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and tubes

Subjects of interest

• Introduction/objectives

• Rod and wiredrawing

• Analysis of wiredrawing

• Tube drawing processes

• Analysis of tube drawing

• Residual stress in rod, wire and tubes

Objectives

processes of drawing of rods, wires and tubes.

• Mathematical approaches for the calculation of drawing

load will be introduced.

• Finally drawing defects occurring during the process will be

highlighted and its solutions will be included.

Introduction : • Wire drawing involves reducing the

diameter of a rod or wire by passing

wire drawing through a series of drawing dies or

plates.

www.e6.com

• The subsequent drawing die must have

smaller bore diameter than the

previous drawing die.

Drawing die

Undrawn

Drawn wire

wire

http://en.wikipedia.org

Introduction :

Tube drawing • Tube drawing involves reducing

the cross section and wall

thickness through a draw die.

• The cross section can be circular, Brass tubes for heat exchanger –

square hexagonal or in any shapes. cheap, strong, good corrosion

resistant

Introduction

• Drawing operations involve pulling metal through a die by means of

a tensile force applied to the exit side of the die.

• The plastic flow is caused by compression force, arising from the

reaction of the metal with the die.

• Starting materials: hot rolled stock (ferrous) and extruded (non-

ferrous).

• Bar wire and tube drawing are usually carried out at room

temperature, except for large deformation, which leads to

considerable rise in temperature during drawing.

depending on requirements).

Rod and wiredrawing

• Reducing the diameter through plastic deformation while the

volume remains the same.

• Same principals for drawing bars, rods, and wire but

equipment is different in sizes depending on products.

Metal wires

Metal rods

Wires small diameter products < 5 mm diameter.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

Draw head

Rod drawing

Metal

• Rods which can not be coiled, are stock

produced on drawbenches.

Rod is swaged

Machine capacity :

Insert though the die • 1 MN drawbench

• 30 m of runout

Clamped to the jaws of the drawhead • 150-1500 mm.s-1 draw speed

Wire drawing die Drawing die

pressure to increase and promotes the flow

of lubricant into the die.

actual reduction in diameter occurs,

giving the half die angle α.

• The die nib made from cemented

frictional drag on the wire and also

carbide or diamond is encased for

remove surface damage due to die wear,

protection in a thick steel casing.

without changing dimensions.

• The back relief allows the metal to expand slightly as the wire leaves the die

and also minimises abrasion if the drawing stops or the die is

out of alignment.

Example of wiredrawing dies

Drawing die

Undrawn

Drawn wire

wire

http://en.wikipedia.org

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

Example of wiredrawing dies

carbide with polycrystalline diamond core.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

Drawing die materials

http://www.scob.de

most widely used for drawing

dies due to their superior

strength, toughness, and wear

resistance.

img.tradekey.com

industrial diamond (for fine wires).

• Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD)

used for wire drawing dies – for

• Cemented carbide is composed of

fine wires. Longer die life, high

carbides of Ti, W, Ni, Mo, Ta, Hf.

resistance to wear, cracking or

bearing.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

Wire drawing equipment

• The wire is first passed through the overhead loop and pulley, brought down

and then inserted through the die of the second drum and drawn through this

die for further reduction.

• Thus, the wire is drawn through all the wire drawing drums of the set in a

continuous manner to get the required finished diameter of the wire. Speed

of each draw block has to be synchronised to avoid slippage between the

wire and the block.

• The drawing speed ~ up to 10 m.s-1 for ferrous drawing

~ up to 30 m.s-1 for nonferrous drawing.

Wire drawing process

Hot rolled rod Remove scale -causing surface defects.

Pickling, descaling

high strength materials. Or conversion

coating such as sulphates or oxalates.

Lubricating • Oils and greases for wire drawing

• Mulsifiable oils for wet wire drawing

drawing • Soap for dry drawing.

wire generation of long lengths

• Area reduction per drawing pass

is rarely greater than 30-35%.

