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Allegory of the Cave  If you force someone to see the light,

their eyes won’t adjust properly and they


 More of plato can be seen in the allegory
won’t see the world as it is to be true
of the cave than Socrates
 People can find it so easy to reject
 More light comes with more knowledge
evidence that is true and logical because
 PLATO
it’s not what they know and how they
o Born in 428/427 BCE, Athens
grew up
o Died 348/347, Athens
 They should be able to look at the forms
o Ancient Greek Philosopher
of the things themselves and not the
o Student of Socrates and teacher
shadows
of Aristotle
 People will not learn new things unless
o Founder of the Academy
they are willing to learn
(Ακαδημία) (387 BCE)
 In order to see the lies or distortions
o Writer of several works that have
(shadows) there would need to be an
has an immense influence on the
element of truth
history of philosophy
 ARISTOTLE 19 September 2019
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o A bit of a rebel
Karl Marx
o Always grounded – that’s why his
hand is facing the ground  Born May 5, 1818, Trier, Rhine
 Symbolism province, Prussia (modern-day
o Sun - source of life and truth itself Germany)
 the idea of the good  Died March 14, 1883, London,
o Sight – intellect England
o Visible - intelligible  Revolutionary, historian, economist,
 The prisoners are reliant on their sight philosopher
and seeing new things represents the  Published the Manifest de
journey of the intellect Kommunistischen Partei ( The
 Ascent out of the cave – journey of the Communist Manifesto) (1884) with
intellect that become understandable Friedrich Engels
because of the source of truth  Wrote the landmark text of the global
 At first, the prisoner is resistant to change Socialist movement, Das Kapital
because they have become accustomed (Capital)
and comfortable in the darkness o A work of political economy
 He will realize that the shadows he saw o Bible for social movement
are silly nothings and it will leave him at a  The writings and other by Marx and
loss because those shadows are all he Engels would go on to form the basis
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knows ☹ of Marxism
 Marxian – not written by marx,
inspired
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Pwede nang pang Wattpad  His work inspired red army to
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Prisoner will think that the shadow world is realer
overthrow Russian empire
than the real world because it’s all he knows
 Of Jewish descent, though his family  Some people said that to hear Hegel was
converted to Christianity for practical like to hear the mind of God because he
purposes (bc prejudices against Jews). questioned the underlying logic of
Marx was never religious everything
 Studied humanities (Greek, history of
Marx on Hegel
art, etc.) at University of Bonn.
 May kulang  Marx used to think he was cool4
 Then he realized na parang baliktad
G.W.F. Hegel and Marx
yung tinuturo ni Hegel omg
 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel  Material conditions are what determine
 An important figure in German idealism: everything else
absolute idealism  What’s more material than the economy
o Idealistic dialectic: ideas  Creation of historical materialism
determine history, material
Advanced Industrial Society
conditions, reality
 Marx took the idea of dialectic from  Independence of thought, autonomy and
Hegel and ran away with it. He “stood the right to political opposition are being
Hegel on his head,” saying that material deprived of their basic critical function in a
conditions determine history, ideas, society which seems increasingly capable
reality. of satisfying the needs of individuals
 Marx’s approach is called dialectical through the way in which it is organized.
materialism or historical materialism. This Such a society may justky demand
would go on to inform all his future acceptance of its principes and
works institutions, reduce the opposition to the
 Our text: the Paris Notebooks (1844), discussion and the promotion ___
more commonly the Economic and  In this respect, it seems to make a little
Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, Written difference whether the increasing
by the young Marx in Paris satisfaction of needs is accomplished by
 Our very experience of material reality is an authoritarian and non-authoritarian
based on the way we see the world, and system. Under the conditions of a rising
the way we see the world is based on standard of living, non-conformity with
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essentially what we call spirit the system itself appears to be socially
 For example, why is a chair shaped like useless. And the more so when it entails
that? It is because over the years, the tangible operation of the whole. Indeed,
ideas of chair have gone through many at least in so far as the necessities of life
centuries, until – when a chair maker are involved, there seems to be no
thinks of a chair – it will be that shape reason why the production and
 There is a logic in history that shapes the distribution of goods services should
basis of things themselves. proceed throughout the most
competitive____

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from the word geist- mahirap i-explain pero kaya mo yan Sir: “he used to be like, ‘wow, hegel. You’re so cool’”
 The unrealistic sound of these Coloniality and Decolonization
propositions is indicative, not of their
 Frantz Fanon
utopian character, but of the strength of
o 1925-1961
the forces which prevent their realization
o Born in Martinique under French
 The most effective and enduring form of
colonial rude
warfare against liberation is the
o A psychiatrist by training, work
implanting of material intellectual needs5
concerned poverty, psychology,
that perpetuate obsolete forms of the
philosophy and political theory
struggle for existence
o Peau noire, masques blancs (Black
 We may distinguish both true and false
skin, White masks( 1952
needs
o Les damnes de la terre (The
o False – superimposed upon the
Wretched of the Earth) 1961
individual by particular social
o L’an V de la revolution Algerienne
interests in his repression: the
( A Dying Colonialism, 1959
needs which perpetuate toll,
 “Each generation must discover its
aggressiveness, misery and
mission, fulfill it or betray it, in relative
injustice. (e.g. hydroflask)
opacity6.”
o Satisfaction might be most
 Negritude – movement, falls in the trap
gratifying to the individual, but
of essentialism
this happiness is not a condition
o 20th century literary and critical
which has to be maintained and
movement
protected if it serves to arrest the
o Search for universal black soul, an
development of the ability (his
essence of blackness that could
own and others) to recognize the
be found in all to be
disease of the whole and grasp
the chances of caring the disease.
The result then is euphoria in
unhappiness.
 We are so alienated from our products
that we project ourselves as being
defined by things/consumption.
 Promote false consciousness which is
immune against its falsehood.
o Eliminates qualitative change
o Very “if it isn’t broken, don’t fix it”
 No longer negative yung protests

Gender Performativity

 Performative – produces a series of


effects
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There is no clarity in the post colonial movement
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Ask sir (decolonization of Africa)