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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 2. List out the clinical scales from highest to lowest T score.

Validity
scales are placed separately to the right of the clinical scales. (See
(MMPI-2) example below)
3. Scales with T scores of the same value or within one point of each
MMPI DEVELOPMENT other should be underlined.
4. Elevator symbols are then added using the following marks to
 The MMPI was empirically derived using a process called criterion designate (on-point T-score ranges:
keying.
 Prior to the MMPI personality tests were logically derived and !! 120
rated on construct of law validity. ! 110-120
 Standardization on clinical groups ** 100-109
 Standardizations on non-clinical or normal groups * 90-99
 Item selection and scale development “ 80-89
 The final version ‘ 70-79
60-69
PROBLEM WITH THE MMPI 50-59
40-49
 Some items objectionable
30-39
 Cultural relevance
29 and below are to the right of the #sign
 Administration protocol was different from the original card box
administration.
Symbols are placed to the right of the scale numbers that fall within a
 Restandardization of the MMPI was needed.
particular range.
CHANGES TO MMPI-2 Example: 4*26”837 01-95 F-L/K
Scale 4 is in the 90s
 141 items reworded to eliminate outdated and sexist language, Scales 2 and 6 are in the 80s
and improve understanding. Scales 8, 3 & 7 are in the 70’s
 16 repeated items were dropped Scales 3 and 7 are equal or within one point of each other
 13 items were dropped from the clinical scales because of Scales 0 and 1 are in the 60s
objectionable item content. Scales 9 and 5 are in the 50s
 77 items were dropped primarily from the last 100 items [Do not need to include the last symbol since 50s is all that is left.]
 106 items were dropped from the MMPI and 107 items were Scale F is in the 70s
added to the MMPI-2 No scale was in the 60s
Including the mark indicates missing ranges
THE MMPI-2 THE FINAL VERSION
Include as many marks as there are missing ranges.
 567 items and retains the original 13 scales. Scale I is in the 50s
 Normative sample of 2,600 people from 7 states Scale K is in the 40s
 The norm sample reflects national census data
 T-scores changed from linear Ts to uniform Ts.
INTERPRETING PROTOCOL VALIDITY
THE MMPI-2 LIMITATIONS
 Time required to complete the test
 Scores are heterogeneous  Erasures
 Scales have only low to moderate test-retest reliability  Omissions or Cannot say items
 Inadequate for assessing normal personality
CANNOT SAY SCALE
 Variables such as race, sex, intelligence and education can all
elevate scores on some scales  High scores (30+ items): Profile is probably invalid
 Traditional labels upon which scale names were based have  Moderate scores (11 to 29 items): profile is of questionable
become outdated and misleading. validity.
 Modal scores (2 to 10 items): Profile is probably valid.
ADMINISTRATION ISSUES
 Low scores (0 to 1 item): Profile is valid
 Ethical test use
INTERPRETING PROFILE VALIDITY
 Examinee testability
 Testing conditions Evaluate the relationship between L. F, and K scales to determine
 Instructions validity and interpretability of results.
 Proctoring
 Time L OR LIE SCALE [Slide V- Fakegood]
 Scoring
 Very high scores(>80T): Profile is probably invalid
 Completing the Basic Profile
 High scores (70T to 79T): Profile is of questionable validity
WELSH CODING SYSTEM  Moderate scores (60T to 69T): Profile is probably valid
 Modal Scores (50T to 59T): Profile is valid
1. Designate scales as I through O, F, L and K. Do not use scale labels  Low scores(<49T): Profile is of questionable validity
(e.g., Hs, D, Hy, Pd, etc.)
F OR INFREQUENCY SCALE INTERPRETING THE MMPI-2 CLINICAL SCALES