D

2

% RA = 1 − Outlet ×100

coil

Bull

DInlet

block

Top view Side view of bull block

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

Example: Drawing of stainless wire

www.metalwire-mesh.com

• Stainless steels: 304,

304L, 316, 316L

• Applications: redrawing,

mesh weaving, soft pipe,

steel rope, filter elements,

making of spring.

www.metalwiremesh.com

Stainless steel rope

• Larger diameter stainless wire is first surface

examined, tensile and hardness tested, diameter size

measured.

• Surface preparation by pickling in acid (ferrictic and

martensitic steels) and basic solutions (austenitic steels).

The prepared skin is then coated with lubricant.

• Cold drawing is carried out through diamond dies or

tungsten carbide dies till the desired diameter is Stainless steel meshes

obtained.

• Cleaning off oil/lubricant is then carried out and the wire is

heat-treated (annealing at about 1100oC or plus skin pass).

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

Stepped-cone multiple-pass wiredrawing

• Use a single electrical motor to drive a series of stepped cones.

• The diameter of each cone is designed to produce a peripheral

speed equivalent to a certain size reduction.

Heat treatments

• Nonferrous wire / low carbon steel wire Tempering (ranging

from dead soft to full hard). This also depends on the metal and

the reduction involved.

• Steels (C content > 0.25%) normally 0.3-0.5% require

Patenting heat treatment before being drawn. Patented wire

have improved reduction of area up to 90% due to the formation

of very fine pearlite.

critical temp T~970oC with rather large grain size.

Cooling in a lead change microstructure to very fine pearlite

bath at T~315oC preferably with no separation of primary ferrite.

Good combination of

strength and ductility.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

Defects in rod and wiredrawing

Defects from the deformation process, i.e., centre burst or

chevron cracking (cupping).

• This defect will occur for low die angles at low reductions.

• For a given reduction and die angle, the critical reduction to

prevent fracture increases with the friction.

Analysis of wiredrawing

method, a draw stress is given by

_ Ab 1

σ xa = σ o ln = σ o ln …Eq.1

Aa 1− r

redundant deformation.)

Consider the problem of strip drawing of a wide sheet, (Dieter p. 509)

p

• A wide strip is being drawn

w σxa through a frictionless die

sα

dh/2 α

σx+dσx with a total included angle of

/c o

hb h dx σx 2α

ha

dx

dh/2 2α .

dx

α p

x

• Plane strain condition is

p cosα

p

x=0 applied (no strain in the

width direction.)

The equilibrium of forces in the x direction is made up of two components

1) Due to the change in longitudinal stress 2) Due to the die pressure at the two

with x increasing positively to the left. interfaces.

(σ x + dσ x )(h + dh )w − σ x hw dx

2 p sin α w

cos α

Taking the equilibrium of force in the x direction and neglect dσxdh

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

p

We shall now consider the problem α µp

of strip drawing where a Coulomb

σx+ dσx σx

friction coefficient µ exists hb ha

between the strip and the die. dx

p

σ x dh + hdσ x + 2 pdx (tan α + µ ) = 0

Since the yield condition for plane strain is σx + p = σ’o and

B = µ cot α, the differential equation for strip drawing is

dσ x dh …Eq.4

=

σ x B − σ o' (1 + B) h

to give the draw stress σxa.

h

B

' 1+ B 1+ B

σ xa =σo 1 − a

B hb

= σ o' [

1 − (1 − r ) B ]

B

1 + B Da

2B

σ xa =σo 1 − …Eq.5

B Db

Analysis for wiredrawing with friction by Johnson and Rowe

The surface area of contact between pS sin α

the wire and the die is given by α pS

Ab − Aa …Eq.6

S=

sin α S

Pd

Ab Aa

p is the mean normal pressure on this area.

Pd is the draw force. µpS µpS cos α

of the frictional force and the normal

pressure.

_ _

Pd = µ p S cos α + p S sin α

_ _

Ab − Aa

Pd = p S ( µ cos α + sin α ) = p (µ cos α + sin α ) …Eq.7

sin α

_ _

Pd = p ( Ab − Aa )(µ cot α + 1) = p ( Ab − Aa )(1 + B)

In the absence of friction, B = 0 and

_ _ Ab

Pd = p ( Ab − Aa ) = σ o Aa ln …Eq.8

Aa

Pd _ A

σ xa = = σ o ln b (1 + B) …Eq.9

Aa Aa

Example: Determine the draw stress to produce a 20%

reduction in a 10-mm stainless steel wire. The flow stress is

given by σo = 1300ε0.30 (MPa). The die angle is 12o and µ = 0.09.

