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Федеральное агентство железнодорожного транспорта

Уральский государственный университет путей сообщения


Кафедра «Иностранные языки и межкультурные коммуникации»

Т.Б. Исаева
Л. В. Колчина
А. А. Шестакова

INTELLIGENT BUSINESS
Pre-Intermediate

Екатеринбург
2009
Федеральное агентство железнодорожного транспорта
Уральский государственный университет путей сообщения
Кафедра «Иностранные языки и межкультурные коммуникации»

Т.Б. Исаева
Л. В. Колчина
А. А. Шестакова

INTELLIGENT BUSINESS
Pre-Intermediate
Практикум к изучению курса «Деловой английский язык» для студентов
очного отделения факультета экономики и управления

Екатеринбург
2009
УДК Ш 14321-923
И85

Исаева, Т. Б.
И85 Intelligent Business. Pre-intermediate : практикум / Т. Б. Исаева, Л. В. Кол-
чина, А. А. Шестакова. – Екатеринбург : УрГУПС, 2009. – 80 с.

Практикум предназначен для использования на занятиях английского язы-


ка и рассчитан на студентов очного отделения факультета экономики и управле-
ния III – IV курсов.

Рекомендован к печати на заседании кафедры «Иностранные языки и меж-


культурные коммуникации», протокол № 3 от 12 ноября 2009 г.

Авторы: Т. Б. Исаева – старший преподаватель английского языка кафедры


«Иностранные языки и межкультурные коммуникации», УрГУПС

Л. В. Колчина – преподаватель английского и французского языков


кафедры «Иностранные языки и межкультурные коммуникации»,
УрГУПС

А. А. Шестакова – преподаватель английского языка кафедры


«Иностранные языки и межкультурные коммуникации», УрГУПС

Рецензент: Н. И. Сорокина – заведующая кафедрой «Иностранные языки


и межкультурные коммуникации», канд. пед. наук, УрГУПС

©Уральский государственный университет путей сообщения (УрГУПС), 2009


Contents

Part I Texts ……………………………………………………… 4

Part II Vocabulary Tests………………………………………….. 21

Part III Unit Tests………………………………………………… 36


Placement test……………………………………………………… 36
Unit 1……………………………………………………………… 38
Unit 2…….……………..……………..……………..……………. 39
Unit 3……………………………………………………………… 41
Unit 4……………………………………………………………… 42
Unit 5……………………………………………………………… 43
Unit 6……………………………………………………………… 44
Unit 7……………………………………………………………… 46
Unit 8……………………………………………………………… 47
Unit 9……………………………………………………………… 49
Unit10……………………………………………………………… 50
Unit11……………………………………………………………… 52
Unit12……………………………………………………………… 53
Unit13……………………………………………………………… 55
Unit14……………………………………………………………… 56
Unit15……………………………………………………………… 57
End test…………………………………………………………….. 59

Part IV Progress Tests…………………………………………….. 61


Progress Test 1 (Units 1-3) ………………………………………… 61
Progress Test 2 (Units 4-6) ……………………………………….. 64
Progress test 3 (Units 7-9) ………………………………………… 68
Progress Tests 4 (Units 10-12) …………………………………… 72
Progress Test 5 (Units 13-15) …………………………………….. 75
Литература………………………………………………………… 79

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Part I

Unit 1 Activities

I belong to my company

Work plays a very important role in Japan. A Japanese says, «l belong to my


company», not «I work for my company». Because work is so important, a child, es-
pecially a boy must work very hard. He begins to study seriously as soon as he starts
going to school, because if he doesn't pass all his exams he can't go to a good school.
If he doesn't go to a good school he can't go to a good university — and so he can't
get the good job that he needs. A Japanese mother usually helps her children so that
they will pass their school exams. Because, of this system Japanese children don't
have as much time to play as children in many other countries.

Monkey business?

Scientists put a group of five monkeys in a cage. At the top of a ladder, they hung a
banana. As soon as a monkey climbed the ladder, he was showered with cold water; the
group soon gave up trying to reach the banana.
Next, the scientists disconnected the cold water and replaced one of the five
monkeys. When the new monkey tried to climb the ladder, the others immediately
pulled him down and gave him a good beating. The new monkey learned quickly,
and enthusiastically joined in beating the next new recruit. One by one, the five
original monkeys were replaced. Although none of the new group knew why, no
monkey was ever allowed to climb the ladder.
Like the monkeys in the experiment, every culture is and organization has its
unwritten rules. These rules are probably the single most influential factor on the
work environment and employee happiness. Though many work cultures embrace
positive values, such as loyalty, solidarity, efficiency, quality, personal development
and customer service, all too often they reinforce negative attitudes.
In many businesses, an unwritten rule states that working long hours is more
important than achieving results. In one medium-sized company, the boss never
leaves the office until it is dark. Outside in the car park, he checks to see who is still
working and whose office windows are dark. Staff who risk leaving earlier now
leave their office lights on all night.
Other common unwritten rules state that the boss is always right, even when
he's wrong; if you're not at your desk, you're not working; nobody complains, be-
cause nothing ever changes; women, ethnic minorities and the over 50s are not pro-
moted; the customer is king, but don't tell anyone, because management are more
interested in profitability.
Often nobody really knows where these unwritten rules came from, but like
the new monkeys, new recruits pick them up very quickly, despite the best intentions
of induction and orientation programmes.

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The way staff speak to management, to customers and to each other gives sub-
tle but strategic clues to an organization's culture, as do the differences between what
is said, decided or promised, and what actually gets done. New staff quickly learn
when their ideas and opinions are listened to and valued, and when it's better to keep
them to themselves. They learn which assignments and aspects of their performance
will be checked and evaluated, and whose objectives and instructions they can safely
ignore. Monkeys may be more direct, but work culture is every bit as effective at en-
forcing unwritten rules as a good beating.
What the monkey experiment demonstrated?
What new staff learn about work culture and how they learn it?

Organizations and roles

Cheryl Baxter is the manager of a factory warehouse. Complete what she says
about her job with prepositions. of with for in of to

'Well, I am the Warehouse Manager here which means I am responsible 1 ___


the smooth running of the warehouse. I deal2 ____ storing finished goods and dispatch-
ing orders. I have to make sure that all our records are up-to-date. I am 3 _____charge
4
_____a team of seven staff and fork-lift perators. I take care ____my team and their
personal safety. I report6 _____Ken Howard, who is the Logistics Manager.'

Read the information about Nathan Rowe. Using what Cheryl said as a model,
write what Nathan says about his job.

Name: Nathan Rowe


Job title: Customer Relations Assistant
Responsibilities: Send out information and brochures about the company. Provide in-
formation to journalists and prepare press releases. Check that facts are correct. Edit
the company magazine.
Immediate boss: Carole Harper, Head of Public Relations
Overall boss: Charlene Richards, Director of Marketing
Well, I’m Nathan Rowe and….

Jenny McMillan has just joined the company where Nathan works. Complete
her conversation with Nathan.
JENNY: So, what do you do, Nathan?
NATHAN: Well, ...............................................................................................
JENNY: That sounds interesting. What does that involve?
NATHAN: Well, I'm in charge ................. …………………………………..
JENNY: Who's your boss?
NATHAN: Well, my immediate boss is ............................................ , I suppose.
But we both………..Charlene Richards.

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Unit 3 Etiquette

Around the world quiz

Test your knowledge of international customs and etiquette with our Around
the world quiz.

1. China
You’re invited to someone’s house. Which of these may cause offence?

a) Blowing your nose.


b) Refusing an offer of food.
c) Not removing your shoes before entering.

2. Saudi Arabia
You want to hire a car to tour the country. Is this permitted?

a) Yes, but you must take a test first.


b) Yes, but only if you’re male.
c) No – tourists have to travel by camel.

3. Finland
You’re planning to relax in a Finnish sauna. What should you wear?

a) Nothing.
b) A toweling robe.
c) A bath hat.

4. Nepal
While trekking you want to photograph local villages. Is this allowed?

a) Yes – the Nepalese love being photographed.


b) No – there religion forbids it.
c) Yes, but you must ask permission first.

5. Cyprus
On a village tour, a local offers you a glyko. Should you

a) Eat it – it’s a desert.


b) Ride it – it’s a type of bicycle.
c) Wear it – it’s a traditional hat.

6. Morocco
You’d like to visit some mosques but are you allowed to go inside?

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a) Yes, but you have to take your shoes off.
b) Yes, you don’t have to take your shoes off.
c) You mustn’t enter unless you’re a Muslim.

7. Sweden
You go out for a meal. How many glasses of wine can you drink before driving
back to your hotel?

a) Two.
b) Any amount – there are no drink-driving laws.
c) None.

8. Spain
You’d like to sample the local cuisine. How late can you eat?

a) You have to finish your meal by 9 p.m. Restaurants close early.


b) Spanish restaurants stay open all night.
c) You can eat very late. Spaniards often eat after 11 p.m.

9. Thailand
On a bus the only free seat is next to a Buddhist monk. Should you take it?

a) Yes, but only if you’re male.


b) Buddhist monks aren’t allowed to travel by bus.
c) Yes, but you must bow first.

10. Italy
You’d like to visit the duomo (cathedral) on a hot day. To show respect, what
should you cover?

a) Your guidebook.
b) Your thighs and shoulders.
c) Your head and ears.

11. USA
While peacefully drinking a can of beer in Central Park, you are approached by
the police. Why?

a) It’s forbidden to drink alcohol in Central Park.


b) You are required to use a glass or straw.
c) You aren’t allowed to drink alcohol in Central Park unless the can is covered.

12. Singapore
You offer a piece of chewing gum to your tour guide. Why does she look
shocked?
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a) Because chewing gum is forbidden by law.
b) Because tour guides aren’t allowed to accept gifts.
c) Because chewing gum is given to animals.

13. India
An Indian friend invites you to a traditional meal. How should you eat?

a) With your left hand only.


b) With your right hand only.
c) With both hands.

14. Japan
You’re staying in a Japanese hotel and decide to relax in a traditional, shared bath.
What shouldn’t you do in the bath tub?

a) You shouldn’t stay too long.


b) You shouldn’t talk to other bathers.
c) You shouldn’t wash yourself.

Этика делового общения


Правила делового этикета со временем меняются, некоторые из них в на-
стоящее время утратили свою обязательность, например, элементы поведения
по отношению к женщине. Еще недавно считалось, что мужчина должен не-
пременно оплачивать счет в ресторане, если обедает в обществе женщины, рас-
пахивать перед ней двери, попускать ее вперед при выходе из лифта. Сегодня
такие правила не являются обязательными. Современный деловой этикет реко-
мендует выходить из лифта первым тому, кто находится ближе к двери. Жен-
щина надевает пальто сама, но если у нее при этом случаются затруднения,
мужчина обязан помочь ей.
Быть просто вежливым и доброжелательным недостаточно. В деловом
этикете общие принципы приобретают специфическую окраску, что выража-
ется в следующих основных правилах.
Первое правило делового общения – будьте во всем пунктуальны. Для де-
лового человека очень важно умение рассчитывать время, необходимое для вы-
полнения того или иного задания.
Второе правило деловой этики общения – не говорите лишнего. Любой
сотрудник обязан хранить секреты своей организации, это правило касается
всех дел фирмы или учреждения: от кадровых до технологических. Это же от-
носится и к разговорам сослуживцев об их личной жизни.
Третье правило этики в бизнесе – думайте не только о себе, но и о других

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Стремитесь всегда терпеливо выслушивать собеседника, учитесь уважать
чужое мнение и понимать его, избавляйтесь от нетерпимости к инакомыслию.
Никогда не унижайте оппонента.
Четвертое правило деловой этики – одевайтесь соответственно дресс-
коду. Главное – одеваться соответственно вашему окружению на службе, не вы-
биваясь из контингента работников вашего уровня. Ваша одежда должна де-
монстрировать ваш вкус.
Пятое правило – этика делового общения – говорите и пишите правиль-
ным языком. Все, что вы говорите и пишете, должно быть изложено грамотно.
Никогда в деловом общении не употребляйте жаргонных словечек и оскорби-
тельных выражений; учитесь слушать других и при этом показывать, что вам
интересно.

Типы культур делового общения в межнациональных контактах

В настоящее время исследователи выделяют три типа культуры делового


общения, функционирующих в процессе межнациональных контактов: моно-
активный, полиактивный и реактивный, которые различаются по традициям
ведения переговоров.
Моноактивный тип культуры характерен для англосаксонских, герман-
ских и скандинавских народов.
Основным способом коммуникации (в рамках данного типа культуры де-
лового общения) является диалог, который часто сопровождается коммента-
риями и вопросами, демонстрирующими интерес к предмету беседы. Предста-
вители данного типы культуры делового общения проявляют бесстрастное по-
ведение в разговоре, редко перебивают собеседника и отличаются сдержанной
жестикуляцией и мимикой. Оптимальное пространство комфортного общения
для них в официальных ситуациях должно быть в пределах 1,2 м как террито-
рия, которая не должна никем нарушаться.
Представители данного типа культуры последовательно и педантично
разворачивают беседу, они вникают в доводы противоположной стороны и от-
вечают на них. Национальные отличия проявляются при этом в том, что, на-
пример, англичане могут прибегнуть к юмору или преуменьшению остроты
конфликта, немцы демонстрируют полную уверенность в себе, американцы ве-
дут себя агрессивно и рассматривают переговоры как некий процесс взаимных
уступок. Начиная переговоры, немцы зададут все трудные вопросы с самого
начала. Они, как и шведы, ждут от партнеров по общению эффективной работы
и новых идей.
Представители рассматриваемого типа культуры предпочитают в деловом
общении сразу переходить к обсуждению сущности вопроса, вынесенного в по-
вестку дня. При этом немцам и скандинавам свойственно формальное пред-
ставление участников беседы, рассаживание всех по своим местам, за которым
следует начало обсуждения.

