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JOSE WRIGHT DIOKNO (1922-1987) o underdeveloped materialistic economic system

demands the depression of wages and the exploitation

LIFE of workers
1974-1987 o influence of US mentors and cold war anti-communist
Personal hysteria

• He was born on February 26, 1922 in Manila — to

• Human Rights Lawyer
lawyer and Supreme Court Justice Ramon M. Diokno • Freedom Fighter • WHO IS THERE TO BLAME?
and Leonor Wright, an American who became a o The government using martial law to repress human
Filipino citizen.
• Nationalist
rights and the rights of society
• Peacemaker o The government , through Martial law, allowing foreign
• He was married to Carmen “Nena” Reyes Icasiano, and Death domination of resources and the economy
had ten children — Mench, Popoy, Pat, Maris, Maitet, o The Filipino people for limiting ourselves to privately
Cookie, Mike, Chel, Maia, and Martin. He now has • Ka Pepe died on February 27, 1987 — a day after his criticizing the situation or going along with it
eighteen grandchildren, and eight great-granchildren. 65th birthday — at his home at 55 Third Street, New o Before it is too late, WE MUST CHANGE THE
Manila, of bronchogenic carcinoma. SITUATION
• 1933 - De La Salle College, Taft Avenue, Manila
Elementary School HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL JUSTICE ADVOCATE • Convince the government to change
• 1937 - De La Salle College, Taft Avenue, Manila
Valedictorian, High School FREE LEGAL ASSISTANCE GROUP or FLAG (1974-1987) - an • Change the government
• 1940 - De La Salle College, Taft Avenue, Manila B.S. association of lawyers from all over the Philippines who render
Commerce Summa Cum Laude their services, free of charge, to provide legal aid to political • HOW TO CONVINCE THE
• 1940 - Topped the CPA Board Examination, with a detainees and victims of martial law. GOVERNMENT TO CHANGE POLICIES
grade of 91.18 percent o As individuals, use of law to
• 1940-1941 - University of Santo Tomas, Manila “Human rights were more than legal concepts: protect rights, joining mass movements, showing
Second Year, Faculty of Law not only were they the essence of man but they sympathy to the abused, use of literature and music
• 1944 - Topped the Bar Examinations, with a grade of are what make man human… deny them and o As a group, we must work as organization
95.3 percent tied with Jovito Salonga you deny man’s humanity.” and work with other organizations for the
cause of human rights
Public Servant • 3 BASIC PRINCIPLES BEHIND HUMAN o Violence, to change the government, will always be the
• 1962 –Secretary of Justice of Pres. Diosdado RIGHTS: last resort, when all the peaceful means to convince the
Macapagal 1. Each of us has equal right to life and share government have been exhausted
• 1963 – 1972 – Senator in the same intrinsic dignity o To effectively carry this out, a united people is
o Oil Industry Commission Bill 2. We are never born without parents, without
necessary, however, SUCCESS is not guaranteed
o Investments Incentives Act a society that has a culture, history, and
3. Society can act through a government
o Revised Election Law o It is from the basic rights of man and basic
o Equal Pay for Equal Work Act collective rights of people that all other rights
stem from
o economic, social and cultural rights
Political Prisoner o It should be man’s struggle to continuously fight
o civil and political rights
for his rights despite the danger of doing so
o by merely not doing anything to defend these
• He was arrested on 23 September 1972, at his home at • Some rights are absolute, no limitation on them can rights we do not only condemn our rights to death,
12 Margarita Street, Magallanes Village, Makati, Metro be justified. but also our hopes, our dreams, our present and
Manila our children’s future
• He was detained at the Maximum Security Compound, • Some rights can be limited on 3 conditions:
Fort Bonifacio, Makati, upon an Arrest, Search and In 1986, when the Committee on Justice of the Constitutional
o must be provided by law
Seizure Order (AS SO) Commission was looking for the best definition of Social Justice, it
o must be necessary to preserve society, protect public
was Pepe Diokno who gave the most comprehensive definition of
• He was kept under solitary confinement at Laur, Nueva health, public morals, etc it.
Ecija from 12 March to 11 April 1973 o must not exceed what is necessary to achieve their
• He was never charged nor tried purpose Diokno’s definition of Social Justice has 3 main principles:
• He was conditionally released on 11 September 1974
1. A coherent, intelligible system of laws
2. Enforced fairly and equitably by a courageous, honest, o “tuwid”- straightness; instead of o Venal decisions- products of bribes offered
impartial and competent police force, legal profession “Katuwiran”, “Katarungan” was used for
and judiciary justice o Asinine decisions- product of an ass
3. Pursue social values which constitute the Filipino
vision of a just society • Lawyers must act in such a way that uphold the values
o “Katuwiran” – used for reason, argument
with self-justification of courage, competence and integrity