 Extreme scores (>100T) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS


 Very High scores (80T to 99T)
 High scores (65T to 79T)  Multipoint interpretations are preferable to singe point
 Moderate scores (60T to 64T) interpretations.
 Modal scores (50T to 59T)  The more extreme the score, the more reliable and
 Low scores (<50T) accurate it probably is.
 Interpretations from one scale often will contradict
FB OR BACK F SCALE those of other scale
 There is no generally research support yet for within
 Extreme scores (>100T)
normal limits (WNL) score interpretations.
 Very High scores (80T to 99T)
 Slope of the profile can be revealing.
 High scores (65T to 79T)
 Modal scores (50T to 64T) SCALE 1: HYPOCHONDRIASIS (Hs)
 Low scores (<50T)
 32 items (33 on the MMPI)
K OR CORRECTION SCALE  Measure excessive concern over poor health and somatic
 High scores (>71T) functioning.
 Moderate scores (60T to 69T)  Reflects a chronic personality style that is stable over time
 Modal scores (40T to 59T) and resistant to treatment.
 Low scores (<40T) Scale 1 Interpretations

Common Validity Scale Configurations


T-SCORE
Most validity scale configurations fall into one of 4 patterns LEVEL INTERPRETATION
>80 Extreme somatic concerns: possible somatic delusions
1. Normal Profile
Excessive concern about vague somatic complaints;
 The three scales slope upward from left to right, i.e., L<F<K
complaints are used to manipulate and control others
2. Naïve attempt to look good
(secondary gain); cynical, whiny, defeatist, pessimistic;
 Profile slopes down from left to right L>F>K 65-80 demand attention. Prognosis not good. Typically resist
3. Defensive Profile attempts at psychological interpretation of their symptoms.
 L & K are higher the F, and form a steep valley or “V” Frustrate and infuriate physicians. Tend to "shop around"
4. Typical Clinical from physician to physician
 Most frequently encountered validity profile in clinical Typical of physical handicapped and persons with actual
settings. L and K <50T, F>60T physical illness. Likely to be seen as immature, stubborn and
58-64
Typical Clinical [Variation 1] (SlideV-Typical-1] lacking in drive. Pessimistic about the ability of others to help
L<50T, F and K are about equal and both above 55T them
Typical Clinical [Variation 1] (SlideV-Typical-1] 40-57 Unremarkable. MMPI scores in this range indicated an alert
L and K are between 50T and 60T, F>65 capable, and responsible individual with good judgement and
common sense.
All True Response Set (Slide P-All True)
All False Response Set (Slide P-False)
<40 May be denying physical complaints
Random Response Set (Slide P-Random)
Defensive Response Set (Slide P-Defensive)
All Deviant/ All Non-Deviant (Slide P-Deviant) SCALE 2: DEPRESSION ( )

 57 Items (69 on the MMPI)


VRIN & TRIN  Measure a variety of depressive symptoms
VRIN [Variable Response Inconsistency Scale]  Measure a reactive or exogenous depression rather than an
VRIN> 12 Probably invalid; random response set endogenous depression
VRIN< 12 Valid response set  Some elevation to be expected since most disorders include
depressive component.
TRIN [ True Response Inconsistency Scale]  An elevated scale 2 (T>65) can indicate suicide risk.
TRIN> 12 Probably invalid; All True Response set SUBSCALE NAME & DESCRIPTIONON HIGH SCORES
TRIN= 6 to 12 Valid
TRIN<6 Probably invalid; All False Response set D1: SUBJECTIVE DEPRESSION

 Feel unhappy or depressed, lack energy for coping with problems


of everyday life, and lack interest in what goes on around them.
 They feel inferior, lack self-confidence and feel uneasy in social
situations
SUBSCALE NAME & DESCRIPTION ON HIGH SCORERS