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Американцы предпочитают неформальное представление участвующих в
разговоре людей, обмен шутками, угощение чаем или кофе, после чего начина-
ется работа.
Англичане, в отличие от других представителей данного типа культуры,
затрачивают несколько больше времени на собственно начало беседы: за фор-
мальным приветствием следует кофе с печеньем, а затем десятиминутная свет-
ская беседа (о погоде, комфорте, спорте), после которой происходит плавный
переход к обсуждению сути дела.
Представителей данного типа культуры можно охарактеризовать как ак-
тивных и довольно терпеливых слушателей, которые стремятся не только
вникнуть в суть вопроса, но и понять общий контекст ситуации. При этом анг-
личане ожидают юмора, американцы хотят, чтобы их развлекали, немцы рас-
сматривают процесс слушания как сбор информации, а шведы беспокоятся о
том, чтобы проконсультироваться с коллегами. При этом объем произвольного
внимания представителей данных наций как коммуникантов составляет от 30
до 60 минут.
Полиактивный тип культуры характерен для романских, латиноаме-
риканских, арабских и африканских народов.
Они стремятся к установлению межличностных взаимоотношений, реа-
лизации семейственности и неформальных связей. Характерным способом ком-
муникации представителей полиактивного типа культуры является диалог, ко-
торый проводится эмоционально и бурно, использованием жестов и мимики.
Оптимальное пространство комфортного общения в официальных ситуациях
для носителей данного типа культуры составляет 0,5 м.
В процессе переговоров французы стремятся форсировать сделку, но мо-
гут и быстро к ней остыть. Испанцы внимательно изучают своих партнеров по
общению и будут иметь с ними дело, только если сочтут их благородными
людьми. Португальцы как нация с многовековыми торговыми традициями
обычно дружелюбно ведут переговоры, легко адаптируясь к новым ситуациям.
Бразильцы, как правило, исходят из того, что первая названная цена вряд ли яв-
ляется настоящей, и ожидают скидок в ходе дальнейшего переговорного про-
цесса.
В рамках рассматриваемого типа культуры считается нецивилизованным
сразу приступать к обсуждению предмета разговора. За формальным представ-
лением участников следует 15-минутная (у французов) или даже 20–30-
минутная (у испанцев и итальянцев) светская беседа о политике и скандалах (у
французов), о футболе и семейных делах (у испанцев/итальянцев).
Традиционные для данного типа культуры опоздания на встречи вынуждают ее
участников откладывать ее начало, дожидаясь остальных.
Жители средиземноморских и арабских стран слушают с целью получе-
ния информации и внимательно относятся к фактам. При этом их внимание
может легко переключиться с предмета обсуждения на другие темы, если не
прибегнуть к выражениям образности (в общении со средиземноморскими на-
родами) или лести (в общении с арабами). Они проявляют нетерпеливость и

10
могут прервать и даже перебить собеседника, задав ему вопрос. Объем их про-
извольного внимания является коротким, не превышающим 30 минут.
Реактивный тип культуры характерен для стран Восточной и Юго-
Восточной Азии, включая Японию, Китай, Тайвань и Сингапур, а также Тур-
цию и Финляндию. Характерным способом коммуникации в деловом общении
в рамках рассматриваемого типа культуры является следующая сложившаяся
схема: монолог – пауза – размышление – монолог. Если это возможно, одна из
общающихся сторон позволяет другой произнести свой монолог первой. Пред-
ставители реактивного типа культуры рассматривают паузы в разговоре как
очень значимую, изощреннейшую его часть. Представители данного типа куль-
туры выражают свои мысли с помощью тонкого языка телодвижений, не
имеющих ничего общего с бурной жестикуляцией носителей полиактивного
типа. Жители восточных государств и Финляндии считают, что в разговоре
следует избегать жестикулирования и ярко выраженной мимики, а также слиш-
ком откровенной демонстрации таких чувств, как веселье, печаль, любовь, не-
нависть, разочарование или ликование по случаю победы. В этих странах кон-
тролируемое и дисциплинированное управление своими чувствами приводит к
формированию намного более ограниченного языка телодвижений, который
становится настолько неуловимым, что остается незаметным для глаза ино-
странца. Представители реактивного типа культуры в беседе избегают прямых
взглядов на собеседника. Оптимальное пространство комфортного общения в
официальных ситуациях составляет 1,2 м. Вступая в беседу, представитель
данного типа культуры исходит из того, что партнер по общению хорошо ин-
формирован о теме разговора, что позволяет ему выражать свои мысли с недо-
молвками, использовать особые выражения и полунамеки. Тем самым он дает
понять слушателю, что остальное тот способен дополнить сам. Носители реак-
тивного типа культуры стремятся в речи реже использовать имена, что делает
дискуссию безличной.
Другая часто используемая тактика проведения беседы заключается в
умалении своих достоинств. Она исключает возможность каким-либо образом
задеть самолюбие оппонента и, одновременно, может вынудить его к похвале
поведения или решений восточного человека. Жителям восточных стран свой-
ственна ритуальность в проведении беседы. В частности, в Японии, где обяза-
тельным является обмен некими традиционными формальностями, существует
почти фиксированный промежуток времени, по истечении которого старший по
переговорам объявляет о переходе к обсуждению дела. За формальным привет-
ствием следует рассаживание участников разговора по местам согласно прото-
колу, после чего предлагается зеленый чай и начинается 15–20-минутная свет-
ская беседа, которая предполагает мирный обмен любезностями.
Носители реактивной культуры являются очень внимательными слушателями,
поскольку они концентрируются на том, что им говорят, не позволяя своим
мыслям отвлечься в сторону. Они стремятся разобраться в позиции партнера по
общению и поэтому приветствуют повторные объяснения и комментарии. Они
проявляют вежливость и терпеливость в беседе, не позволяя себе прерывать со-

11
беседника. Объем произвольного внимания составляет от 45 до 60 минут.

Small Talk

Look at the tips for small talk below. What is small talk? Do you think the tips
are useful?
TECHNIQUE ONE

Always wear a Whatzit. What's a Whatzit? Some people have developed a clever
technique that works well for social or corporate networking purposes. The technique
requires no special skill on your part, only the courage to wear a Whatzit. A Whatzit is
anything unusual - a unique brooch, an interesting scarf, a strange tie, a funny hat. A
Whatzit is any object that draws people's attention so that they walk over and ask, 'Uh,
what's that?'

TECHNIQUE TWO

Whoozat? What to do when you haven't got a Whatzit... Like a politician, go to


the host and say, 'That man / woman over there looks interesting. Who is he / she?'
Then ask for an introduction. -or-
Find out about the stranger's job, interests or hobbies. The host might say, 'Oh, that's Joe
Smith. I'm not sure what his job is, but I know he loves to ski.' Aha, you've just been
given the icebreaker you need. Now walk over to Joe Smith and say, 'Hi, you're Joe
Smith, aren't you? Susan was just telling me what a great skier you are. Where do you
ski?'

Read the article below about small talk to find:

1 three topics that you can make small talk about


2 two topics that you can't make small talk about
3 two tips for managing small talk.

What is small talk?

Your company sends you to an important international conference in the USA.


While you are travelling from the hotel to the conference centre you meet somebody who
works for the Spanish division of your company for the first time. The conversation that
you have will probably be what we call small talk.
What do people make small talk about?
There are certain safe topics that people usually make small talk about. The
weather is probably the number one thing. Sometimes even friends and family members
discuss the weather when they meet or start a conversation. Sports news is a common
topic, especially if a local team is doing extremely well or badly. If there is something

12
that you and the other speaker have in common, that may also be acceptable to talk
about. For example, if the bus is extremely full and there are no seats available you might
talk about reasons why.
There are also some subjects that are not considered acceptable when making
small talk. Personal information such as salaries or divorce are not talked about between
people who do not know each other well. Negative comments about another person not
involved in the conversation are also not acceptable: when you do not know a person
well you cannot be sure who their friends are. It is also not wise to continue talking
about an issue that the other person does not seem comfortable with or interested in.
Lastly, avoid one word answers, and ask questions to show that you want to keep the
conversation going.

Unit 4 Image

The Name Game

A brand can be defined as a name given to a product by a company so that the


product can easily be recognized by its name or its design. In our very competitive
business world, a good brand is one of the keys to the success of any company. It is
often a powerful sales tool.
However, the name is not everything. For a brand to be successful, marketers
have to know what the consumer needs and wants, so a lot of market research is nec-
essary. This gives them a “consumer profile”, that is to say a kind of picture of the
typical customer. It is a picture not only of the customer’s needs and wants, but also
of their beliefs and values. If the brand then clearly reflects those values, it is more
likely to be successful.
The customer has so much choice nowadays that a good brand is a necessity,
so that one product is clearly different from another in his or her mind.
A good brand of course has long-term benefits, as it will appeal to many dif-
ferent market segments and to people from different cultures.

Unit 5 Success

Fill in the table with the correct form of the words.

Noun Adjective
adventure adventurous
1) ambitious
2) decisive
3) financial
flexibility 4)
luck lucky
5) organized
6) pioneering
13
success 7)
8) stressful

Read the text about how to be a successful business owner. Fill in the spaces
using the correct word from the table above

Habits of Highly Successful Business

Do you spend every minute at work? Is your business not making the progress that
you want it to? Is your desk always in a mess? May be the bank gave you all the (1)
help that you needed but your business is still not as successful as it could be. Read our
seven habits of successful business owners to find out how to make your business a suc-
cess.
Highly successful business owners are great role models. They lead their busi-
ness from the front and are very hands-on. They know that to be successful they need
to show their employees that they have a sense of (2) and are not afraid to take a risk.
Highly successful business owners invest time and money in their team and
themselves. They develop their people and hold regular training sessions so that eve-
rybody who works for them is as well-informed as they can be.
Highly successful business owners know how to manage their time and have
systems which enable them to work effectively at all times. They are always (3) so
that they don't waste their time. Highly successful business owners are fit and
healthy. They understand that a healthy mind and body improves their productivity
and general well-being. They realize that by keeping themselves fit and they can cope
with the (4) of running a business.
Highly successful business owners have (5) ideas. Their businesses offer new
ways of doing things that other people don't think of. This makes their businesses
stand out from the crowd.
Highly successful business owners look after their clients. They know that
without clients there would be no business. They dedicate a lot of time to making
sure that their clients receive the best service that they can.
Highly successful business owners are not afraid to make (6) and take action.
They don't waste time thinking about what to do, they just do it! They also have (7)
they know what they want their business to achieve and how they are going to
achieve it.

Work with a partner. Discuss the questions below.

1 Which of the seven habits do you think is the most important for a successful busi-
ness?
2 Think of two more habits of successful business owners.
3 What sort of worker / student are you?
4 How would your colleagues describe you?

14
Success Story

Read the profile of Margarete Steiff, the inventor of the teddy bear, and put the
events below in order.

• set up sewing workshop


• won first prize at the World Exhibition
• contracted polio
• went to school
• named a bear after a US president
• made a toy elephant

1 Biographical background

Margarete Steiff was born in 1847 in Giengen in southern Germany. Unfortu-


nately, she contracted polio when she was a small child and as a result spent the rest
of her life in a wheelchair. Although she had many operations on her legs, she never
walked again. However, this didn't prevent her from having a successful business

2 Key moments in a career/nature of work

After leaving school, she set up a small sewing workshop in her family's home.
Then, assisted by her brother she set up her own business and factory in 1877. Marga-
rete always loved children, and so in 1880 she produced her first toy, an elephant. It
was an instant commercial success. In 1902, her company produced the first 'teddy'
bear with moving joints. At first, it was less popular than the elephant and sales were
disappointing. However, eventually an American bought 3,000 bears at a trade fair in
Leipzig. After the Steiff bear won the first prize at the World Exhibition in St Louis,
everyone wanted a teddy bear. In 1904 Steiff introduced their trademark 'button in
ear' and, in 1906 the teddy bear got its name: it was named after US president Theo-
dore (Teddy) Roosevelt.

3 Charitable actions

Over the years, the Steiff Company have produced a number of limited edition
charity bears. The proceeds from the sales of these bears go to support charities and
good causes such as the fight against polio, and the World Wildlife Fund's (WWF)
campaign to protect European brown bears.

4 Today

By 1907 1.7 million toy animals were being made a year. During her life Mar-
garete's motto was 'Only the best is good enough for children.' Although Margarete
died in 1909 at the age of 61, the Steiff Company is still going strong today. The

15
Steiff club for teddy bear fans began in 1992 and currently has over 45,000 members.
In addition to this there are Steiff galleries and teddy bear trade fairs across the world.

Linking words and phrases

The items below are useful for linking sections and putting events in order. An-
swer the questions below about them.

then currently after (that) furthermore in the end however unfortunately


at the moment in addition

1. Which two items mean the same as now?


2. Which item means the same as eventually?
3. Which item is a more formal way of saying but?
4. Which two items are a more formal way of saying also?
5. Which two items tell you that something happened next?
6. Which item tells you that something bad happened next?

Business plans: two major types.

Increasingly, small business owners are being encouraged to develop business


plans for their firms. Many small firms report, however, that effective planning is the
most difficult function they have to perform. The time and resources invested in pre-
paring business plans can yield substantial returns. For example, the benefits of plan-
ning may include the determination of the unique nature of the business, an objective
analysis of the competition, and the development and specification of goals, objec-
tives, and supporting strategies. Even more important, research evidence suggests that
planning can facilitate small firm performance and success. Yet the evidence is far
from conclusive. It may well be that the process of planning, which involves a careful
analysis of the firm and its environment, is just as important as the plan itself.
One problem with discussing plans and planning is distinguishing among the various
types of plans. Strategic plans outline the actions necessary to achieve long-range
goals. Tactical, or operating plans focus on the short-run, usually one year. Func-
tional plans specify short- to medium-range actions having to do with specific aspects
of the business, such as marketing, finance, manufacturing, or personnel. (These tend
to differ somewhat from the general "policies" which guide day-to-day action.) An-
other type of plan is the investment plan, used by small business owners to gain ac-
cess to financing from banks, the SBA, or venture capitalists.
Planning models have focused largely on the creation and the benefits of operational
or working plans. In practice, however, many small business owners devote substan-
tial efforts toward developing financial plans. The financial, or investment plan dif-
fers significantly from the preceding types of plans, which are collectively referred to
as working plans. The investment plan is designed for the sole purpose of obtaining
financing, whereas working plans are designed to guide and control actual business

16
operations. Both types of plans are important, and in many instances the success of
one may hinge at least in part on the success of the other.
Small business owners or potential entrepreneurs should be aware of the critical dif-
ferences between working and investment plans. For example, when a speaker, con-
sultant, government official, or financial advisor suggests that a business plan be de-
veloped, the owner may misinterpret what is expected. Further, although the devel-
opment of any type of plan can be useful, neither type of plan will effectively serve
the purpose of the other. This article explores the differences between investment
plans and working business plans.

Brainstorm a list of groups of people a company has a responsibility towards.


What conflicts of interest are there between the different groups?
Read the credo below and identify the four groups of people that Johnson & Johnson
prioritize.

The Johnson & Johnson group manufactures health care products in over 200 com-
panies in 57 countries. Their Credo, first written in 1943, has been a model for corporate
social responsibility (CSR) policies for over 60 years.

Our Credo
We believe our first responsibility is to the doctors, nurses and patients,
to mothers and fathers and all others who use our products and services.
in meeting their needs everything we do must be of high quality.
We must constantly strive to reduce our costs
in order to maintain reasonable prices.
Customers' orders must be serviced promptly and accurately.
Our suppliers and distributors must have an opportunity
to make a fair profit.
We are responsible to our employees,
the men and women who work with us throughout the world.
Everyone must be considered as an individual.
We must respect their dignity and recognize their merit.
They must have a sense of security in their jobs.
Compensation must be fair and adequate,
and working conditions clean, orderly and safe.
We must be mindful of ways to help our employees fulfil
their family responsibilities.
Employees must feel free to make suggestions and complaints.
There must be equal opportunity for employment, development
and advancement for those qualified.
We must provide competent management,
and their actions must be just and ethical.
We are responsible to the communities in which we live and work
and to the world community as well.
We must be good citizens - support good works and charities
17
and bear our fair share of taxes.
We must encourage civic improvements and better health and education.
We must maintain in good order
the property we are privileged to use,
protecting the environment and natural resources.
Our final responsibility is to our stockholders.
Business must make a sound profit.
We must experiment with new ideas.
Research must be carried on, innovative programs developed
and mistakes paid for.
New equipment must be purchased, new facilities provided
and new products launched.
Reserves must be created to provide for adverse times.
When we operate according to these principles,
the stockholders should realize a fair return.

Discuss the questions relating to Johnson & Johnson's credo opposite.