• ETYMOLOGY OF THE WORD “JUSTICE” or • Policemen must act in such a way that uphold the
o Thus, suggesting that not every justification
“KATARUNGAN” values of competence, industry and respect for the rights of
is just
o “tarong”- Visayan word for upright,
straight, a term native to us 3. Laws, policies and institutions that pursue social values
o Society which is not only independent but which constitute the Filipino vision of a just society
 suggests that “justice” is
its people, sovereign
rectitude; a morally rightful act; embraces the o Every law, policy and institution must
concept of equity respect the rights of man and the collective rights of the
o Society which respects the freedom and the
equal dignity of all people
o “dapat”- from which “Karapatan” is
derived; also suggests something fitting, o Every law, policy and institution must be
appropriate o Society which protects workers and tenants,
opposes oppression, exploitation, and abuse and scrutinized if it impairs or violates any of man’s or
seeks to eliminate poverty people’s rights
o Thus, justice and right are intimately related
o Society that is united in brotherhood and o Every law, policy and institution must
o “batas”- law- meaning order, decree or strive to eradicate poverty, achieve development
command through the our resources’ capacities, enjoy a higher
standard of living and to promote equality
3 Parts of the Filipino Concept of Social Justice:
o Hence, law is disparate from justice and
right recognizing that not every law is just 2 Principles that Embody the last part of the Filipino Concept
1. System of law
of Social Justice
o In the English language, justice and right
To make a system of law work:
are borrowed terms; ius- right (Latin) and o Principle of reparation that looks back to
log- right (Norse) the injustices inflicted by society
o The authority of the law-maker must be
recognized as legitimate authority
o Right- derecho (Spanish), diritto (Italian), o Principle of change that looks forward to
droit (French), recht (German); means both the effect of the internal and external revolution of
o Laws must be made known to the people
right and law as well which Mabini espoused and in order to attain the
affected by them
aspiration that Jacinto articulated:
o The concept of law being inseparable from
o Laws must not be changed so quickly and so
right is absent from our language “That a Filipinos worth should not
often that people cannot reasonably base plans on the depend on what he has, but who he is”
o “Kapangyarihan”- power and authority for
o Laws must be understandable not
contradictory and must not prescribe acts beyond the • Analysis of the Filipino concept of social justice
capacity of the people
o Power ought not to be divorced from o Neither of the principles seek to abolish inequalities
authority; concept absent from the 2. Enforcement and observance of the law
continental languages o Neither of the principles seek to do away with the
The judiciary must eliminate its flaws in decision-making which government or law
o “Katarungan”- justice and fairness; justice includes:
and equity o It is through honest government enforcing the just laws
o Aleatory decisions- product of a toss coin would be translated into actual justice
o Thus, suggesting that FAIRNESS is a or throw of a dice
fundamental element in our concept of o Conflicts may arise in the application of the principles,
justice o Pusillanimous decisions- product of fear and it would simply call for exercise of wisdom and
apprehension displeasing authority statesmanship
SPEECHES ON HUMAN RIGHTS: • Also pointed out the dichotomy between the o ART188 penal code or ART147 revised penal code
Christian Majority vis IPs throughout the Philippines. deems PKP(1930) as illegal
