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Sr.No

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EXPERIMENT NO. 1

Aim:-- Study of WINDOWS 2000 Operating System.


Introduction to Window 2000:-
Windows 2000 is an operating system for use on both client and server computers. It was
produced by Microsoft and released to manufacturing on December 15, 1999 and launched to
retail on February 17, 2000. It is the successor to Windows NT 4.0, and is the last version of
Microsoft Windows to display the "Windows NT" designation. It is succeeded by Windows XP
(released in October 2001) and Windows Server 2003 (released in April 2003). During
development, Windows 2000 was known as Windows NT 5.0.
Four editions of Windows 2000 were released: Professional, Server, Advanced Server, and
Datacentre Server; the latter was both released to manufacturing and launched months after
the other editions. While each edition of Windows 2000 was targeted at a different market,
they shared a core set of features, including many system utilities such as the Microsoft
Management Console and standard system administration applications.
Support for people with disabilities was improved over Windows NT 4.0 with a number of new
assistive technologies and Microsoft increased support for different languages and locale
information.
All versions of the operating system support NTFS 3.0, Encrypting File System, as well as basic
and dynamic disk storage. The Windows 2000 Server family has additional features, including
the ability to provide Active Directory services (a hierarchical framework of resources),
Distributed File System (a file system that supports sharing of files) and faultredundant storage
volumes. Windows 2000 can be installed through either a manual or unattended installation.
Unattended installations rely on the use of answer files to fill in installation information, and
can be performed through a bootable CD using Microsoft Systems Management Server, by the
System Preparation Tool.
Microsoft marketed Windows 2000 as the most secure Windows version ever at the time;
however, it became the target of a number of high-profile virus attacks such as Code Red and
Nimda. For ten years after its release, it continued to receive patches for security
vulnerabilities nearly every month until reaching the end of its lifecycle on July 13, 2010.

System Components:--
The architecture of Windows is a layered system of modules, as shown in Figure. The main
layers are the HAL, the kernel, and the executive, all of which run in protected mode, and a
large collection of subsystems that run in user mode. The user-mode subsystems are in two
categories. The environmental subsystems emulate different operating systems the protection
subsystems provide security functions. One of the chief advantages of this type.

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Fig. Windows block diagram
16-Bit Windows Environment:--
The Win16 execution environment is provided by a VDM that incorporates additional software,
called Windows on Windows, that provides the Windows 3.1 kernel routines and stub routines
for window-manager and graphical device- interface (GDI) functions. The stub routines call the
appropriate Win32 subroutines—converting, or thunking, 16-bit addresses into 32-bit ones.
Applications that rely on the internal structure of the 16-bit window manager or GDI may not
work, because Windows on Windows does not really implement the 16-bit API. Windows on
Windows can multitask with other processes on Windows, but it resembles Windows 3.1 in
many ways. Only oneWin16 application can run at a time, all applications are single threaded
and reside in the same address space, and all share the same input queue. These features
imply that an application that stops receiving input will block all the other Win16 applications,
just a in Windows 3.x, and one Win16 application can crash other Win16 applications by
corrupting the address space. Multiple Win16 environments can coexist, however, by using the
command start /separate win16application from the command line.

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Win32 Environment:--
As mentioned earlier, the main subsystem in Windows is theWin32 subsystem. It runs Win32
applications and manages all keyboard, mouse, and screen I/O. Since it is the controlling
environment, it is designed to be extremely robust. Several features of Win32 contribute to
this robustness. Unlike processes in the Win16 environment, each Win32 process has its own
input queue. The window manager dispatches all input on the system to the appropriate
process’s input queue, so a failed process will not block input to other processes. The Windows
kernel also provides preemptive multitasking, which enables the user to terminate applications
that have failed or are no longer needed. In addition, Win32 validates all objects before using
them, to prevent crashes that could otherwise occur if an application tried to use an invalid or
wrong handle. The Win32 subsystem verifies the type of the object to which a handle points
before using that object. The reference counts kept by the object manager prevent objects
from being deleted while they are still being used and prevent their use after they have been
deleted.