1. Which 'good works and charities' (line 25) should multinational companies sup-
port?
2. What kind of 'civic improvements' (line 27) should the company encourage?
3. How should the company protect 'the environment and natural resources' (line 30)?
4. Are there any points in the credo you disagree with or items you would like to add?
5. Does a credo really change the way a company operates or is it just good PR?
6 Do small businesses have the same responsibilities as multinationals?

Unit 8

Work vs prison

IN PRISON...You spend the majority of your time in an 8x10 cell.


AT WORK...You spend most of your time in a 6x8 cubicle.
IN PRISON...You get three meals a day.
AT WORK...You only get a break for 1 meal and you have to pay for it.
IN PRISON...You get time off for good behavior.
AT WORK...You get rewarded for good behavior with more work.
IN PRISON...A guard locks and unlocks all the doors for you.
AT WORK...You must carry around a security card and unlock and open all the
doors yourself.
IN PRISON...You can watch TV and play games.
AT WORK...You get fired for watching TV and playing games.
IN PRISON...You get your own toilet.
AT WORK...You have to share.

18
IN PRISON...They allow your family and friends to visit.
AT WORK...You cannot even speak to your family and friends.
IN PRISON...All expenses are paid by taxpayers with no work required.
AT WORK...You get to pay all the expenses to go to work and then they deduct taxes
from your salary to pay for prisoners.
IN PRISON...You spend most of your life looking through bars from the inside want-
ing to get out.
AT WORK...You spend most of your time wanting to get out and go inside bars.
IN PRISON...There are wardens who are often sadistic.
AT WORK...They are called supervisors.
IN PRISON...You have unlimited time to read e-mail jokes.
AT WORK...You get fired if you get caught.

Look at the job ad:

CITY TOURS are looking for a tour guide to take people around the city. The job in-
volves walking around the city explaining the history and importance of the monu-
ments to tourists. The guide will also have to accompany the tourists at lunch and re-
solve any problems they have during their visit. We generally get tourists from all
over the world and visits can be morning, afternoon or evening.

Think about these things:

Student A
Why would you be good for the job?
1 What experience or qualifications do you have?
2 Why do you want the job?
3 What questions might the interviewer ask you?
4 What questions do you want to ask the interviewer?
Student В
1 What does the job involve?
2 What kind of person do you want?
3 What questions are you going to ask the interviewee?
4 What questions might the interviewee ask you?

Student В interview Student A. Then Student В should tell Student A if they got the
job or not. Give reasons.

Unit 12

Seven Steps to Customer Satisfaction

With a partner discuss the questions.

1 When was the last time you telephoned a company call centre? Why did you call
19
- to solve a problem, make an enquiry, for another reason?
2 What was the result of the phone call? Were you happy with the service?

Read the article and complete the information about how to deal with custom-
ers on the phone. Use the words below to help you.

hang up discount answer lose your temper agree on a solution


exchange deal with call back put through interrupt

Customer: 'My mobile phone won't make outgoing calls.'


Helpline operator: 'Do you havethe phone with you, sir?'
Customer: 'Yes, I'm using it now.'
Helpline operator: 'Well, thephone is working fine, sir. You
just called me!'

1 GREET THE CUSTOMER. When you (1) a call from a dissatisfied customer
you need to greet them in a warm manner. Thank the customer for calling. Remember that
when a customer calls to tell that something is wrong it is your opportunity to put it right.
2 ASK WHAT THE PROBLEM IS. You need to find out why they are call-
ing. Simply ask what the problem is and let them explain. You may not be able to (2) the
problem. Don't say 'I'm sorry, I can't help,' instead explain to the customer that you cannot
help them and ask for their telephone number so that somebody can (3) them. Sometimes the
customer may want to wait while you (4)them to the correct department.
3 LISTEN CAREFULLY. Remember the customer may say a lot. You need to
listen and try not to (5) . An angry customer may take a long time to explain what the
problem is and so it is very important that you stay calm and that you don't (6). It is a good
idea to take notes so that you are 100% clear about all of the details. Ask questions if they
are not telling you the information you need to know.
4 DEFINE THE PROBLEM. Once the customer has finished explaining the
problem, use your notes to check you have understood the problem correctly.
5 SUGGEST A SOLUTION. Now that you know all of the details of the
problem you can suggest a solution. Don't blame another department. Make an apology and
suggest a solution. The customer may ask you to refund their money, they may ask for a (7)
on their next order or they might ask to (8) the goods that they bought for other items. You
also must be realistic.
Don't promise to deliver 10,000 new parts for next week if it cannot be done. The cus-
tomer will be even angrier next week when the parts don't arrive.
6 CONFIRM THE SOLUTION. Once you and the customer (9) confirm it so
that you both understand what has been decided. Make sure that the customer knows exactly
what you are going to do and when you are going to do it.
7 END THE CONVERSATION. Now that the customer is happy you can
end the conversation. Thank the customer again for calling. It is a good idea to let the cus-
tomer (10) first, as this gives them a final chance to add anything.

20
Part II

Vocabulary tests

Unit 1

1) A person or company that produces large amounts of goods is a ...


a) manufacturer.
b) retailer.
c) buyer.
2) A retailer sells...
a) goods in bulk to the store owners.
b) goods directly to the public.
c) raw materials to the manufacturers.
3) He is one of the founders who ... the business in 1985.
a) ran
b) set up
c) grounded
4) Which sentence is correct?
a) Often I am giving presentations in my job.
b) Often I make presentations in my work.
c) I often give presentations in my job.
5) What do you do?
a) I develop software products.
b) I’m listening to the news.
c) I’m not employed.
6) Who is responsible for checking payments?
a) a financial analyst.
b) an economist.
c) an accountant.
7) Which question is correct?
a) What does your company?
b) What kind of company do you work for?
c) Where is responsible to manage projects in your company?
8) Trainees don’t …
a) don’t earn much money.
b) don’t learn much.
c) don’t need any qualifications.
9) The internet allows people to ... their lives from the computer.
a) purchase
b) service
c) manage
10) Buying goods online is a form of ...
a) accounting.
b) self-service.
21
Unit 2

1) A database is used to ... information.


a) conduct
b) store
c) check
2) Surveillance means ...
a) watching and checking.
b) collecting and storing.
c) researching and recording.
3) To look at information on a website is ...
a) to search.
b) to update.
c) to browse.
4) Google and Altavista are examples of ...
a) search engines.
b) databases.
c) websites.
5) 0.005% is ...
a) a tiny amount.
b) a huge amount.
c) a substantial amount.
6) Which of the following describes a large amount?
a) a few
b) huge
c) a bit of
7) 7. 0.5% is pronounced and written:
a) zero dot five per cent.
b) nothing point five pro cent.
c) nought point five per cent.
8) Which sentence is correct?
a) How much hits does the website have in a week?
b) How many hits does the website has in a week?
c) How many hits does the website have in a week?
9) Which sentence is NOT correct?
a) Can you send me some information about the hotel?
b) Are there some messages for me?
c) The report contains some interesting datas.
10) You didn’t hear something clearly on the telephone. You say:
a) Again please!
b) What do you mean?
c) Sorry, I didn’t catch that.

22
Unit 3

1) It is polite to ... if you are late for a meeting.


a) apologise to your colleagues.
b) greet your colleagues.
c) ignore your colleagues.
2) If you are considerate, you ...
a) don’t use polite language.
b) think about other people’s feelings.
c) use formal language at all times.
3) When would you say 'You’re welcome!'?
a) When someone says, 'Can I sit here?'
b) When someone says, 'Good evening, my name is John Forbes.'
c) When someone says, 'Thank you very much!'
4) Someone says, 'May I smoke here?
a) Not at all!
b) Don’t worry!
c) I’m afraid not.
5) ... you like a cup of coffee?
a) Would
b) Do
c) Could
6) It is ... not to say 'thank you'.
a) unpolite
b) unfriendly
c) unformal
7) 'Please phone me back before 4.30 pm' means:
a) You mustn’t phone until 4.30 pm.
b) You can phone after 4.30 pm
c) You have to phone by 4.30 pm.
8) When you have a meeting with new partners, it is ... to be late.
a) important
b) impractical
c) impolite
9) If an invitation says casual dress, this means ...
a) informal clothes.
b) a jacket and tie.
c) ladies can’t wear trousers.
10) 'Could you send me the figures please?
a) I’m not sorry!
b) No problem!
c) That would be nice!

23
Unit 4

1) What is brand image?


a) the appearance of a brand
b) the style of a brand’s packaging
c) the opinion people have of a brand
2) Gucci and Louis Vuitton are examples of ...
a) luxury brands.
b) value for money brands.
c) inexpensive brands.
3) Off the peg describes clothes which are ...
a) exclusive and expensive.
b) hand-made and high fashion.
c) good value and factory made.
4) Items made for the domestic market are ...
a) things for the house.
b) exported to other countries.
c) sold in the home country.
5) A Fiat is a ... car than a Porsche.
a) more economical
b) most cheap
c) slowest
6) A chocolate bar is ... an apple.
a) more delicious as
b) sweeter than
c) expensiver than
7) Your watch is a good make but mine is ...
a) more good.
b) bestest.
c) better.
8) What is a target market?
a) The people that a product is aimed at.
b) The place where a product is sold.
c) The price that a manufacturer wants for his products.
9) 'What shape is the table?
a) It’s glass.
b) It’s rectangular.
c) It’s stylish.
10) My new personal stereo is ...
a) light and long and easy to use.
b) tiny and stylish with lots of special features.
c) black and round with a handle.

24
Unit 5

1) Products sell well if there is a demand ... them.


a) of
b) to
c) for
2) An entrepreneur is a person who ...
a) starts up his/her own business.
b) invests money in other people’s businesses.
c) manages a business for another person.
3) Which word belongs to this word family: produce, product, production?
a) producter
b) producer
c) producist
4) The Market Leader is ...
a) the largest seller on the market.
b) the best-selling product on the market.
c) the oldest seller on the market.
5) Which question is correct?
a) When did the company start production?
b) When started the company production?
c) When did started the company production?
6) I don’t enjoy getting back to work ... Monday morning.
a) in
b) on
c) at
7) He ... the company in 1875.
a) started up
b) found
c) begun
8) I like to be at my desk ... 7.30 am ... weekdays.
a) on + on
b) on + at
c) at + on
9) He left university in 1986 and ... he had his own company.
a) two years later
b) two years after
c) two years ago
10) Experts say that 80% of new businesses ...
a) are failing..
b) fail.
c) have failures.

25
Unit 6

1) You need a lot of ... to finance a new business.


a) budgets
b) ventures
c) capital
2) Investors always want a good ... for their money.
a) return
b) payback
c) capital
3) Which group of verbs can be used with a train?
a) drive, miss, arrange
b) catch, miss, take
c) ride, hire, drive
4) Which verb goes with the nouns investment, money, profit?
a) make
b) lose
c) spend
5) 'In 2020, people might have more free time.' This is ...
a) possible.
b) certain.
c) likely.
6) 'Do you think the product will be a success?'
a) Yes, I think.
b) I don’t think so.
c) I think it won’t.
7) 'The amount of traffic on the roads probably won’t decrease in the future.' This is
a) definite.
b) possible.
c) unlikely.
8) '... you send me a copy of your latest price list?'
a) May
b) Could
c) Might
9) When several companies work together on a business activity, this is called a ...
a) joint venture.
b) start-up cost.
c) tight budget.
10) Investors are always looking for new ...
a) potential.
b) capital.
c) opportunities.

26
Unit 7

1) Which word describes the systems that a country, town or city needs to make it
possible to live
there?
a) attractions
b) accommodation
c) infrastructure
2) The local theme park is a great ... for tourists.
a) attraction
b) facility
c) zone
3) What is the service sector?
a) attractions like theme parks and sports centres
b) factories and production plants
c) businesses like insurance and banking
4) He was born in Copenhagen; he’s a Dane.
a) a Danish.
b) out Denmark.
c) a Dane.
5) A business which wants to expand to another country should look for ...
a) a stable currency and a strong economy.
b) low unemployment and a weak currency.
c) high labour costs and low taxation.
6) 'I’m flying to Dubai on business tomorrow.' This is ...
a) an intention.
b) a fixed arrangement.
c) a spontaneous decision.
7) Which sentence describes an intention where the decision is already made?
a) He’s going to meet me at the airport.
b) I’ll meet you at the airport if you like.
c) I’m meeting the bank manager at 3pm.
8) 'Can we meet on Thursday?'
a) Sorry, Thursday wasn’t good for me.
b) I’m afraid I can’t make Thursday.
c) I’m not free at Thursday.
9) 'What about Friday afternoon?' 'Friday’s ... !'
a) fine
b) not going
c) off
10) I apologise for any ...
a) convenience.
b) inconvenient.
c) inconvenience.

27
Unit 8

1) Who is looking for employment?


a) a job seeker
b) a careers adviser
c) a headhunter
2) The HR department deals with ...
a) accounting.
b) selling.
c) recruitment.
3) Which word means the same as candidate?
a) trainee
b) applicant
c) resume
4) Twenty people ... the job.
a) attended
b) applied for
c) offered
5) We ... eight candidates for interview.
a) selected
b) recruited
c) offered
6) Shift work means ...
a) to work for a company for a fixed period.
b) to start and finish work at convenient times.
c) to work at different times of the day or night.
7) Working from home using a computer is called ...
a) flexi-time.
b) job-sharing.
c) tele-working.
8) Which sentence is correct?
a) Please don’t touch the equipment!
b) Please not to touch the equipment!
c) Not touching the equipment please!
9) Please inform your boss …
a) if you will attend the seminar.
b) if you not attend the seminar.
c) if you want to attend the seminar.
10) 'In a job application, make sure that you give details of your skills and experi-
ence.'
a) it’s a good idea to
b) don’t forget to
c) it may be best to

28
Unit 9

1) A ... is a travelling salesman.


a) marketer
b) sponsor
c) rep
2) A consumer ...
a) buys goods for his or her own use.
b) buys goods for other customers.
c) sells goods to retailers.
3) The way that a salesman talks about a product to make you buy it is called ...
a) sales promotion.
b) sales pitch.
c) direct selling.
4) Outlet is another word for a ...
a) store.
b) purchase.
c) discount.
5) I wanted to buy the band’s new CD but it was ...
a) paid up.
b) bought off.
c) sold out.
6) Studies show that the market for coffee ... is growing.
a) consume
b) consumer
c) consumption
7) This book mustn’t be removed from the library.
a) It’s not allowed.
b) It’s unnecessary.
c) It’s necessary.
8) Which sentence describes something which is not necessary?
a) You mustn’t press that button!
b) You don’t need to lock the door when you leave.
c) You shouldn’t leave your car unlocked.
9) Which sentence is correct?
a) I think we should to advertise in the newspaper.
b) Why don’t advertise in the newspaper?
c) What about advertising in the newspaper?
10) Many companies attract customers by offering ...
a) discounts.
b) debts.
c) advertisements.