Martial Law in the Philippines (Multicultural Diversity vis Division) o “PKP goals: “incite class struggle to overthrow the
(presented during the 6th anniversary of martial law) present government by peaceful means or armed
• Diokono also presented the brave non violent revolution
resistance of the IP women of Bontoc in protecting their land
• “Martial is self perpetrating…” • 1938 emergence of Socialist Party (from old PKP and
o Martial law fortifies only exploitation and further socialists)
colonialism •
Non-Violent Freedom Fighter • 1945 CP offers assistance for WWII
• Main focus of the TALK: HRV towards Political • Aftermath - HUKBALAHAP is charged with rebellion
Prisoners He believed that authoritarian regimes like the Marcos
administration at times succeed not only because of its power over
• 1957 RA 1700 Anti-sedition Law
• Main Points mass media but also because of ignorance on the part of the
• 1968 PD 1835 legalizes PKP but deems CPP as illegal
o suspension of rights people.
o “wretched” conditions of detention
• Implications: a fear of the government and the present
o separation from families Kilusan sa Kapangyarihan at Kasarinlan ng Bayan or KAAKBAY
ruling class against the CP
o Torture (1983) – a social movement which espouses positions on critical
issues of the day and suggested steps for citizens to undertake in
their bid to regain their freedoms. It is a positive movement that • Diokno calls for true democratic representation even for
• Diokno questioned the role of the Catholic Church the communist collective
as the moral safety net did not merely oppose government policies but also proposed
o “critical collaboration” ??? alternative policies and actions.
• Criminal case Vs. Subversion
• Diokno pointed out that this is systematic repression o a communist is stratified vis non-communists in the law
was to instill fear, gather information and repress subversive
activities • HRV for communists who stand trial
“Philippine nationalism is more than patriotism, it is also the belief
that because the Philippines is our country, it is we who must have o the dead or alive capture order grabs a person of his
• He also pointed out the cry for recognition of the dignity as he is treated as game bounty
the power to direct its affairs, internal and external, for it is we
regime’s HRV in the international community ( Amnesty o deaths both in the ranks of the Phil Army and the NPA
who bear the responsibility for its future.”
Interenational was a guest in the talk) as a result of skirmishes
Anti-Bases Coalition or ABC – its aim is to free the country from o indiscriminate branding of innocent civilians as
• He applauded the Task Force Detainees, a volunteer communists
foreign military presence. Diokno argues that the continued
group consisting of old detainees and families of detainees.
presence of these bases justifies foreign interventions in Philippine
affairs. Rule of Law and State Violence
• TFD, is not only a support group but also an advocacy
against the regime’s political prisoners • law can be twisted by those who wield power.
• “Inter leges silenta arma”- among laws arms are silent
• TFD, also helps victims by providing support in the
During the Aquino Administration, Diokno took the challenge of
form of goods for the detainees and free legal aid
becoming a peacemaker. He was designated to head the first • advocacy against US bases and military violence
Government Negotiating Panel that would deal with the National
Democratice Front. • A call for respect and tolerance for other beliefs and
Our Cultural Minorities And Development
ideologies –UNITY
(April 17 1973)
A New Legal Order
• A call to protect the rights of the IPs of the
1. Legalization of the Communist Party of the Philippines (May 1986)

