence?

-A telecommunications term that describes the legal boundaries for the responsibility of maintaining equipment and transmission lines

27. Describe what is meant by the term local exchange carrier

-Local exchange carrier is a term called to the telephone companies.

28. Briefly describe what is meant by SS7 signaling points

-Signaling points provide access to the SS7 network, access to databases used by switches inside and outside the network, and the
transfer of SS7 messages to other signaling points within the network.

29. List and describe the three SS7 signaling points.

-Service switching points are local telephone switches equipped with SS7-compatible software and terminating signal links.
-Signal transfer points are the packet switches of the SS7 network.
-Service control points serve as an interface to telephone company databases

30. What is meant by the term point code?

-Point codes are carried in signaling messages exchange between signaling points to identify the source and destination of each