29
Unit 10

1) Lower prices can ... sales.


a) reduce
b) increase
c) cut down
2) Market analysts study... to follow the trend.
a) pies
b) margins
c) graphs
3) Which of the following describes a downward trend?
a) dropped
b) rose
c) improved
4) Which sentence gives positive news?
a) Prices rose slightly last year
b) The government raises the tax every year
c) I got a rise last month
5) Last year, consumer spending went ... 10%.
a) up by
b) down at
c) from to
6) The price of petrol ... every week since January.
a) rose
b) has risen
c) is rising
7) There have been fluctuations in price ...
a) three months ago
b) last month
c) in the last three months
8) House prices ... in the last 3 years.
a) have doubled
b) didn’t dropped
c) won’t rise
9) When a graph shows no change we say that ...
a) prices have fluctuated
b) prices have remained steady
c) prices have improved slightly
10) When sales reach a peak ...
a) they have hit their highest point
b) they have hit their lowest point
c) they have fallen sharply

30
Unit 11

1) The money a person pays for his insurance is called ...


a) a policy.
b) a cover.
c) a premium.
2) Insurance policies protect you ... fire or theft.
a) of
b) against
c) for
3) What is a beneficiary?
a) a person who receives money from an insurance policy
b) a person who pays for an insurance policy
c) a company which provides insurance cover
4) My car was badly ... when it was hit by a taxi.
a) lost
b) damaged
c) injured
5) When could you make a claim on your insurance?
a) If there is a fire in your house.
b) If you cause an accident in your car.
c) If you need a new sofa for your living room.
6) Which sentence is correct?
a) Our house is damaged in the storm.
b) Our house is damaging by the storm.
c) Our house was damaged in the storm.
7) He ... for dangerous sports.
a) didn’t cover
b) wasn’t covered
c) has been covered
8) Which word means the same as compensation?
a) replacement
b) damages
c) claim
9) A fraudulent claim is ...
a) asking for money illegally from the insurance company.
b) having the wrong kind of insurance.
c) when your policy doesn’t cover the damage.
10) The policyholder is the...
a) injured person.
b) insurance company.
c) insured person.

31
Unit 12

1) Good customer service creates ...


a) customer strategy.
b) customer satisfaction.
c) customer complaints.
2) Queries is another word for...
a) information.
b) questions.
c) complaints.
3) We weren’t satisfied with our holiday. The staff were ... and the rooms were ...
a) poor + wrong.
b) excellent + useful.
c) rude + dirty
4) Many customers are afraid to ... complaints.
a) make
b) offer
c) handle
5) If you are not satisfied with a product, you can ...
a) offer some advice.
b) make an apology.
c) demand a refund.
6) Complete the sentence: 'You will get a discount ...
a) if you pay in cash
b) if you will ask for one
c) if you don’t complain
7) Which sentence is correct?
a) If you needed any more information, I ask the manager.
b) If the food is bad, you can ask for your money back.
c) If the flight will be cancelled, the airline will refund your money.
8) If you try to find a solution to a complaint ...
a) customers will get angry.
b) customers will have a positive view of your company.
c) customers will not apologise.
9) Which verb does NOT go together with apology?
a) make
b) satisfy
c) offer
10) If the service is not up to standard, we will ...
a) reimburse you.
b) deal with the customer.
c) ask for a query.

32
Unit 13

1. Just-in-time delivery means ...


a. deliveries which arrive late.
b. supplying goods a very short time before they are needed.
c. ordering goods long before they are needed.
2. A company is productive ...
a. if it produces large amounts of goods.
b. if it has up-to-date equipment.
c. if it uses time, money and raw materials efficiently.
3. If you find it difficult to meet deadlines, you should read a book about ...
a. analysing productivity.
b. effective time management.
c. staff motivation.
4. When talking about productivity, demand means ...
a. a situation where something arrives late.
b. supplying items for the company to use when it needs them.
c. a customer’s need to buy certain goods.
5. Which of the following deals with faults and problems in the factory?
a. up-to-date technology
b. quality control
c. assembly line
6. A staff shortage is most likely to occur ...
a. on weekdays.
b. when business is slow.
c. at holiday times.
7. Which sentence is correct?
a. Helpful managers are highly respected by their colleagues.
b. Slowly workers are often not efficient.
c. A recently study looked at productivity in the UK.
8. Which sentence is correct?
a. All our employees well speak English.
b. All our employees speak well English.
c. All our employees speak English well.
9. You are in a meeting and there are only five minutes left and still one topic to dis-
cuss. You say:
a. We need to be quickly.
b. We don’t have much time.
c. Time is running away.
10. You want to discuss something in a meeting and time is short. You say:
a. Quick, could we talk about ...
b. Could we talk quick about ...
c. Could we quickly talk about ...

33
Unit 14

1. Innovation means ...


a. something traditional and solid.
b. something new and unusual.
c. something difficult and challenging.
2. 'They made big and important changes to their concept.' The changes they made were ...
a. radical.
b. creative.
c. imaginative.
3. I’ve looked ... your ideas, but they’re not quite what we are looking ...
a. after + at.
b. for + like.
c. at + for.
4. The meeting was held earlier than planned.
a. The meeting was taken over.
b. The meeting was brought forward.
c. The meeting was put back.
5. Companies need new ideas to make them ...
a. competital.
b. competable.
c. competitive.
6. If we made the packaging more colourful ...
a. people would bought the product.
b. people had buy the product.
c. people would buy the product.
7. Staff motivation would be higher ...
a. if we introduced a bonus system.
b. if we didn’t have flexi-time.
c. if the boss wouldn’t listen to our ideas.
8. You and your colleagues are brainstorming a problem. You say:
a. What if we would change our packaging?
b. Would it help if we changed our packaging?
c. What we wanted is really changed packaging.
9. If you do something deliberately, you do it ...
a. by accident.
b. because you want to.
c. carefully.
10. Our young team of product engineers make our company ...
a. successful.
b. successive.
c. succeeding.

34
Unit 15

1. Giving employees promotion means ...


a. offering them bonuses.
b. offering them a higher position.
c. asking them to leave the company.
2. Employees who are motivated to do well are ...
a. ambitious.
b. friendly.
c. responsible.
3. Who is at the bottom of a hierarchy?
a. managers
b. subordinates.
c. senior staff.
4. A trainee should look up to ...
a. his colleagues.
b. his workmates.
c. his superiors.
5. 'We have hired 20 new staff' Replace the word in italics.
a. taken on
b. taken over
c. taken up
6. Last year he took part in the company cycle race.
a. controlled
b. participated
c. accepted
7. Which sentence is correct?
a. Where have you been yesterday?
b. He worked in the company for 20 years until his retirement.
c. I know him since our schooldays.
8. 'The company has achieved good results so far this year.' Which sentence is true?
a. It is the end of the year.
b. The year is not finished.
c. It is the beginning of the new year.
9. Two staff are sick and one is on holiday ... I need someone to help out.
a. so that
b. because
c. so
10. I use my laptop a lot ... I spend 2-3 days out of the office each week.
a. in order to
b. because
c. so that

35
Part III

Quick Placement Test

1 Write one answer from the four possible answers.


For example:
What __b__ your job?
a) are b) is c) be d) have

1 Lynn ______ at home at the moment.


a) works b) is working c) work d) are working
2 We have ______ information about that.
a) a lot of b) an c) any d) many
3 Would you ______ a coffee?
a) liked b) liking c) like d) to like
4 TV advertisements are ________ than newspapers.
a) the effective b) effective c) most effective d) more effective
5 ______ they start production in 1989?
a) Did b) Do c) Have d) Are
6 Our ______ for this project is just over a million dollars.
a) business b) budget c) launch d) payback
7 Our country has a very ______ economy at the moment. It’s good news for business.
a) strong b) positive c) easy d) weak
8 _______ you free next week?
a) Do b) Have c) Are d) When
9 I want to speak to the ______ of this conference.
a) organiser b) organise c) organisation d) organising
10 Prices remained ______ at the same level as last year.
a) steadily b) slowly c) steady d) same
11 He wants to ______ a complaint to the manager.
a) make b) do c) have d) deal with
12 If you ask them, they ______ you.
a) are helping b) ‘ve help c) ‘ll help d) ‘d help
13 We need to finish. We’re ______ out of time.
a) running b) going c) finishing d) keeping
14 Let’s look ______ this chart.
a) in b) at c) to d) like
15 He’s leaving the company ______ they wouldn’t promote him.
a) because b) so that c) in order to d) that means that
16 I’m in charge _____ dealing with other companies.
a) for b) to c) of d) with
17 One way to _____ employees is to offer them a bonus.
a) meet b) upset c) fear d) motivate
18 The company was set ______ ten years ago.
a) on b) up c) in d) off
36
19 We need to take legal ______ against them for copying our products.
a) compensate b) advise c) action d) package
20 Since 2003, bosses _____ slow to handle this problem.
a) have been b) were c) are being d) are
21 Global warming will ______ to a change in the way we use energy.
a) caused b) result c) due d) lead
22 This is _______ designed than the previous model.
a) most beautifully b) more beautifully c) beautiful d) beautifully
23 Analysts were surprised to hear the company had declared itself _______.
a) sold out b) bankrupt c) fired d) fallen
24 Can you fill in this _______ form?
a) apply b) applicant c) application d) applied
25 The person at the door, _______ greeted you, is the HR manager.
a) who b) what c) where d) why
26 If we ________ him, we wouldn’t have got an answer.
a) haven’t asked b) hadn’t asked c) asked d) ask
27 Would you be interested ______ joining us for a drink?
a) for b) with c) in d) to
28 You ______ come if you don’t want to. It isn’t obligatory!
a) don’t have to b) mustn’t c) ought to d) might not
29 She _______ if he’d ever been to Spain.
a) said b) told c) told me d) asked
30 The box _______ over to warehouse on this conveyor belt.
a) is carried b) carries c) are carrying d) be carried
31 By the end of next year, the new factory ________.
a) built b) is built c) will have been built d) will build
32 What will you need in the _______ of resources?
a) way b) route c) aim d) road
33 Let’s try to improve the team ______ with a party!
a) goal b) player c) spirit d) project
34 You don’t know what the difficulty is, ______ you?
a) are b) know c) don’t d) do
35 Regular _______ to our mobile phone services can receive big discounts.
a) employees b) subscribers c) consumers d) programmers
36 We are not willing _____ anymore funding for this.
a) providing b) provide c) to provide d) are providing
37 Let’s try to ______ an agreement before the end of today.
a) reach b) meet c) do d) take
38 That’s _____ of the question I’m afraid.
a) in b) off c) answer d) out
39 I can’t _____ the importance of more training.
a) preemphasise b) overemphasise c) interemphasise d) multiemphasise
40 ______ energies are things like wind power and solar energy.
a) Reserve b) Renewable c) Refinery d) Fuel
41 A ______ is a situation where there is only one supplier of goods or a service.
37
a) payment b) cartel c) brokerage d) monopoly
42 They have a 30% ______ in that company.
a) margin b) core c) stake d) profit
43 The bank is going to ______ me half of what I need.
a) lend b) borrow c) save d) raise
44 He never listens to anyone else and only does what he thinks. He’s so ______.
a) cynical b) bad-tempered c) arrogant d) considerate
45 For the ______ of these people, there is only one objective.
a) likes b) like c) likened d) likely

Test Unit 1

LANGUAGE

1 Write the verbs in brackets in the present simple or the present continuous.

1 He ___________ (work) for a software company in New York.


2 I normally ____________ (get up) at five every morning.
3 Joel _____________ (work) at home this week.
4 Our accountant _____________ (check) the invoice right now.
5 Now, things ____________ (begin) to change in the company.
6 Currently, our customers ____________ (demand) more and more from us.
7 We frequently _____________ (travel) to Asia on business.
8 My typical working day ____________ (end) at six o’clock.
9 They ____________ (learn) English at the moment.
10 After work, we usually ____________ (have) a drink together.

VOCABULARY

2 Complete the sentences with these words.

operates / sells / provides / develops / designs / manufactures

11 Our retailer ___________ the products.


12 Frognation creates, develops and ___________ video games.
13 Citibank ___________ banking services.
14 It _____________ the products in the factory.
15 He designs and _____________ software with a team at Microsoft.
16 General Electric _______________ in more than 100 countries worldwide.

3 Write the last three letters in each word.

17 This is my part_____ We started the company together.

38
18 Can you call the software develo_______? There’s another problem with this new
software.
19 He has a meeting with the sales representat______ from our supplier.
20 Picasso is my favourite art_____.
21 I’m a project mana_____ for a mobile phone company.
22 The foun_____ of this company wants to sell it.
23 I love music and would love to be a famous music______.
24 She’s the company law_____. She checks all the contracts.
25 The head engin_____ is on the phone from the site.

CAREER SKILLS

4 Underline the correct word in brackets.

26 I work (to / as) a designer.


27 My main role is (to / for) sell our services.
28 What kind of company do you work (as / for)?
29 I’m responsible (for / as) managing projects.
30 What do you do (in / as) your job?

Test Unit 2

LANGUAGE

1 Is the sentence correct (C) or incorrect (I)? Correct the incorrect sentence.

1 There’s a lot of information on our current customers.


2 How many free time do you have?
3 Do you have a statistics on web users?
4 I don’t have much advice for you.
5 I’m sorry, but we don’t have some messages for you.
6 Would you like some coffee?
7 I’d like a glass of waters please.
8 There’s a call for you on line 3.

VOCABULARY

2 Choose answer a, b or c to complete the sentences.

9 I can’t remember my ____________.


a) mouse b) password c) keyword
10 About 50 people a day _____________ our company website.
a) keep b) browse c) type
11 I usually __________ a search engine to find new suppliers.
a) use b) phone c) manage
39
12 Customers have to ___________ their credit card details to order from us.
a) appear b) browse c) enter
13 ___________ shopping has made buying and selling so easy! I don’t have to
travel anywhere now.
a) Search b) Supermarket c) Online
14 ___________ ENTER and it takes you to the site.
a) Click b) Type c) Find

3 Underline the correct word in italics.

15 I have a mountain / bit of work on my desk. I can’t do it all tonight!


16 A tiny / substantial amount of my time is on the computer – only about five
minutes a day.
17 A few / fraction people work from home in my department.
18 There’s a huge / tiny number of people who now use Internet in this country –
over half the population.

4 Write these words as numbers.

19 six hundred and thirty eight 22 ninety-one point four per cent
20 ten thousand five hundred 23 one third
21 nine million dollars

CAREER SKILLS

5 Read this telephone conversation between two colleagues. Write in the


missing words.
A: Can I just (24) c____________ the numbers of employees we have in each office.
B: Sure.
A: How (25) m__________ do we have in our Milan office?
B: Fifteen.
A: Sorry, did you (26) s____________ fifty or fifteen?
B: Fifteen. One five.
A: OK. And in Zurich?
B: Ten.
A: Sorry, I didn’t (27) c___________ that.
B: Ten. One zero.
A: Thanks. And finally, what about our two Moscow offices. We have twenty
people there. Is that right?
B: Sorry, but we don’t have (28) a____________ offices in Moscow.
A: Can you (29) r____________ that, please?
B: There isn’t an office in Moscow.
A: Do you (30) m____________ that they’re closed?
B: No. We just don’t have an office in Moscow. We never have!

40
Test Unit 3

LANGUAGE

1 Match the offers and requests to the responses. Write your answer here.

1 Can I help you with your bag? a) Yes, please. Black no sugar.
2 Let me send this fax for you. b) Sure. Sparkling or still?
3 Would you like a coffee? c) Thanks – the number is 01245 674
4 Do you want some milk? 4783.
5 I could make a copy for you. d) Yes, no problem.
6 Can you phone me tomorrow? e) No, it’s OK. But thanks.
7 Could I have some water please? f) Where do you want to go?
8 Would you please check the fig- g) Yes, please.
ures? h) Thanks but I don’t really need one.
9 Could you give me some directions? i) Sure. What time?