2. Proposed a formula for peace which emphasized basic • Philippines’ underdevelopment and worsening
• Human Rights Violations towards IPS:
needs as a key to lasting peace economy after the Marcos Regime.
o Taking over ancestral domain (a violation of
• Lack of industry for the Philippines
PD410) in the guise of infrastructure and other
Legalization of the Communist Party • What must be done?:
industrial projects. (Chico River Basin development –
(Dec 26, 1984, Convenors Group) o prevent another martial law regime
Kalinga-Apayao, Sugar Plantation – Bukidnon and
Bontoc) which displaces atleast 5000 families o provide for social welfare
o Resulting violence towards IPs • Questions the legality and illegality of banning the o give justice for the HRV victims of martial law
communist party. o Institute a new legal order ( law that represents the
interests of the rich and poor alike )
• History: o Government communication with the mass
o Progressive taxation
o Increase productivity through infrastructure  He has also stated that Marcos's regime is identifiable  This was a lecture delivered to the Junior Executive
development, urban planning and education by his repressive government and economic policies Club of the University of the Philippines, Diliman,
that reduce the purchasing powers of workers. Quezon City, September 2, 1980.

Diokno's Speeches on Filipino Nationalism  Here he states that there are four cruel paradoxes of the
Filipino condition: we're independent but not sovereign,
A Nation for Our Children Philippine Nationalism state but not nation, democratic yet authoritarian, and
rich land with poor people.
 This speech was delivered at St. Francis Theater,  The speech was delivered in front of the New York
Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, October 12, 1984 during Assembly, First Dinner Session, Westchester Country  Our colonial experience did not completely improve
a KAAKBAY-sponsored forum. Club, New York, March 4, 1968. It is a briliant our economy, did not make it self-reliant, and our
exposition on the workings of US imperialism. No one experience with america only made us dependent on
 The speech is about “one dream all Filipinos share: that applauded when he finished. This was his outlet to foreign trade for economic growth.
our children live a better life than we have had”. He dispel distortions on what Filipino Nationalism is.
said that it is a “distinctly Filipino vision to make this  Colonial experience fragmented our economy and
country a country for our children.”  He says that Filipino Nationalism is not anti-American disarticulated our different sectors where there is no
or communist or led by communists. economic integration.
 He envisioned us to be NOBLE (homage is paid to
everyone not just the elite), PROUD (no poverty,  He says that Filipino Nationalism is simply pro-Filipino  The products in our primary sector do not enter our
women not prostituted, no child beggars, FREE and is inspired by a common consciousness that industrial sector for our use and processing but instead
(everyone can live happily without fear) JUST (equal Filipinos are a one people, one blood, one tradition and sent to other countries. We do not have a heavy
treatment for all, better standards of living, no crime), one dream. Its is not inspired by Marxism as American machinery sector that produces capital goods. Our
INDEPENDENT (no foreign control), HONORABLE officials would like to imply. technology for secondary industry (our factories, and
(power is used for good of all not just elites). mills) use foreign technology. the tertiary sector or the
 He states that the Philippines could not be anti- services sector are exported abroad or are used to cater
 He points out that during his time the economy is in American since parity rights in the economy that favors to foreign needs locally.
shambles and that the Marcos government has lost all Americans and politicians that favor Americans as well
credibility. show not only Philippine's acceptance of the US but  Therefore the goal is to create a self-integrated, self
also how in favor of the US it is in general. directed economy that consciously organizes, uses and
 He also said that since we have natural resources, a develops Filipino resources, and Filipino creative talent
literate population, an archipelago that has a total of  He states that Philippine Nationalism is more than to meet the needs of all Filipinos and improve their
300,000 square kilometers with minerals and arable patriotism but also the capacity to direct its affairs both quality of life.
land, an ingenious and competitive people, we should internal and external for we bare the responsibility for
have no insurmountable barrier to develop in to the our future.  He believes that this is possible if not only for the lack
country we want to be. `But he reminds us that though of determination from our ruling class since we already
we are divided in various sectors/groups, we are one by  He also speaks about the need to fiipinize Philippine have the natural and human resources to make it
blood and struggle. trade law. happen.

 He states that Filipinos in his time generally want  He stated that Philippine Nationalism has been  He states that we have the capacity to take soviet style
change either to depose Marcos or Limit h powers. misunderstood, misrepresented and its strength and capitalist style development and therefore we can
They are however unsure with what to do whether underestimated and dismissed as the creature of also develop the capacity to develop filipino style
should it be reform or revolution. disaffected individuals or the greedy elite. development for our economy.