Domains:--

Many networked environments have natural groups of users, such as students in a computer
laboratory at school or employees in one department in a business. Frequently, we want all the
members of the group to be able to access shared resources on their various computers in the
group. To manage the global access rights within such groups, Windows uses the concept of a
domain. Previously, these domains had no relationship whatsoever to the domain name system
(DNS) that maps Internet host names to IP addresses; now, however, they are closely related.
Specifically, a Windows domain is a group of Windows workstations and servers that share a
common security policy and user database. Since Windows now uses the Kerberos protocol for
trust and authentication, a Windows domain is the same thing as a Kerberos realm. Previous
versions of NT used the idea of primary and backup domain controllers; now all servers in a
domain are domain controllers. In addition, previous versions required the setup of one way trusts
between domains. Windows uses a hierarchical approach based on DNS and allows transitive
trusts that can flow up and down the hierarchy. This approach reduces the number of trusts
required for n domains from n (n−1) to O(n). The workstations in the domain trust the domain
controller to give correct information about the access rights of each user (via the user’s access
token). All users retain the ability to restrict access to their own work stations, no matter what any
domain controller may say. Because a business may have many departments and a school may
have many classes, it is often necessary to manage multiple domains within a single organization.
A domain tree is a contiguous DNS naming hierarchy for managing multiple domains. For
example, bell-labs.com might be the root of the tree, with research.belllabs.com and pez.bell-
labs.com as children—domains research and pez. A forest is a set of noncontiguous names. An
example would be the trees bell-labs.com and/or lucent.com. A forest may be made up of only
one domain tree, however. Trust relationships can be set up between domains in three ways: one-
way, transitive, and cross-link. Versions of NT through Version 4.0 allowed only one-way trusts to
be set up. A one- way trust is exactly what its name implies: Domain A is told it can trust domain
B. However, B will not trust A unless another relationship is configured. Under a transitive trust, if
A trusts B and B trusts C, then A, B, and C all trust one another, since transitive trusts are two-way
by default. Transitive trusts are enabled by default for new domains in a tree and can be
configured only among domains within a forest. The third type, a cross-link trust, is useful to cut

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down on authentication traffic. Suppose that domains A and B are leaf nodes and that users in A
often use resources in B. If a standard transitive trust is used, authentication requests must
traverse up to the common ancestor of the two leaf nodes; but if A and B have a cross linking trust
established, the authentications can be sent directly to the other node.

System Administrator of Window 2000:--

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Features of Window 2000:--

Features Functions Benefits

Greater system stability


Improved hardware  Supports AGP, DVD, Computers are more compatible and more
support USB, IEEE 1394. stable than with previous Microsoft® operating
 Improved DirectX® and systems. This is due in part to fewer driver
DirectSound® support. conflicts and increased ease of setup.

Improved program  Microsoft claims 600 new  Improved productivity, through ability to
support programs tested as being use a wider variety of programs.
compatible.  Less downtime spent troubleshooting
technical issues associated with program
incompatibility.

New Microsoft®  Provides a standard  Helps to provide more reliable programs.


Windows® Installer format for program  Contributes to efficiency in systems
setup, including management.
installation and repair.
 Helps prevent DLL conflicts.
 Tracks key files and
automatically replaces or
repairs damaged files.

Auto restart of failed  Automatically caches  Better retention of data.


services data in progress.  Less downtime.
 Improved stability.

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Increased manageability
Active directory  Dynamic linking of  For the system administrator, simplified
system, user, and system and asset administration over the
enterprise information. network.
 For the user, easier access to shared
network devices.
IntelliMirror®  Duplicates user profiles  Faster installation of new computers.
and data, including  Protection from data loss.
security permissions,
 Group setup of security and access levels.
directory accesses, and
 Easier administration of portable
local computer data and
computers.
programs onto the
server.  Better support of roaming users.
 Easier replacement of failed computers —
reduces downtime.
 Easier administration of corporate
standards.
 Distribution of software upgrades without a
service call; provides unattended
installation procedures.

ACPI  Manages system, device,  Power savings equate to lower electricity


processor power, bills.
battery, and system  Remote systems management through
events. Wake up on LAN.
 Provides instant on,  Improved mobile power management.
instant off power.
 Offers power-saving
features.
 Provides Wake up on LAN
feature.

Web Based  Support for Internet  Allows IT managers to manage their


Enterprise protocol standards. environments from anywhere with Web
Management access.
(WBEM)  Allows easier management of remote
computers.

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Increased performance
Optimized for  Takes advantage of the latest advances in  According to Microsoft, greater
Pentium® II Intel® processing technologies. computer performance over
processors and Windows 95.
above.  Higher program performance.

Enhanced search  Automatically lists recent network  Makes searching for information
for files locations visited and allows user to more automated.
or search multiple network resources and
folders recently visited Internet resources
simultaneously.

Greater system security


Encrypted File  Ability to encrypt data to the local hard  Applies additional security
System disk. permissions to the hard disk and
with NTFS uses the Encrypting File System (EFS)
5.0 to protect sensitive information.

 Protects hard disk data even if the


hard disk is physically removed from
the computer.

Public key  Allows digital signatures for programs,  Verifies authenticity of components.
support drivers, and computers.
 Allows users to set up secure
network communications over a
public network.
 Authenticates e-mail source.

Internet  Encrypts of data above the network  Helps protect against unauthorized
Protocol layer. users obtaining information over the
Security Internet through the World Wide
(IPSec) Web and maintains confidentiality.

Greater Web-browsing experience


Internet  According to Microsoft, offers a 20  Increased productivity.
Explorer 5.0 percent increase in the speed of Web  Greater flexibility in organizing URLs.
page loading.
 Improves the organization of Favorites.