VOCABULARY

2 Which word doesn’t belong after the verb?

10 give: advice, help, mistakes


11 make: a mistake, an email, a phone call
12 invest: manners, money, time
13 respond: positively, commonly, politely

3 Read the comments below and match adjectives a-h.

a) dissatisfied / b) impractical / c) honest / d) friendly / e) formal / f) inefficient /


g) punctual / h) impatient
14 She always smiles and talks to new people in the office.
15 The system we have for making decisions is slow and takes too long.
16 I’m not happy with you or your work.
17 He says what he thinks and always tells the truth.
18 They do things in a hurry and never wait. ____
19 In our country we always wear a tie at work and call people by their title. ____
20 She’s never late. ____
21 This idea works on paper but it won’t work in reality. ___

CAREER SKILLS

4 Underline the correct word in italics in this conversation.


A: Can I (22) introduce / meet you to my colleague, Jane?
(23) It / This is Jack Barber.
B: (24) Pleased / Please to meet you.

41
C: Nice to meet you too Jane. Would you like
(25) joining / to join us for lunch?
B: That would be very
(26) nice / good. Thank you.
[later]
B: Thanks for a very nice lunch.
A: No (27) problem / thanks. You’re
(28) glad / welcome.
B: Is it OK to smoke in here?
A: I’m (29) afraid / sorry but it isn’t allowed.
C: Would you like to go to the bar. You can smoke there.
B: It’s all right. Don’t (30) worry / sorry about it.

Test Unit 4

LANGUAGE
1 Complete these sentences with the adjective in brackets.

1 I think Italian clothes are ________________ (beautiful) than French clothes.


2 This has been one of the ________________ (bad) years in the company’s history.
3 This dress is _______________ (cheap) than that one.
4 Our European market isn’t as _______________ (big) as our Asian market.
5 She’s our most _______________ (talented) designer.
6 Designer clothes are ______________ (good) made than off-the-peg clothes.
7 I’ll buy it when the price is _____________ (low).
8 We need systems in the office which are _______________ (reliable).
9 He’s _____________ (happy) with his job than he was.
10 The numbers on this watch are the _____________ (easy) to read.

VOCABULARY

2 Complete each sentence. commercial luxury designer fashionable advertising fa-


mous stylish creative

11 A ___ label is on all their clothes.


12 She’s our most ____ model.
13 _____ clothes usually cost a lot of money.
14 He’s a very ____ man with lots of new ideas.
15 France’s ____ goods industry represents some 2,000 firms.
16 The ____ point is that haute couture is the fashion house’s loss leader.
17 Your new coat is very _____.
18 Our most recent _____ campaign was very successful.

42
CAREER SKILLS

3 Write in the missing question words below.

What / Who / Where / How / Why / What

19 _________ does it look? _____


20 _________ can you use it for? _____
21 _________don’t you like it? _____
22 _________ can use it? _____
23 _________ is it made of? _____
24 _________ can you use it? _____

4 Match each reply (25-30) to questions 19-24. Write the number after the ques-
tion above.

25 For a PC or laptop.
26 Very modern.
27 Metal and wood.
28 Children and adults.
29 It’s very impractical.
30 In the car.

Test Unit 5

LANGUAGE

1 Write the verbs in the past simple.

Harold Mack (1)______ (finish) school in 1989 with no qualifications. He (2)____


(not/know) what he wanted to do and so (3)_____ (do) various jobs. In 1992 he
(4)____ (have) a simple idea and (5)_____ (found) Mack Packing. The company
(6)_____ (start) in a small warehouse in East London. In the beginning Harold only
(7)_____ (employ) four people but the company (8)______ (grow) quickly and two
years later there (9)_____ (be) more than twenty. In 1996 Mack Packing (10)_____
(receive) its first international order and now the company exports packaging to ten
countries in Europe.

2 Write questions about Harold Mack in the past simple.

11 Q: When ____________? A: In 1989.


12 Q: Where _____________? A: In a small warehouse in East London.
13 Q: ____________? A: Four people.
14 Q: ___________? A: It’s first international order.

43
VOCABULARY

3 Complete each sentence with one word from A and one from B.

A B
business / start / market / set / top / busi- up / job / share / idea / up / plan
ness

15 Their _____ ____ is bigger than their competitors.


16 He has the ________ ________ in the company.
17 A _____ -_____ is a new business.
18 Every entrepreneur begins with a good ___ ____.
19 A new company ____ ___ in our area and we went bankrupt.
20 To get money from the bank, you need to show them your _______ _______.

4 Underline the correct verb in brackets.

21 A successful company has to (make / do) a profit.


22 Can I introduce you to the man who (heads / tops) the company? This is our
CEO…
23 I (pay / rent) an apartment in the city centre.
24 To grow, we need to (find / look) new opportunities in the market.
25 We have to increase production to (see / meet) demand.
26 I don’t want to work for someone. I want to (have / be) my own boss.
27 We want to (bring / send) out a new type of smoothie next year.
28 Is it possible to (run / make) a business when you don’t enjoy it?
29 To survive in business, your company cannot (be / stand) still.
30 I like to (play / have) fun at the weekend.

Test Unit 6

LANGUAGE

1 Underline the correct word in italics.

1 I’m certain there will / may be space tourism in the future.


2 Their flight is delayed so it can’t / won’t be a problem if you arrive at two.
3 Some people might / will be interested in your proposal but I’m really not sure.
4 The project manager is on the phone. He says he hopes to finish on time but that
they may / will be late because there is a problem with some parts.
5 Ted thinks the price of a ticket into space can / could be around $150,000 in the
future.
6 Thanks for calling. I ‘ll / might give him your message.
7 She may / will be able to go tonight. She’ll call later to confirm.

44
VOCABULARY

2 Replace the underlined words in sentences 8-17 with a word from the box.
Write the word at the end of the sentence.

capital / launch / tight / payback / a joint venture / raise / potential / take /


start-up / invest in
8 We’ll put our latest product on the market at the end of next month.
______________
9 They’ll probably put a million euros into this company. ____________
10 It’s an agreement to work together between a Spanish and Italian company.
__________
11 This plan has a possibility of future success. _____________
12 We are working with a carefully controlled budget. ____________
13 Let’s ask the bank to help us with the setting up of a new business costs.
____________
14 They want us to read their business plan so that we’ll give them the money for
their new business venture. ____________
15 They increase their prices every month! ____________
16 I think I’ll go by the elevator to the fifth floor. ____________
17 We can agree to a six month period for getting back the cost of the investment.
_____

3 Write in the missing preposition.

18 What do you estimate the return ____ our investment will be?
19 I’ll try to borrow the money ____ my brother.
20 Most scientists don’t have a very good understanding ____ business.
21 We can’t run this ____ such a low budget.
22 I lent my mobile ____ my colleague at work.
23 Over 20% of office workers also work ____ home.

CAREER SKILLS
4 Complete the phrases for making predictions with these words.

possible / could / expect / sure / think / unlikely / definitely


24 `It’s ___________ that we’ll live on the moon.
25 I don’t __________ that to happen.
26 I’m _________ they’ll give us the contract.
27 I think it’s __________ that they’ll buy our robot.
28 This will __________ need a lot of work.
29 It _________ be a good way to increase profits.
30 I don’t ____________ that’s true at all.

45
Test Unit 7

LANGUAGE

1 Read the conversations. Write in the most appropriate form of the verb in
brackets.

1 A: We ordered a new desk for today but it isn’t here.


B: Let me contact our warehouse and then I ______ (call) you right back.
2 A: Can you visit us next week?
B: I’m afraid I _______ (visit) America next week.
3 A: What do you want to do when you graduate?
B: I ________ (apply) to all the big multi-nationals.
4 A: How does the company intend to solve its current problems?
B: The company ________ (review) the situation and then take the appropriate
action.
5 A: Can you say I called?
B: Don’t worry, I _______ (tell) him you rang.
6 A: We arranged the meeting.
B: Great. What time __________ (you/meet)?
7 A: ______(we/open) this new hotel or aren’t we? We need a decision.
B: Sorry, but I just can’t decide.

2 Complete each sentence with answer a, b or c.

8 A(n) ______________ is a very large tall building.


a) skyscraper b) apartment block c) theme park
9 You can buy virtually anything in a shopping __________.
a) area b) market c) mall
10 We’re a large _________________ with activities in many different countries.
a) regional office b) investment c) multi-national
11 We’re currently looking for a suitable ______________ for an office in Dubai.
a) premises b) region c) block
12 Roads links are an important part of a country’s _______________.
a) accommodation b) infrastructure c) attraction
13 A(n) ________________ is someone who lives outside their own country.
a) tourist b) expatriate c) inhabitant
14 The service ______________ includes banking, insurance and tourism.
a) sector b) office c) division

3 Which sentences have the word up or out missing? Write them in.

15 The Opera tickets sold in less than three hours so I bought tickets for the cinema.
16 Inflation is growing at its fastest rate in five years.
17 We need to build on our current success.
18 I set this company in 2001.
46
19 If you run of money, then give me a call. I’ll lend you some.

4 Delete the word that doesn’t collocate with the underlined word.

20 stable, strong, high economy


21 easy, stable, good access
22 high, strong, low taxation
23 strong, positive, weak currency

CAREER SKILLS

5 Words with four letters are missing in this conversation. Write them.

Hi Gail. Are you (24)__________ next week?


Yes. Are you coming to visit?
That’s right. I’d (25)__________ to arrange an appointment.
Good idea. (26)__________ about Tuesday?
I can’t (27)__________ Tuesday I’m afraid.
Can you (28)__________ on Wednesday?
In the morning, yes.
That’s (29)__________ for me.
Great. Let’s say ten o’clock?
Yes, that’s fine. I’ll see you at ten o’clock (30)__________.
OK. Bye.

Test Unit 8

LANGUAGE

1 Match the two halves of these sentences.

1 Don’t touch a) the instructions on the form.


2 Pass me my b) when you leave.
3 Please read c) that lever.
4 Let’s take a d) interrupt, please.
5 If you don’t want the job, e) phone, please.
6 Please write your name on the list if f) say something.
7 Tell me g) not enter.
8 Do h) a decision.
9 Let’s make i) break at lunch.
10 Don’t j) you want to attend.

47
VOCABULARY

2 Read parts of four adverts from a careers magazine. Write in these missing
words.
interview / scheme / contract / find / ads / resume / trade / apprenticeship /
apply / headhunting
We currently have three vacancies on our graduate trainee (11)____________. You
can (12)___________ online at…
Please send us a copy of your (13)____________. Selected candidates will attend an
(14)____________ at the end of this month.
Learn a (15)____________ and join a local firm! We would like to offer an
(16)_____________ in building. You receive training and a five-year fixed
(17)_____________.
Are you having problems finding staff? Or perhaps you’re tired of scanning the job
(18)____________ for a new position. Contact us. We’re the experts in
(19)____________ professionals for key management roles. Let us (20)___________
the right person for the right job.
Complete this table of words.
VERB NOUN PERSON
(21)_____ employment (22)_____
(23)_____ advertisement advertiser
apply (24)_____ applicant
communicate (25)_____ communicator

CAREER SKILLS

3 Someone is explaining how to use some new computer software. Each sentence
includes one extra word. Cross it out and write it at the end.

26 First, make it sure you put the disc in._________


27 Don’t not forget to shut down any other programmes.__________
28 Always you remember to save your new work._________
29 It may be the better to save it in this folder._________
30 If you aren’t sure what to do, just will ask for help.________

Test Unit 9

LANGUAGE

1 Underline the correct modal verb in brackets.

1 The government says companies (have to / should) follow certain rules when ad-
vertising.

48
2 You (mustn’t / don’t have to) say your product does something that it doesn’t.
3 I don’t think you (should / need to) ignore the students market because they are
your future customers.
4 You (don’t have to / mustn’t) work late because George said he can if you don’t
want to.
5 They cancelled the meeting so we (shouldn’t / don’t need to) go.
6 They (don’t need to / shouldn’t) invest in that company because it isn’t doing well
at the moment.

VOCABULARY

2 Write in the missing letters in the words below. They are all words about
money.

7 If you buy today, we’ll give you a ten per cent _i_ _ou_ _.
8 My bank gave me a personal _oa_ today.
9 I think it’s important we help Africa with its _e_ _ to other countries.
10 He wants an extra ten thousand a year and he already has a _a_a_ _ of over a
hundred thousand a year!
11 How much do you ea_ _ a month?
12 The type of customer we want has enormous _ _e_ _i_ _ power.
13 My house is _o_ _ _ about two hundred thousand pounds.

3 Combine words from A and B to complete the description below.

A B
public / personal / direct / advertising media / marketing / selling / relations

‘There are various methods of selling starting with the most expensive like TV com-
mercials, radio adverts and other (14) ____________ ______________. A cheaper
way to sell is through (15) ______________ ____________ such as direct mail when
you send out leaflets to people’s houses. Face-to-face contact with the customer is
obviously important. For example, (16) ______________ ______________ with
sales representatives can be very effective and it’s easy to measure. It’s more difficult
to see if (17) ____________ ____________ is effective. This is because it’s about
creating good contacts rather than selling directly.’

4 Write in the ends of the words in these sentences.

18 Consump______ of coffee has increased every year since 1950.


19 Clever market_________ made designer coffee very popular.
20 Market analys________ are warning that the economy doesn’t look good.
21 Did we get the results from the market research agen______ ?
22 Cigarette companies often spons_____ sports events.

49
Career skills

5 Write in these phrases to complete the discussion.

That’s a good / I like / How about / Brilliant / I’m not sure / we could / why
not / What about inviting
A: We need to decide how to increase sales this month. Any ideas?
B: (23)____________________ offering some discounts?
C: (24)____________________ idea but our prices are already cheaper than our
competitors.
B: So (25)____________________send some advertising to customers? We could
tell them about our prices.
B: (26)____________________ that. I think we also need to use Internet and email
more.
C: What do you mean?
B: Well, perhaps (27)____________________ email some of our old customers and
update the website?
C: That’s true. Our website is the same as it was six months ago.
A: OK. I’ll deal with that.
C: (28)______________________someone from the local newspaper to visit the fac-
tory and show them our new range?
A: (29)_________________! But I think we should invite all the newspapers.
C: (30)______________________ about that. Do you think they would come?
B: We could try…

Test Unit 10

LANGUAGE

1 Write the verb in brackets in the past simple or present perfect.

1 Two years ago, I ______________ (leave) my company for this one.


2 The price ______________ (continue) to fall for the last two weeks.
3 In 2001, the market ______________ (fall) to an all-time low.
4 This graphs shows that inflation _______________ (remain) steady for six months
now.
5 German house prices _____________ (double) since 1979.
6 How ____________ (be) your trip?
7 We ______________ (not/raise) our prices in recent weeks.
8 ____________ (you/be) to France before?
9 I _____________(see) any changes in our recent performance.
10 _______________ (you/invite) the press yesterday?