 He states that during his time, there such exists as a  He states that if America does not support the wishes of  He says that our kind of trade with the US is neo-
parliament of the streets which has the goal to depose the Filipino people, It will be viewed as the major colonial since we exchange our low cost goods of raw
the marcos regime and change the system to one that enemy, and in self-defense aggravated by materials, food, and labor with their machineries.
helps everyone, especially the poor. disenchantment , will commit itself to an irrevocable
collision course against the united states, You or Us.  The aid US gives only reaches 22 per cent of the poor
 He states that though the opposition might not be united during that time meaning each person only gets less
completely in goals they have the following in  He states that it is the dream of the Philippines to be the than a penny a day.
common: change Marcos and system itself, and total first colony in asia to achieve modernity.
liberation from American Control.
 He cited Prof Stauffer as saying that the Marcos regime,
Philippine-American Economic Relations with its regime being strongly influenced by US goals,
 He says its also the opposition's goal to do the opposite as refeudalization , hence he called it the study of
of what Marcos did for the last 12 years. “political economy of refuedalization”.
 All US investment are only for import refining, shaping IMF which primarily wish to bolster world trade, e)  We are still dominated by Kapitan Tiagos that will
our economy to be trade based rather than domestically abdication of economic policy to these international endure everything to remain in power, Quirogas who
self-sufficient. banks, f) arrested growth of the manufacturing sector, will do anything for business and Patrocinios who'll do
g) presence of economic waste and governmental everything to best all in terms of luxury.
corruption, h) shifting from the import substitution
 He laid out the following goals for the improvement of
model to export orientation model.
the Filipino Economy: a) planning not just for growth  Torturers and Killers are less visible now as compared
production but also for proper distribution so that all to the Friars long ago but they are now much worse
filipinos can have access to goods and services, b) What the Philippines Expects of Foreign Investors since methods of torture are more despicable.
establishing heavy industries for iron, steal, coal, and
machine manufacture  This is a speech before the Manila Sales Convention of  Debate on language continues but now against English
HONIRON on January 20, 1969 at the Insular Life
c) Centalizing control over heavy industries and Auditorium
 We still deal with people who are loyal to Imperial
dispersing consumer goods industries to small scale
Powers like Ibarra was to Spain.
family or cooperatively owned business which would  These are the objectives of Philippine Policy on Foreign
maximize employment, income generation, and ease Investments: a) Filipinos have the reserved right by law
entry to the market because of low capital requirement, to use and ownership of land, natural resources, public  We still deal with government officials who favor
d) raising real wages of labor, e) land reform to return utilities, transportation, shipping, banking institutions, foreigners over filipinos like the one rizal wrote about
to small scale agriculture with provided securities and trade, and insurance b) foreigners are allowed only up the official who favored the Chinese.
aid from the government, f) socializing financial to 40 percent of domestic corporations, 25 percent for
system, g) plugging revenue leaks in the economy from shipping, and no percentage in corn and rice trade, c)  We are still faced by greedy and corrupt officials who
corruption, smuggling, tax evasion etc, h) building The investment Priorities Plan which outline which allow the needy to go untended
small general public hospitals throughout the country Industries should be expanded and and which pioneer
not just large ones in Urban Manila, building medium industries should be established, d) pioneer and non-  We are still a colonial society
and low cost housing not mansions, all-weather barrio pioneer industries will be given Tax deductions, and
roads instead of expressways, free medical care, free protection from foreign competition, e) Foreigners may
public education, and family run hostels instead of five invest up to 40 percent in registered non-pioneer
 the task of the writer is to be great writers to voice out
star hotels , i) use of organic rather than fossil fuel what the people want and need despite the many
industries and 100 percent in registered pioneer
fertilizers, public buses and mass transits than private dangers to their life and career.
industries yet the should have at least 60 percent
cars, wood and coal for heating rather than petroleum. filipino ownership in 20 years, f) Non registered
industries will be allowed only up to 30 percent foreign Claro M. Recto
 Finally, he stated that if we wish to change the Filipino- investment pending a decision from the Board of
American trade relation, we must first change the Investments.  This was a speech delivered at the University of the
nature of our economy. Philippines, 1975
 In return for allowing investment and business, We
Economics and Social Consciousness expect the foreign investments to: a) focusing on  Claro M. Recto became unpopular in his time for what
pioneer industries such as capital and finished goods he said since his critics say his ideals were unrealistic
 This is a Talk delivered before the Inter-School manufacture, b) open enterprises to filipino investors, c) and visionary.
Business Association at the Tourism Pavilion, PICC, to employ 'equal pay, equal work adopted by the United
Manila, September 6, 1980. Nations, d) to adopt a regular program to train Filipino  Because of black propaganda, nationalism became
laborers and employees in technical and managerial synonymous to communism, yet Recto still continued
skills, e) to bring in investments adequate to finance to be nationalist.
 Our economy is a Filipino economy and its goal should the establishment and maintenance of enterprises, f) to
meet the needs of the Filipino People. respect our national dream of modernization and
 Through his courage he even opposed the likes of
economic independence.
 We hunger for an economy run by humans for humans Roxas, Osmena, Laurel and Magsaysay at the height of
not by rich people for other rich people. their careers.
Rizal For Today