1 1 Da = Db (1 − r ) = 10(0.8) = 8mm

ε 1 = ln = ln = 0.223

1− r 1 − 0.2

_

Kε 1n 1300(0.223) 0.30

σ= = = 637 MPa

n +1 1.30

1 + B Da

2B

1.8571

[ ]

From Eq.5 _

2×0.8571

σ xa =σ 1 − = 637 1 − 0.8 = 438MPa

B Db 0.8571

~ 20% difference

From Eq.9

_ Ab 1.0 2

σ xa = σ o ln (1 + B ) = 637 ln 2

(1.8571) = 527 MPa

Aa 0.8

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

If the wire is moving through the die at 3 m.s-1, determine the

power required to produce the deformation.

dis tan ce

Power = force ×

time

Drawing force

π

Pd = σ xa Aa = 438 × (8) 2 = 22.02kN

4

Power

Power = 22.02 × 3 = 66.06kW

If redundant work is included in Eq.9, the expression becomes

Ab

σ xa = φσ o ln (1 + B) …Eq.10

Aa

which can be defined as

ε*

φ = f (α , r ) = …Eq.11

ε

Where φ = the redundant work factor.

ε* = the ‘enhanced strain’ corresponding to the yield stress

of the metal, which has been homogeneously deformed

to a strain ε.

Procedure for determining redundant

deformation of drawn wire

• The flow curve of a drawn wire is

Flow curve for drawn wire

superimposed on the flow curve for

the annealed metal.

d

ale

n ne Basic flow curve • The origin of the curve for the

Stress

A

drawn metal is displaced along

ε* the strain axis = drawing

φ=

ε reduction,

ε = ln (Ab/Aa) = ln [1/(1-r)].

ε

Strain

• Due to redundant work, the yield

ε∗ stress of the drawn metal is above

the basic flow curve .

to the right to ε* where the curves coincide.

Based on deformation-zone geometry

α

For drawing of round wire ∆ =

r

[

1 + (1 − r ) ]

12 2

…Eq.12

r = the drawing reduction

Commercially, α is in the range 6 to 10o and r of about 20%.

∆

where φ = C1 + C 2 ∆ ≈ 0.8 + …Eq.13

4.4

For strip, ∆s is based on a plane-strain reduction rs = 1-(h1/h0)

For wire or rod, ∆w is based on an axisymmeteric reduction rw = 1-(d1/d0)

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

The effect of die angle on the total energy

required to cause deformation

Ideal work of plastic deformation UP

independent of die angle α.

UT

α Redundant work Ur

the total energy UT.

Uf

Ur

This has a minimum at some

optimum die angle α*.

α*

α

The reduction and the friction α∗

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

σ σ

σ

Ao σd A1

ε

ε = lnAo/A1

Entrance Exit

Development of limit on drawability

Actual drawing process can be expressed most simply by

1

stress

η∫

σdε Flow curve

1

σ d = σε

σ xa =

η ∫ σdε …Eq.14

σε

∫ σdε Where the efficiency of the

deformation process, η = Up/UT

Ideal process

σxa (no friction/ At a given strain ε = ln (Ab/Aa)

redundant work)

ε εmax

draw stress σxa and the flow stress σε.

strain

As the material is being deformed through the die, strain hardening occurs

and if the material is severely strain-hardened necking fracture.

The drawing limit is reached when σd = σε

If the material follows a power-law hardening relationship σε = Kεn, then

Kε n +1 σεε

σd = = …Eq.15

η (n + 1) η (n + 1)

Substituting the criterion for the maximum drawing strain in a single

pass, that is, σd = σε,

ε max = η (n + 1) …Eq.16

Since ε = ln (Ab/Aa), Ab

= eη (n +1) …Eq.17

Aa max

ε drawing η (n + 1)

= …Eq.19

ε stretch max n

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

Example: From previous example, a 10 mm stainless steel wire is

drawn using a die angle = 12o, µ = 0.09, and flow stress is given by σo

= 1300σ0.30. Determine the largest possible reduction.

on drawing reduction occurs at ε = 0.71, i.e. σxa = 1173 MPa

when σxa = σ.