50
VOCABULARY

2 Choose the correct verb from a, b or c.

11 It is difficult for companies to __________ the price of a product and know what
to charge.
a) cost b) set c) get
12 A lower price may increase sales but it also ___________ the profit margin
a) increases b) sets c) reduces
13 Many companies are ____________ costs to keep prices down.
a) cutting b) setting c) increasing
14 All customers want to ___________ good value for money.
a) get b) cost c) sell
15 Customers are also prepared to ____________ more time looking for a good price.
a) make b) spend c) have
16 In recent months, sales _____________ between 35 and 40.
a) fluctuated b) rose c) raised
17 Large supermarkets can afford to ____________ in bulk which also reduces the
price.
a) sell b) save c) buy
18 Producing bigger portions doesn’t ___________ up the price.
a) pull b) pick c) push
19 To ____________ the demands of supermarkets, food producers have reduced the
size of their workforces.
a) set b) meet c) reach
20 Prices ____________ a peak last night and then fell.
a) reached b) increased c) put up

3 Put these trend words in the correct category.

remain steady / lower / rise / level / rocket / push down

21 increase: ________________ ________________


22 decrease: ________________ ________________
23 no change: ________________ ________________

CAREER SKILLS

4 Match the two halves of the phrases for describing graphs. Write your answers
here.

24 I’d like you to look at… 27 It then reached a peak…


25 Turnover increased from 3 billion… 28 This fell to a low point in…
26 The volume of sales went up by… 29 It’s stayed the same for…
51
30 It’s still somewhere between 5.8%... d) and 5.9%.
a) of two thousand. e) this graph.
b) to 3.3 billion. f ) 2003.
c) three months now. g) one percent.

Test Unit 11

LANGUAGE

1 Re-write these sentences into the passive or active form.

1 Irene set up her company in 1991. Irene’s company _________.


2 The disc is inserted into the drive. Insert_______________.
3 We employ over two thousand people here. Over two thousand peo-
ple_________.
4 They will pay us the final fee at the end of next week. The final fee_______.
5 All calls are recorded for training purposes. We__________.
6 The government has increased the rate of tax. The rate of tax_______.
7 We are working on a new procedure. A new procedure________.

VOCABULARY

2 Read people describing problems they have. Write the type of problem in the
box next to the description.

injury / accident / damage / loss / theft / fraud / fire


8 ‘We need to claim the cost of a new roof after the storm last night.’
9 ‘My car was stolen from outside my house!’
10 ‘I hurt my leg at work and claimed for medical expenses.’
11 ‘Two offices were burnt down and the factory was damaged.’
12 ‘Sorry, I dropped your computer – I didn’t mean to.’
13 ‘One minute I had my bag and then after I went to the bar it wasn’t here.’
14 ‘This person said the injury cost him $40,000 but we discovered he didn’t have an
injury.’

3 An insurance company representative is talking about technology and insur-


ance. Underline the correct verb in brackets.

There’s no doubt that technology has made it quicker and easier for people to (15)
(take / pull) out insurance policies with our company. Our customers want to (16)
(protect / prohibit) themselves against risk, for example to (17) (provide / prevent)
cover against things such as injury or damage to property. Most of them do it over the
phone. You just (18) (make / give) us a call and we’ll (19) (give / spend) you a quote
within a few minutes and if you (20) (detect / suffer) loss or damage you (21) (with-
draw / receive) compensation. Because it’s easier to get insurance nowadays some
52
people also say it’s easier to (22) (determine / commit) fraud. But I don’t believe
that. For one thing we (23) (monitor / maintain) all calls and (24) (watch / screen) any
claims that could be fraudulent. In fact technology means that insurance companies
can (25) (investigate/ invent) more claims than they used to and therefore we (26)
(save / raise) more money than we used to.

CAREER SKILLS

4 The same word is missing from these pairs of phrases for expressing argu-
ments. What is the word?

27 I understand your ___________, but… Surely the main ___________ is…


28 On the one _________ you’re right, but…On the other _________ he’s right too.
29 ____ have to consider the customer…But don’t _______ think it’s too expensive?
30 The fact _______ customers are spending less, so…My view ________ we need
to spend more, because…

Test Unit 12

LANGUAGE

1 Complete these sentences with the present simple or future form of the verbs
in brackets.

1 If you ____________ (pay) us today, we’ll give you a 10% discount.


2 We ___________ (not/reimburse) you, if you don’t have the receipt.
3 If I buy it online, it ____________ (be) cheaper than from a shop.
4 If she calls, ____________ (you/tell) me?
5 If I _____________(not finish) this tonight, my boss will be angry.
6 You’ll be able to send photos, if you ____________(buy) one of those new mobile
phones.

VOCABULARY

2 The words and phrases below are synonyms for the underlined words in sen-
tences 7-16. Match them.

a significant f suffering
b a refund g makes a fuss
c dissatisfied h deal with
d rude i complain
e apologise j empathise
7 I am writing to say sorry for our mistake.
8 I’m afraid I’m rather unhappy with the service here.
9 There’s always one customer who wants to whinge.
53
10 Don’t worry. That customer always becomes angry about his room.
11 Dealing with customers is a major part of my job.
12 This economy is doing badly due to high inflation.
13 Why don’t you ask for your money back?
14 With an angry customer, the important thing is to show you understand.
15 Let me handle this problem.
16 The steward on our flight was so impolite!

3 Which verb does not go with the NOUN? Delete it.

17 suggest, find, make A SOLUTION


18 handle, satisfy, make A COMPLAINT
19 produce, offer, provide A SERVICE
20 train, complain, employ STAFF
21 do, have, solve A PROBLEM
22 replace, sell, refund A PRODUCT
23 deal with, ask, answer A QUERY

CAREER SKILLS

4 Re-order this conversation between a supplier and a shopkeeper.

Number the sentences 1-9


___ Today’s best.
___ OK. I’ll arrange for another box.
_1_ Hi. I’ve got a problem I’m afraid. You delivered some tomatoes this morning but
they’re damaged.
___ Then I’ll bring it right now.
___ The point is that I can’t sell them. Now there are two possibilities. You could ei-
ther refund me the money or you could bring me another box.
___ When will I get it?
___ Oh I’m sorry about that.
___ Is today better for you or tomorrow?
_9_ Thanks a lot.

Test Unit 13

LANGUAGE

1 Write these sentences in the correct order.

1 I to often work have late.


2 well all our speak staff English.
3 system the new is efficiently working.
54
4 are always they arrive the first to.
5 The every night are backed-up computers automatically.

VOCABULARY
2 Complete the sentences with these words.

demand / forecast / delay / model / range / stock / switch / update / order


6 I’m sorry but there’s a ______________ with your order. It’ll arrive tomorrow not
today.
7 Hello. I’d like to place an _____________ for three hundred pens.
8 Customer ____________ is very high for ice creams because the summer is so
hot.
9 The current ____________ for next year says turnover will remain steady.
10 I’m afraid we don’t have any in ___________ at the moment.
11 This model looks old now. We need to _____________ it to make it more mod-
ern.
12 The Ford XR6 is our latest ____________.
13 We’ve decided to ______________ from the old system to this new procedure.
14 Let me show you our full ___________ of cars from this family model to our
sports and luxury cars.

3 Change the form of the words in bold to complete the sentences.

produce 15 This is where we store our ______________.


16 Bill is our ______________ manager. He’s in charge of the factory.
supply 17 Can you call our ____________ and find out where the truck is?
18 We’re _____________ shops now in Europe and parts of America.
manufacture 19 We _____________ spare parts for cars.
20 UK car _____________ report a fall in orders.
deliver 21 We’re still waiting for the ____________ to arrive.
22 Can you ___________ it to our warehouse please?
assemble 23 Components are taken to the _____-line at the moment they are
needed.

CAREER SKILLS

4 One word in each phrase for managing time is incorrect. Cross it out and write
the correct word at the end.

24 We need to be quickly. ______________


25 OK. It’s time for finish. ______________
26 I’m afraid we don’t have many time. ______________
27 We must finish from ten. ______________
28 Sorry, we’re running in of time. ______________

55
29 Could we quickly talk of the last point on the agenda? _________
30 OK. Explain it to us but please get it short. ______________

Test Unit 14

LANGUAGE

1 Each sentence has one extra word. Delete the word.

1 It would be easier if we will changed the website.


2 More people could to buy it if we offered the product online.
3 If they weren’t be on a trip, we’d meet them.
4 What do would you do if you had to go this evening?
5 If you go to the meeting, what will would you say?
6 I’ll talk to him if he had arrives in the next five minutes.
7 If we don’t didn’t take risks, we’d never develop new products.
8 Would you take the job if they’ll offered you more money?

VOCABULARY

2 Replace the underlined words with words from the box. Write your answers at
the end of the sentence.

unplanned / look after / clear / looks like / on purpose / changed / popular /


search
9 Can you take care of this problem?
10 He disagreed with me deliberately.
11 The factory layout seemed to be random.
12 I need to look for my mobile.
13 The new CEO completely transformed the company.
14 It’s obvious that we have to take action.
15 This nightclub is thriving.
16 His car is similar to mine. I often walk to the wrong one in the car park.

3 Write the last letters in each word.

17 We’re closing our shops in England. They aren’t very profit______..


18 To solve this problem we need new and imaginat_____ ideas.
19 Creat____ people make innovative discoveries.
20 The global econom____ is doing well at the moment.
21 This is one of our most success_____ models.
22 I think we have to handle this complaint careful______.
23 If they made a reason_____ offer, we’d accept.
24 Our company was founded in 1807 and is a very tradition_____ company.
56
CAREER SKILLS

4 Match phrases 25-30 to the responses a-f.

25 What would happen if we told him? a) That could be an expensive solu-


26 Do you think that’s a good idea? tion.
27 Why don’t we offer them more b) If we did that, it would be very
money? unpopular.
28 We had to ask him to leave. c) No, I don’t think it would help.
29 What we really want is a new man- d) That might be OK. Who are you
ager. thinking of?
30 How about not giving the staff a pay e) What else could we do?
rise this year. f) He’d probably leave.

Test Unit 15

LANGUAGE

1 Write the verb in brackets in the past simple or present perfect.

1 I _____ (be) the Managing Director but I retired in 2004.


2 More recently, the company _______ (specialise) in training.
3 They _________ (be) off work since June.
4 In the old days we _______________ (work) fifteen hours a day.
5 She _______________ (join) the company three years ago.
6 The latest news is that the President _______________ (resign).
7 What _______________ (you, do) since I last spoke to you.
8 Now our competitor _______________ (introduce) the same discounts as us.
9 Sorry, I still ________________ (not, write) that report you asked me for.
10 For many years we ____________ (not, have) a formal hierarchy but now we do.
11 When _______________ (you, finish) your last job?
12 In the last few years, he ________________ (improve) his performance.

VOCABULARY

2 Choose the correct word from a, b or c.

13 We need to ____________ initiative and good ideas.


a) reward b) pay c) retire
14 He’s ready for greater ______________.
a) reports b) recruitment c) responsibility
15 ____________ managers don’t think the younger managers have any talent.
a) Subordinate b) Senior c) Superior
16 I like young employees who show plenty of _____________.
a) enthusiasm b) achievement c) earnings
57
17 Her _________________ is to work in the film industry.
a) initiative b) career c) ambition
18 Regular customers who show ______________ are very important.
a) seniority b) loyalty c) level

3 Underline the correct word in brackets.

19 They are taking (on / over) their smaller competitor. It will make them the only
company in this sector.
20 We’re taking (on / off) 300 new staff.
21 She takes (up / on) her new job next week.
22 They took (on / part) in a trade fair.
23 The conference takes (place / part) between February 2-5.
24 The new promotion has really taken (off / over) with the public.

CAREER SKILLS

4 A manager is talking to three of his staff. Write in the words in the box.

So that / so / it means that / because / because of / In order to


More and more staff are leaving. They say this is (25)_______________ the pay or
(26)_______________ they aren’t happy with their working conditions. Whatever the
real reason (27)_______________ we’re spending more time and money on recruit-
ment.
(28)_______________ reduce the costs we need to look at the problem in detail.
(29)_______________ we find a solution I’d like to set up a committee
(30)_______________ I’d like to know if you three people can organise it?

58
End Test

1 Lynn ______ at home at the moment.


a) works b) is working c) work d) are working
2 We have ______ information about that.
a) a lot of b) an c) any d) many
3 Would you ______ a coffee?
a) liked b) liking c) like d) to like
4 TV advertisements are ________ than newspapers.
a) the effective b) effective c) most effective d) more effective
5 ______ they start production in 1989?
a) Did b) Do c) Have d) Are
6 Our ______ for this project is just over a million dollars.
a) business b) budget c) launch d) payback
7 Our country has a very ___ economy at the moment. It’s good news for business.
a) strong b) positive c) easy d) weak
8 _______ you free next week?
a) Do b) Have c) Are d) When
9 I want to speak to the ______ of this conference.
a) organizer b) organize c) organisation d) organising
10 Prices remained ______ at the same level as last year.
a) steadily b) slowly c) steady d) same
11 He wants to ______ a complaint to the manager.
a) make b) do c) have d) deal with
12 If you ask them, they ______ you.
a) are helping b) ‘ve help c) ‘ll help d) ‘d help
13 We need to finish. We’re ______ out of time.
a) running b) going c) finishing d) keeping
14 Let’s look ______ this chart.
a) in b) at c) to d) like
15 He’s leaving the company ______ they wouldn’t promote him.
a) because b) so that c) in order to d) that means that
16 I’m in charge _____ dealing with other companies.
a) for b) to c) of d) with
17 One way to _____ employees is to offer them a bonus.
a) meet b) upset c) fear d) motivate
18 The company was set ______ ten years ago. a) on b) up c) in d) off
19 We need to take legal ______ against them for copying our products.
a) compensate b) advise c) action d) package
20 Since 2003, bosses _____ slow to handle this problem.
a) have beenb) were c) are being d) are
21 Global warming will ______ to a change in the way we use energy.
a) caused b) result c) due d) lead
22 This is _______ designed than the previous model.
a) most beautifully b) more beautifully c) beautiful d) beautifully
59
23 Analysts were surprised to hear the company had declared itself _______.
a) sold out b) bankrupt c) fired d) fallen
24 Can you fill in this _______ form?
a) apply b) applicant c) application d) applied
25 The person at the door, _______ greeted you, is the HR manager.
a) who b) what c) where d) why
26 If we ________ him, we wouldn’t have got an answer.
a) haven’t asked b) hadn’t asked c) asked d) ask
27 Would you be interested ______ joining us for a drink?
a) for b) with c) in d) to
28 You ______ come if you don’t want to. It isn’t obligatory!
a) don’t have to b) mustn’t c) ought to d) might not
29 She _______ if he’d ever been to Spain.
a) said b) told c) told me d) asked
30 The box _______ over to warehouse on this conveyor belt.
a) is carried b) carries c) are carrying d) be carried
31 By the end of next year, the new factory ________.
a) built b) is built c) will have been built d) will build
32 What will you need in the _______ of resources?
a) way b) route c) aim d) road
33 Let’s try to improve the team ______ with a party!
a) goal b) player c) spirit d) project
34 You don’t know what the difficulty is, ______ you?
a) are b) know c) don’t d) do
35 Regular _______ to our mobile phone services can receive big discounts.
a) employees b) subscribers c) consumers d) programmers
36 We are not willing _____ anymore funding for this.
a) providing b) provide c) to provide d) are providing
37 Let’s try to ______ an agreement before the end of today.
a) reach b) meet c) do d) take
38 That’s _____ of the question I’m afraid.
a) in b) off c) answer d) out
39 I can’t _____ the importance of more training.
a) preemphasise b) overemphasise c) interemphasise d) multiemphasise
40 ______ energies are things like wind power and solar energy.
a) Reserve b) Renewable c) Refinery d) Fuel
41 A ______ is a situation where there is only one supplier of goods or a service.
a) payment b) cartel c) brokerage d) monopoly
42 They have a 30% ______ in that company.
a) margin b) core c) stake d) profit
43 The bank is going to ______ me half of what I need.
a) lend b) borrow c) save d) raise
44 He never listens to anyone else and only does what he thinks. He’s so ______.
a) cynical b) bad-tempered c) arrogant d) considerate
45 For the ______ of these people, there is only one objective.
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a) likes b) like c) likened d) likely

Part IV Progress Tests

Progress Test 1 (Units 1-3)

SECTION 1: VOCABULARY

1 Change the form of the words in the box and complete the sentences.

For example: manage – manager, satisfied – dissatisfied


manage / satisfied / account / inform / recruit / found / represent / shop / con-
sult / friend / practical / respect

1 I’m the Marketing ______________ for a travel company.


2 Online ______________ is easier and faster than driving to the supermarket.
3 Your plan won’t work – it’s totally ___________________.
4 ______________ technology (IT) makes it easy to store huge amounts of data.
5 In Japan, employees are more ___________ of their bosses than in my country.
6 I work in the Finance department as an ________________.
7 We’re rather ________________ with your performance I’m afraid.
8 I got the job through a ________________ agency.
9 The ______________ of our company set it up twenty years ago.
10 We use a management ______________ firm to help us with difficult decisions.
11 Your assistant always smiles and is very ________________ with visitors.
12 There’s a Sales ___________ on the phone. She wants to sell you some stationary.