 He gives us many possible answers to the reasons of  He is quoted saying that we must “awake from the
 This is a Lecture delivered at the PEN Conference, daydreams of adolescence, and cease to imagine
our lack-luster economy. a) economy is only focused on National Press Club, Manila, July 2, 1983
improving production and not distribution and equal ourselves as the saviors if a world in distress, riding out
consumption, b) export oriented economy is also to on fanciful adventures for which we have neither heart
 The lecture shows how relevant Rizal is in their time. nor strength, while we neglect our own concerns” He
blame since this economy is designed to meet foreign
needs and not ours, c)authoritarian government that said this when he opposed our involvement with the
purposively lowers wages to be competitive with low  “We need a Godfather for everything from baptism to war in indochina.
labor prices of nearby countries this is because we are burial, for justice, for passports or to exploit any
reliant to foreign investment for more jobs, d) the industry whatsoever” We need a Godfather unless we're  He relied on the constitution to protect the people's
economy went awry because of the WB, ADB, and ready to pay or if we're big people. rights.
 Freedom of Speech was important to Recto to the point  Diokno ends the Talk saying that whoever the successor address the specific needs of different people within
that he even protected communists whom the majority is, they must not neglect the problems of the Philippine classes.
detested. Social System, US influence, poverty, injustice,
rebellions of Muslims, and the dispossessed  It also calls for increased public involvement in the
 He admonished his countrymen for taking for granted Government Planning process even in the local areas
democracy citing the rise of fascism in Germany. The Changing Political Situation: A Challenge they belong to.

 Here, Diokno calls out true believers in Recto's  This is an undelivered speech that was supposed to  Most importantly we must change our mentality, to
protection of Democracy, Republicanism, and Human done for the UP College Of Medicine Faculty believe in ourselves, to believe in our capacity to to
Rights through the Constitution by speaking against the Association on April 16, 1986. It was not delivered make the right decision, in short we must have faith in
Dictatorship. because of schedule conflict. ourselves and in each other. We should not act like
colonizers who distrust the people.
 Diokno emphasized what Recto said, that we should  Diokno asks if our Ruling elite will rule to the direction
defend our rights and not wait for others to do it for us. of the poor or will continue to favor only the foreigner  We must also view public office as a way to serve the
and the rich even after Marcos' time. public and not to pursue private wealth.
After Marcos, What?
 He also asks what the new constitution should provide  The challenge overall is to create a real democracy and
 An Address delivered at the FLAG Annual Conference, to ensure the enjoyment of freedom, independence and not to repeat past mistakes.
Cebu, September 9, 1983. social justice.
 We must also remember that a people united cannot be
 Diokno stated that after Benigno's assassination,  He has two conditions in addition to the new provisions stopped, as proven by the EDSA revolution
Marcos' hold on power dwindled and that soon he will in the constitution: a) what happened during Marcos'
finally be expunged from his office. regime should not happen again b) the government
must handle problems in poverty, unemployment,
underemployment, low wages, social injustice and
 Aquino's death united everyone, even the landed classes foreign control.
since it shattered the fear and apathy classes felt. This
was all due to the outpouring of grief because of a
fallen leader.  He also prescribes that we must not be militarized to
meet those conditions.
 Marcos' inept handling of the assassination destroyed
his remaining credibility. This resulted in capital  We must also expose all violation on human rights.
fleeing the country, a halt in foreign investments, and a
downfall in the economy.  We must strengthen the president by supporting her
(Cory) for politicians and institutions such as the
 Because of his poor handling of the assassination, military and the church are all grabbing for power in the
President Reagan canceled a visit while the US House new regime. Since Cory has no party to draw support
of Representatives stated that they will only support from, it should be the people who will support her.
Marcos again if an impartial probe of the assassination
is done and a free and fair elections is held.  And likewise, we can weaken enemies by not
supporting them, by not voting them into office.
 Marcos' once trusted allies are now deserting him. All
this reduced him to a lame duck president.  The constitution should provide for a new legal order
that now stands for the development of the poor and not
 Diokno lays out scenarios of what might happen next just for the benefit of the rich.
but he also quickly labeled them as unlikely:
Assassination, coup d'etat, opposition take over of New  The constitution should provide for an authentic
Society seats in the Parliament, and revolution. Only 2 democracy by providing formal, efficient, and effective
are likely, death or forceful resignation. channels of communications between the political elite
and the masses. This is to block preferential
 If he does die he says the Prime Minister can exercise government connections to the Church, Companies and
Presidential Powers, hold a free and fair elections, or Foreign Entities.
that the country would be plummeted to greater
instability because of those who will succeed him from  It might also call for to renew ways of government
the same party. representation no longer per area but per sector, to