D2: PSYCHOMOTOR RETARDATION Hy1: DENIAL OF SOCIETY ANXIETY


 Lack energy to cope with everyday activities, appear to
emotionally immobilized, avoid other people. Deny hostile or  Socially extraverted, comfortable interacting with others, not
aggressive impulse or behavior. easily influenced by social standards and customs.
D3: PHYSICAL MALFUNCTIONING
Hy2: NEED FOR AFFECTION
 Preoccupied with physical functioning. Deny good health and may
 Strong needs for attention and affection from others. Fears this
report a wide variety of specific somatic complaints. need will not be met if honest about their feelings and beliefs.
D4: MENTAL DULLNESS Claim to see others as honest, sensitive and reasonable and deny
 Lack of energy, tension, difficulty with concentration, attention critical or resentful feelings towards others.
and memory. Lack self-confidence and feel inferior. Experience Hy3: LASSITUDE-MALAISE
little pleasure and may feel life is not worth living.  Feel uncomfortable and are not in good health. Feel unhappy,
D5: BROODING
weak, fatigued, and have difficulty concentrating and sleeping.
 Lack energy, brood, cry, ruminate. May feel that they are losing Present a good front, but need attention and reassurance.
control of their thought processes and that life is not worthwhile. Hy4: SOMATIC COMPLAINTS
 Have multiple somatic complaints of the type of suggest
repression and conversion. Express little or no hostility towards
T-SCORE others
LEVEL DEPRESSION INTERPRETATION Hy5: INHIBITION OF AGGRESSION

 Deny hostile or Aggressive impulses. Tend to be sensitive about


Pessimism, depression and hopelessness pervade the how others respond to them.
examinee's life. Extreme feelings of guilt and self-
>70
depreciation. Consider suicide potential. Consider Major SCALE 4: PSYCHOPATHIC DEVIATE
depressive episode.
Depressed mood, feel dejected, dissatisfied with life  50 Items of scale 4 measure general social maladjustment,
situation, worried, lacking self-confidence or self-efficacy, absence of strong pleasant experience, problem with family and
withdrawn, somatic complaints and sleep disturbance. authority figures, social alienation and boredom. Strong
60-70
Consider reactive depression (especially when scale 2 is Association with Cluster B Personality Disorder.
only elevation) or dysthymia if depression is chronic. Good
prognosis for therapy. SUBSCALE NAME & DESCRIPTION ON HIGH SCORERS
Unremarkable. MMPI scores in the range indicated an
40-59 Pd1: FAMILIAL DISCORD
active, cheerful, enthusiastic and outgoing person.
 Struggle against family control. Describe their families as lacking in
<40 Examinees should rarely score in this range. May indicate love, understanding and support.
denial of depression
Pd2: AUTHORITY PROBLEMS
 Present the demands conventions, and standards of parents and
SCALE 3: HYSTERIA ( )
society. Admit to problems with, the law or in school.
 60 Items (Same on the MMPI) appear to measure admission of
specific somatic complaints. Pd3: SOCIAL IMPERTURBABILITY
 Associated with Histrionic Features  Comfortable and confident in social situations. Have strong
opinions and defend them vigorously. Exhibit indifference, and
T-SCORE deny anxiety or dependency needs.
LEVEL INTERPRETATION
Pd4: SOCIAL ALIENATION
Consider Conversion Disorder or Hystericak Neurosis  Feel isolated and estranged from other people. They believe that
>80 the other people do not understand then and they get a raw deal
Conversion type
Naïve, suggestible, lack insight into or deny their from life.
problems. They are immature, self-centered, and  Tend to externalize and blame for their difficulties.
65-80
demanding of affection and attention. Specific somatic
symptoms may develop under stress. Pd5: SELF-ALIENATION
Extraverted, Exhibitionistic, flamboyant, naïve, self-  Express vague regret, guilt and remorse for past deeds.
58-65 centered and superficial. They avoid unpleasant issues  Are unhappy, despondent and uncomfortable with a life that they
and deny any problems. find uninteresting or unrewarding.
40-57 Unremarkable
MMPI scores in this rangemay indicated caustic
manners, sarcasm, cynicism and social isolation. They
<40
have few defenses and few interests, and are socially
conforming.
 F
E

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