SECTION 2: LANGUAGE

2 Each sentence has one mistake. Re-write it correctly.

13 I am often work at weekends.


14 He go on holiday twice a year.
15 Currently they are visit the factory in Kyoto.
16 Now people isn’t staying with the same company for life.
17 Which department do you running?
18 Do you have many data on web users?
19 I’d like some informations on trains, please.
20 Do you have a lot work to do?
21 How much employees work here?
22 Would you’d like a coffee?
23 Let’s me carry your bags.
24 You can open the door for me, please?
25 I could to make a copy for you.
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Section 3: Reading

3 Match these headlines to the newspaper articles below


a) CITY SKYROCKERS
b) MOVE OVER GRANDAD
c) NO PRIVACY
d) WE KNOW WHERE YOU ARE
e) PROFITS AT THE CLICK OF A BUTTON
f) A PROBLEM OF SECURITY
g) GOOD MANNERS COST SOMETHING
h) 66% ARE LATE AND RUDE

26 _____ We enter a site, type in a username and password and then enter private in-
formation such as credit card numbers or bank details. But these so-called se-
cure sites may not be the safe places we imagine…
27 _____ Unions today are complaining about the increase in companies using soft-
ware to monitor employees and their use of internet. This comes a month after
similar debates over the growing use of video surveillance cameras in the British
workplace.
28 _____ Prices on the stock market are going up very fast at the moment due to new
confidence and an increase in exports in the last six months…
29 _____ Two out of three of us are bad-mannered at work with colleagues and don’t
arrive on time. A new survey of 1,000 workers says the pressure of work causes…
30 _____ New figures show that the typical executives are younger. The average age
is now 46. Ten years ago this was 57. The report says this is partly due to more
early retirements but also that more companies employ younger people in higher
positions…
31 _____ Business etiquette is important for people who often have to build new con-
tacts, but Julian Morris, head of Executive Etiquette, a business consultancy which
offers training to management in ‘being polite’, says most of us are not very good
at it and need help…
32 _____ The large supermarkets all report a rise this month but not only in their
shops. Their online shopping facilities account for a large percentage of the results
as more customers want to shop from the comfort of their own home…
33 _____ Cameras that can see through walls? Satellites which recognise objects a
metre across? Tracking chips on people? Is this something from James Bond or
Science Fiction? It could be the future as engineers are now developing this tech-
nology…

SECTION 4: CAREER SKILLS

5 Underline the correct word in italics.

A: Hello Jane. Can I (34)meet / introduce you to my colleague? (35)It / This is


Gianni.

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B: Sorry, I didn’t (36)catch / check your name.
C: Gianni. My name’s Gianni.
B: (37)Please / Pleased to meet you Gianni. (38)Who / What do you work for?
C: Altex. We provide web design services.
B: Did you (39)say / mean Altex?
C: Yes. That’s right. Do you know my company?
B: Yes, I do. What do you (40)do / make there?
C: My main role is to meet clients and discuss new projects.
A: (41)Do / Would you like (42) to join / joining Gianni and me for lunch Jane?
B: (43)It / That would be very nice. Thank you.

SECTION 5: WRITING

5 Complete the email below with these phrases.

we also believe / I’m writing to tell / we look forward


we would like to / please consider / we would also like / we think

Dear George
(44)______ you that (45)_______ offer you the job of Export Manager to Mexico.
(46)______ you are the right person for this job because you already have experience
as Export Manager to North America. (47)________ your success in the US and
Canada can be continued in Mexico. Finally, (48)_______ you to take intensive lan-
guage training in Spanish.
(49)_______ our offer and write back to us by the end of the week.
(50)______ to hearing from you.
Best regards

Section 6: Listening

Track 2

6 Listen to Bob presenting some information and complete the notes below. Lis-
ten twice.
Speaker: Bob
Weekly Statistics Report for (51)_________________
Number of (52)______________: 4,542
That’s a lot more than (53)______________________________________
Average (54) __________ per session: 1.5 minutes
Average number of (55)___________ per person: 2.7
Both these figures are (56)_____________________________
(57)____________ page: 2,430
(58)____________ page: 1,395
Traffic by (59)______________________:
North Americans: 57%
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(60)_____________: 31%

SECTION 7: SPEAKING (61-70)

7 Explain your job to your teacher. Include these five areas:


– introduce yourself
– say your job title and company name
– describe your company
– explain your responsibilities
– explain your main role

Your teacher will mark your explanation using the scorecard below. The teacher cir-
cles 1 mark if a student includes the area and circles 2 marks for communicating it
accurately and effectively. There is a maximum of ten marks.
The student:
- introduced him/herself 1 2
- said his/her job title and his/her company name 1 2
- described the company 1 2
- explained his/her responsibilities 1 2
- explained his/her main role 1 2

Progress Test 2 (Units 4-6)

Complete all seven sections. There are seventy marks in total.

SECTION 1: VOCABULARY

1 Write in the words below in sentences 1-7.

image / investment / house / campaign / budget / market / labels

1 We need to define our target ___________________


2 Brand ____________ is the opinion people have about a brand.
3 Their new advertising ______________ uses a famous actor.
4 Haute couture is the fashion _______________’s loss leader.
5 I only wear designer _______________ from Italy.
6 What do you think the return on our ________________ will be?
7 We’re on a very tight _______________ so don’t spend too much.

2 Match the two halves of the sentences. Write your answers here:

8 He set a its second satellite to Venus last


9 The European Space Agency night.
launched b money to start a new business.
10 I’d like to borrow c raise the money somehow.
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11 We’ll have to d me the money.
12 We didn’t make e up the company in 1981.
13 You always take f the competition.
14 The bank won’t lend g a profit for the second month in a
15 I think this new product can beat row.
h risks in business.

SECTION 2: LANGUAGE

3 Change the word in brackets (if necessary) to complete the sentences.

16 The most _______________ (success) brand in the world is Coca-cola.


17 Paris has the ______________ (big) number of talented designers.
18 It’s ______________ (easy) to use the lift than the stairs.
19 Flying is _______________ (cheap) than it was twenty years ago.
20 Money isn’t as ______________ (important) as happiness.
21 After having moved to Los Angeles, I ______________ (rent) an apartment in the
centre.
22 In 2003 she ____________ (sell) over three thousand units.
23 The warehouse said they ______________ (not, have) any in stock.
24 When _____________ (you, arrive) in Barcelona? Was it yesterday or the day
before?
25 Ted Foster hopes that he might __________ (be) the first person to send tourists to
the moon.
26 Most people ________ (not, will) be interested because it’s too expensive.

SECTION 3: READING

4 These sentences are missing from these tips for new businesses. Decide where
they best fit.

a And not just for one day


b Don’t give up – learn from them.
c Try your local bank, for example.
d Use their expertise.
e It can’t only be about profit.
f But most of all have fun
g Who are they?

A good idea
A good business begins with a good idea. (27)__________. When you wake up the
next morning, it must still be a great idea!
Investment
If you don’t have the money to start up your great idea or you don’t want to sell your
house, there are a number of places to start. (28)_____________.
65
Contacts
See anything and anyone as an opportunity. Talk to friends and family about your
idea. Talk to your potential suppliers. (29)______________.
The competition
(30)______ What do they do well? What can you do differently? Find out everything
about them.
Problems
All businesses have problems and they don’t disappear as you get bigger.
(31)_______ Find out why they happened and deal with them better next time.
Passion
For a successful business you need to care about the idea. (32)_________.
As one entrepreneur says. ‘Feel passionate about what you’re doing.
(33)___________.’

SECTION 4: CAREER SKILLS

5 Someone at work is talking about a new office desk. Complete their descrip-
tion with the phrases in the box.

After checking / To begin / lots of / my opinion / Then see / ideal for / made
of / use it
In (34)_______________________ it’s quite stylish because it’s
(35)_____________________ good quality wood. And it’s
(36)___________________ this office because it’s small. You can
(37)_________________ for your PC or laptop and it’s got
(38)___________________ space for books and papers. You assemble it yourself.
(39)_______________ with, read the instructions. (40)__________________ if you
have all the parts. (41)___________________, you can put it up.
SECTION 5: WRITING

6 Write a memo to the senior management of VW about this car:


- Project name: K2
- Large, stylish executive car.
- For business people and also for families.
- Excellent technology with lots of electronic devices
- Price range: 60,000-105,000 euros
- Target age group: People over forty

7 Recommend this product for development and say why. Complete the memo
below.
(42) To: Senior___________________________________
(43) Subject: _____________
(44) We think that this car __________.
(45) Firstly, it is suitable for ___________.
(46) Secondly, it’s also ideal for _____________.
66
(47) It looks ____________ (48) and contains _____________.
(49) We think it will sell for ________________.
(50) It may also be attractive to people_________.

SECTION 6: LISTENING

Track 3

8 Alan Martin is talking about how to set up a business. Are these statements
True (T) or False (F)? Listen twice.

51 Alan tells people it’s a good idea to start a new business. ( )


52 Only 20% of new businesses succeed. ( )
53 Businesses fail because people don’t work hard enough. ( )
54 It’s a good idea to find out more about what the market wants. ( )
55 Find out if people want your product or service and also if other companies also
offer it. ()
56 A business plan helps to get money for the new business. ( )
57 The plan will include your adverts. ( )
58 The plan also needs to show you know how to manage the company. ( )
59 The most important thing is to have lots of different customers. ( )
60 A successful business will have customers who always buy from you. ( )
SECTION 7: SPEAKING
(61-70)

9 Prepare a description about a company you are familiar with.

Describe the following areas:


– what it produces/provides
– where it is based
– the company history
– its strengths and weaknesses
– its future prospects

Your teacher will mark your description using this scorecard. The teacher circles 1
mark if a student includes the area and circles 2 marks for communicating it accu-
rately and effectively. There is a maximum of ten marks.
The student described:
what the company produces/provides 1 2
where it is based 1 2
the company history 1 2
its strengths and weaknesses 1 2
its future prospects 1 2

67
Progress Test 3 (Units 7-9)

Complete all seven sections. There are seventy marks in total.

SECTION 1: VOCABULARY

1 Underline the correct word in brackets.

1 They set (out / down / up) a new division to deal with overseas trade.
2 I went to the shop but it’s sold (off / out / in) of coffee.
3 Your children are really growing (out / off / up), aren’t they?
4 I’m sorry but the water has run (out / off / along) in this machine.
5 His father built (on / over / up) the company from nothing.
6 Human Resources say we need to take (on / off / up) ten new staff.
7 She’s looking (up / for / out) a new position.
8 It could take five years to pay (into / off / by) this personal loan.

2 Tick the correct word from a, b or c.

9 The road ____________ into Dubai are excellent.


a) building b) links c) works
10 I live in an apartment ____________.
a) flat b) office c) block
11 The country enjoys a strong _____________.
a) economy b) inflation c) infrastructure
12 Our main problem is low ______________.
a) taxation b) unemployment c) wages
13 My son is on a work ________________ in the USA for three weeks.
a) placement b) apprenticeship c) scheme
14 We could ____________ the job ad on the Internet.
a) search b) post c) supply
15 The new strategy is to ______________ consumers over sixty.
a) worth b) target c) aim
16 High-______________ executives might be interested in this type of luxury prod-
uct.
a) consuming b) outgoing c) earning

SECTION 2: LANGUAGE

3 There is an extra word in each sentence. Cross it out and then write it at the
end.

17 I’m busy at the moment so I’ll try going to call her back this afternoon.
18 They are going to opening the new hotel later today.
19 We’re will leaving at nine tomorrow morning.
68
20 The company is going to being expand operations into South America.
21 To check that your application form is filled in correctly before you send it.
22 Pass to me that book please.
23 If anyone isn’t sure, just you ask for help.
24 Do not don’t enter.

SECTION 3: READING

4 Read this extract from an article on business travel.

The art of travelling light


There are so many limits to travel now such as your luggage must not be over a cer-
tain weight or you’re only allowed to carry one carry-on. But it’s strange that any of
us need any luggage at all these days. The other week I learned just how little I had to
carry when I visited New York on business but the airline sent my bag to Atlanta. My
first reaction was ‘Disaster!’ How will I manage? I have to have a change of clothes.
What will I do without my file of papers for a meeting?
Well, my hotel provided soap, toothbrush, towels and shampoo. I had to use the ho-
tel’s overnight cleaning service but it meant I didn’t need to bring a change of
clothes. And all my papers were on my laptop. So apart from the advice that you
should take your laptop – or preferred piece of technology – on board here’s my
complete list of what you shouldn’t bother with on your next trip…

5 According to the article are these statements are true (T) or false (F)?

25 Airlines say your luggage doesn’t have to be over the weight limit. ( )
26 You must carry one bag onto the plane. ( )
27 The writer thinks we don’t need to take luggage. ( )
28 He was allowed to use the hotel cleaning service. ( )
29 It isn’t necessary to have a change of clothes. ( )
30 It’s a good idea to take your laptop on the plane. ( )

SECTION 4: CAREER SKILLS

6 Three people are discussing job applications for the post of Sales Representa-
tive. Complete each missing phrases with the pairs of words. See the example.
not + about / don’t + when / think + first / remember + check
how + interviewing / like + idea / essential + choose / perhaps + could
could + difficult / may + better / idea + have / need + make

A: OK. We have six applicants for the job. I _think_ the _first_ thing to say is that
it’s (31)_______ we ______ someone who is enthusiastic. The last person wasn’t
very outgoing and we (32)____ to ____ sure that the new Sales Rep is completely the
opposite.
69
B: You’re right but I’m (33)_____ sure ______ the candidates we have at the mo-
ment. We also need someone who’s punctual. It’s a good
(34)______ to _______ someone creative but sometimes people like that are also dif-
ficult to work with. (35)_______ forget _____ Barry worked for us!
A: Barry! Yes, we don’t want someone like that again. So we need to
(36)______ to ______ all that at the interviews.
C: (37)_______ about _______ the candidates all together?
A: I (38)_______ that ________. You mean all six in the same room.
C: Yes, (39)_______ we ______ give them a problem to solve together.
B: Brilliant! Then we can see if they have good communication skills.
A: It (40)____ be ____ to see with six of them at the same time. Why not have two
groups of three?
B: That’s a good idea. And it (41)____ be ____ to have individual interviews after-
wards. Then we’ll get a really good overall picture of them…

SECTION 5: WRITING

7 Write an email to your colleague at Head Office and explain the plan for a
visit to Germany. Use the notes below and complete the email that follows.

Monday 5th
- Arrive at Dresden factory, 9.30am
- Meet head of production, 10.30
- Lunch with Managing Director, 12.30
- Stay at Metropole Hotel
Tuesday 6th
- Meeting with Sales Representative, Leipzig Offices, 10am
- Taxi to airport, flight at 15.55

Dear Eva
42 I’m writing to tell ____________
43 On Monday ________________
44 at the Dresden Factory __________.
45 After meeting the Head of ____________________________________________,
46 I’m ________________________________________________________at 12.30
47 In the evening I_____________________________________________________.
48 The next day, there’s ______________________________________at 10am.
49 We’ll finish at lunch so ________________________________to the airport.
50 My flight ________________________________________________ at 15.55.
See you on Wednesday!

70
SECTION 6: LISTENING

Track 4

8 Listen to a property agent talking at a seminar. Complete the notes on his talk
below. Listen twice.
The (51)______ key elements for locating an office:
- Infrastructure:
Do you have good (52)_______communications?
Are you near to an (53)__________?
- Living Environment:
The location needs to be an (54)________ place to live and not too
(55)_______.
- Business Environment:
Choose a place with a growing (56)___________
Which town did Whiterose choose?
Exeter:
- Attractive environment
- Poor communications and transport
Swindon:
- Excellent (57)________ and near to Heathrow
- Business environment is mainly (58)______ not service sector
Luton:
- Growing economy
- Not as attractive but (59)____________ to London
- Good communications with the (60)_______ and internationally

SECTION 7: SPEAKING (61-70)

9 Arrange an appointment with your teacher on the telephone.


– Explain the reason for calling.
– Suggest a day next week
– Suggest a different day (because your teacher is busy)
– Suggest a time
– End the call.

Your teacher will mark your description using this scorecard. The teacher circles 1
mark if a student includes the area and circles 2 marks for communicating it accu-
rately and effectively. There is a maximum of ten marks.
explained the reason for calling. 1 2
suggested a day next week. 1 2
suggested a different day. 1 2
suggested a time. 1 2
ended the call appropriately. 1 2
71
Progress Tests 4 (Units 10-12)

Complete all seven sections. There are seventy marks in total.

SECTION 1: VOCABULARY

1 Underline the correct verb in italics.

1 When you set / pay the price, it’s important to have a strategy.
2 A lower price may increase sales but it will also reduce / slow the profit margin
3 The company may have to cut / borrow its costs to survive this recession.
4 When people tell / stretch the truth they may commit insurance fraud.
5 The government’s policy has pushed up / risen the cost of living.
6 We’ve decided to go up / put up our prices.
7 I’d like to make / say a complaint about one of your staff.
8 Sorry, but can you handle / deal with this claim?
9 Let’s offer / pay back them a refund.
10 Your insurance policy only covers / receives you for theft.
11 British companies don’t spend / pay much on service.

SECTION 2: LANGUAGE

2 Complete these sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets.

12 You won’t believe it! My car_________ (steal).


13 ______ the cost of living _______ (drop) recently?
14 If you require further information, one of our telephone operators ______ (be)
happy to assist you.
15 In recent years, we _______ (cut) the workforce by two hundred.
16 When _______ you _______ (leave) your last job?
17 Inflation ______ (rise) by 0.3% again last month.
18 There’s an additional charge, if you _________ (fail) to pay by the due date.
19 If we ________ (not, go) out tonight, I’ll give you a ring.
20 Did you hear that the Managing Director _________ (fire)?
21 Over twelve days a year ________ (take) off for sickness last year.
22 Your application _____ (consider) and we will contact you in the next few weeks.
23 If you pay within 5 days, you ______ (receive) a discount.
24 Last year, we ________ (lose) our best manager.
25 Motorists ________ (benefit) from cheaper petrol prices in the last six months.

SECTION 3: READING

3 Read parts of a website offering different financial services. Write the missing
words (below) in the titles.

72
Motor / Home / Pension / Travel / Financial / Commercial / Life
26 ________________ insurance. To protect business owners from losses, including
injured employees and damage to property.
27 ________________ insurance This can include delays or cancellations, loss of
luggage and medical cover worth up to $1,000,000.
28 ________________ advisory service. We are pleased to introduce a new service
for customers. Our online advisers will respond to your enquiries within 24 hours
and offer independent advice on investments and planning.
29 ________________ insurance
Are you covered in the event of a death? Will your family have the money they need?
30 ________________ insurance
Click here to protect yourself against fire and theft and accidental collision.
31 ________________ services
Do you want to retire early? Or perhaps you’d like to live as comfortably in the future
as you do now. Find out more about how to start investing for later life.
32 _______________ insurance
This covers fire, weather-related damage and other losses. The policy also covers la-
bour costs, materials and services for repairs.

SECTION 4: CAREER SKILLS

4 Match the two halves of the phrases and sentences below. Write your answers
here:

33 There are two possibilities. You can…


34 If you sell now…
35 It’s better…
36 The fact is more people are buying…
37 My view is we should wait…
38 On the one hand we’ll make more if we wait…
39 I understand your point…
40 You have to consider…
a) so the price is rising.
b) it will mean you might not benefit later.
c) the possibility that the price may fall.
d) if you buy low and sell high.
e) but on the other we need money now.
f) but we need to remember that the price will rise.
g) either sell now or wait and see if the market improves.
h) because I think the price will still rise.

SECTION 5: WRITING

5 You are a manager for a supermarket chain. Recently you have received this
feedback from different customers.
73
‘Your staff gave me the wrong information.’
‘I don’t think your staff know anything about the products.’
‘I asked someone but he wasn’t interested.’
‘She was very impolite when I complained about the product.’
‘I had to wait while two members of your staff were busy talking.’

6 Complete the report below for your Directors. Describe the feedback. Suggest
two options to help and suggest the best solution.

To: The Directors


From: The manager
Subject: Improving customer service.

41 I have recently received _________________.


42 One customer said that staff _______________.
43 Another customer also thought that staff knew __________.
44 In one case a member of staff wasn’t _________.
45 When someone complained about a product the staff member _______.
46 And finally, a customer complained because__________.
47 I think the problem is that _________.
48 We could either _________
49 or we could _______________________________________________.
50 I think the best solution is to__________________________________.

SECTION 6: LISTENING

Track 5

7 Listen and complete these guidelines for Customer Service Staff. Listen twice.

The Ten Rules of Customer Service


51 Always be _______________ and helpful at all times.
52 Try to _____________ things from the customer’s point of view.
53 Even if the customer is angry, __________ calm
54 Even if you didn’t make the mistake, still try to ___________ the prob-
lem.
55 When the customer explains, ____________ carefully and check you’ve
understood.
56 If the customer doesn’t demand action, then ___________ a solution.
57 If you can’t do what the customer would like, __________ what you can
do.
58 Don’t say ‘I might’. Say ‘___________’
59 Remember that you won’t always __________ a solution.
60 Do your ____________.

74
SECTION 7: SPEAKING (61-70)

8 Give descriptions of the five graphs on page 91 (Unit 10) of the student’s book.
In each description remember to

– say what each graph shows.


– describe the graph

Your teacher will mark your description using this scorecard. The teacher circles 1
mark if a student says what the graph shows and circles 2 marks for describing the
trend. There is a maximum of ten marks.
The student:
said what graph A shows and described the trend 1 2
said what graph B shows and described the trend 1 2
said what graph C shows and described the trend 1 2
said what graph D shows and described the trend 1 2
said what graph E shows and described the trend 1 2

Progress Test 5 (Units 13-15)

Complete all seven sections. There are seventy marks in total.

SECTION 1: VOCABULARY

1 Write in the missing preposition.

1 There’s been a delay ______ the delivery of the components.


2 The shortage ______ staff at work is really causing pressure.
3 Our new just-______-time production has made things quicker.
4 We must finish this meeting ______ eleven at the latest.
5 Sorry, but we’re running ______ of time.
6 We look forward _____ hearing from you.
7 Our department has just taken _____ 30 new staff.

2 Read the extract from a report on improving a business. Change the form of
the word in brackets to complete it.

We would like to propose a number of (8)________ (recommend) to improve the


(9)________ (efficient) of your company. With regard to office space, you could re-
duce the space needed for your (10) __________ (administrate) staff with a system of
open plan offices. This would then provide space for your sales staff. In the factory,
(11)_______ (product) could be increased through a better system of supply and stor-
age. The (12)_____ __ (deliver) company should bring components to the factory
several times a day and these can be taken to the (13)______ (assemble)-line at the

75
moment they are needed. Supplies should be ordered (14)________ (electronic) by
computer rather than having an (15)_________ (employ) enter an order manually.

SECTION 2: LANGUAGE

3 Decide if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). Correct the incorrect
sentences.

16 Orders quickly are sent out to customers. ( )


17 Models are frequently updated. ( )
18 I usually get up at six for work. ( )
19 It’s been a very successfully project. ( )
20 What would you do if you have to take a pay cut? ( )
21 If you did my job, you’d see things differently. ( )
22 If you do exercise every day, you’ll were much more creative. ( )
23 We’d be able to invest more if we would had more money. ( )
24 In the old days, people worked longer hours. ( )
25 He has been here yesterday. ( )
26 They’ve been with the company for over twenty five years. ( )
27 Jack Welsh has taken over as CEO of GE in 1981. ( )

SECTION 3: READING

4 Read a worker describing his working practices

Are you an efficient worker?


‘I usually work between nine and five and I try not to work longer hours. I think if
you work efficiently you can do your job in your normal working hours. Sometimes I
might work on Saturday morning but only if there’s a problem or something.
I soon discovered that at work you should prioritise. So I make a list and do jobs that
my boss wants done straight away or if I know someone is waiting for me.
The most boring part of my job is reading reports. I read each one in detail and it’s
really frustrating when you read a report which isn’t relevant or has lots of unneces-
sary information.
A lot of my work is with other people and we regularly have team meetings to dis-
cuss plans and make suggestions.
I like an organised desk where I can find things. On Friday I make sure that I clear up
so that on Monday I can start again.
I’ve been working for my company for twenty years and this way of doing things has
always worked well.’

5 Sentences 28-33 are from a checklist entitled ‘Do you work efficiently?’ De-
cide if the worker in the article answers ‘Yes’ (Y) or ‘No’ (N) to the sentences.

28 I usually work a certain number of hours a day. Y / N


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29 I deal with important tasks immediately. Y / N
30 I skim read texts before I decide to read them in detail. Y / N
31 I share useful ideas with colleagues. Y / N
32 My work place is always tidy. Y / N
33 I regularly review my way of working. Y / N

SECTION 4: CAREER SKILLS

6 Three people are discussing a problem. Write in the missing phrases.

We don’t have / That could be / What we really / Could we quickly / Can I


ask / What if we / Would it help / What exactly has / What else could / No,
that wouldn’t / If we did
A: OK. (34)______ much time. (35)______ talk about the problem with the bro-
chures? (36)_______ happened?
B: We printed two million copies but there’s a mistake on the telephone number. So
customers will ring the wrong number. (37)________ want to do is reprint them
all.
A: (38)_________ work. My boss would never agree. (39)______ we do?
C: (40)________ if we sacked the person responsible?
A: Not really.
B: (41)_______ print labels with the correct number on?
A: (42)______ a solution.
C: We need to be quick. The brochures have to be sent out by the end of next week at
the latest.
B: (43)______ that, we’d need to print them and have time to stick them on.
A: That’s the best idea. Let’s do that. OK. It’s time to finish. (44)_____ you two to
organise that?

SECTION 5: WRITING

7 Rewrite two sentences as one sentence using the phrase in brackets.

45 The meeting will have to start late. They’re late (because)


46 I’m working late. I have to finish this report. (because of)
47 We’re opening late. Customers can shop after work. (so that)
48 She’s leaving the company. She wants to set up her own business. (in order to)
49 It’s too expensive. We won’t have open plan offices. (which means)
50 They won’t recruit internally. They will recruit externally. (decided not to…but
to…)

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SECTION 6: LISTENING

Track 6

PART 1

8 Listen to the first person talking about motivation and answer the questions.
Listen twice.

51 What two things motivate some people?


52 What two things are others motivated by?
53 What are most people motivated by?
54 What must a manager do to get the best from staff?
55 If people feel they can do a job well, what do they get?

PART 2

9 Listen to another person talking about motivation.

Are these statements True (T) or False (F)? Listen twice.


56 There are four Cs. ( )
57 To feel connected, a person needs to understand their role. ( )
58 A satisfied worker needs to enjoy the job. ( )
59 Computer systems have made workers demotivated. ( )
60 Management and staff work well together in a warm climate. ( )

SECTION 7: SPEAKING (61-70)

10 Prepare a short talk for your teacher about your job. In your talk describe:
– your main responsibilities
– what personal qualities you need for your job
– what you do to be efficient in your job
– what motivates you in your job
– one thing that would make your job easier

Your teacher will mark your description using this scorecard. The teacher circles 1
mark if a student includes the area and circles 2 marks for communicating it accu-
rately and effectively. There is a maximum of ten marks.
The student described:
his/her main responsibilities 1 2
the personal qualities needed for the job 1 2
how to be efficient in the job 1 2
what motivates him/her 1 2
one thing that would make the job easier 1 2

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Литература

1. Bill Mascull. Business vocabulary in use. Intermediate. Professional Eng-


lish. – Cambridge university press, 2005.
2. Bill Mascull. Business vocabulary in use. Elementary. Professional Eng-
lish.– Cambridge university press, 2005.
3. Bourke and Maris. Test it, fix it. Business Grammar. Intermediate. – Oxford
university press, 2006.
4. Christine Johnson. Intelligent business. Pre-intermediate. – Pearson educa-
tion limited, 2006.
5. Irene Barrall, Nikolas Barrall. Intelligent business Workbook. Pre-
intermediate. – Pearson education limited, 2006.
6. David Cotton, David Falvey, Simon Kent. Market Leader Practice File. In-
termediate. – Pearson education limited, 2000.

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Учебное издание

Исаева Татьяна Борисовна


Колчина Лариса Валерьевна
Шестакова Анна Анатольевна

Intelligent Business
Pre-intermediate

Практикум к изучению курса «Деловой английский язык» для студентов


очного отделения факультета экономики и управления

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