1+ B

[ ]

_

1 + B

[ ]

_

σ xa = σ 1 − (1 − r )

B σ xa = σ 1 − (1 − r )

B

B B

[

1173 = 673(2.167) 1 − (1 − r ) 0.8571 ]

637 = 637

1.8571

[

1 − (1 − r )

0.8751

] r = 0.89

0.8571

r = 0.51 Note: in the case of no friction/

or redundant work, η = 1, no strain

1 hardening (n = 0), we have

ε = ln = 0.71

1− r

σ o = 1300ε 0.30 = 1300(0.7) 0.30 = 1,173MPa 1

rmax = 1 − = 0.63

e

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

Tube-drawing processes

tubes are cold drawn using dies,

plugs or mandrels to the required

shape, size, tolerances and

mechanical strength.

• provides good surface finishes.

• increase mechanical properties by

Seamless stainless tubes/pipes strain hardening.

• can produce tubes with thinner walls

or smaller diameters than can be

obtained from other hot forming

methods.

• can produce more irregular shapes.

Copper and brass tubes

Classification of tube

drawing processes

• Sinking

• Plug drawing

- Fixed plug

- Floating plug

• Mandrel drawing.

Tube sinking Fixed plug Floating plug Moving mandrel

Tube sinking

radius from the original radius Ro to a final radius Rof.

• No internal tooling (internal wall is not supported), the wall

then thicken slightly.

• Uneven internal surface.

• The final thickness of the tube depends on original diameter

of the tube, the die diameter and friction between tube and die.

• Lower limiting deformation.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

Fixed plug drawing

www.scielo.br

diameter.

• Use higher drawing loads than floating plug drawing.

• Greater dimensional accuracy than tube sinking.

• Increased friction from the plug limit the reduction in area

(seldom > 30%).

• can draw and coil long lengths of tubing.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

Floating plug drawing

• As the tube is drawn the plug and the die act together to

reduce both the outside/inside diameters of the tube.

• Improved reduction in area than tube sinking (~ 45%).

• Lower drawing load than fixed plug drawing.

• Long lengths of tubing is possible.

• Tool design and lubrication can be very critical.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

Moving mandrel drawing

section and by the friction forces acting along the tube -mandrel

interface.

• minimised friction.

• Vmandrel = Vtube

• The mandrel also imparts a smooth inside finish surface of

the tube.

• mandrel removal disturbs dimensional tolerance.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

Example:

schematic

alternate pass

reduction

schedule for

tube making

Analysis of tube-drawing

• The greatest part of deformation occurs as a reduction in wall

thickness.

• The inside diameter is reduced by a small amount equal to

dimensions of the plug or mandrel inserted before drawing.

• There is no hoop strain and the analysis can be based on plane-

strain conditions.

For tube drawing with a plug, the draw stress can be expressed by

1 + B h

'

B' And

σ xa = σ o' 1 − a µ1 = friction coefficient between tube

B ' hb and die wall.

where µ2 = friction coefficient between tube

and plug.

µ1 + µ 2 α = semi die angle of the die.

B =

'

In tube drawing with a moving mandrel, the friction forces at the

mandrel-tube interface are directed toward the exit of the die. For a

moving mandrel, B’ can be expressed as

µ1 − µ 2

B' = …Eq.20

tan α − tan β

equation of equilibrium for this simple case is

hdσ x + (σ x + p )dh = 0

…Eq.21

hdσ x + σ dh = 0

'

o

σxb = 0 and h = hb, the draw stress becomes

σ xa = σ o' ln = σ o' ln

deformation ha 1− r

there for less than required by frictionless ideal deformation.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007

The stresses in tube sinking have been analysed by Sachs and

Baldwin.

cross sectional area of the tube is related to the mid-radius r

and the wall thickness h by A ~ 2πrh.

1 + B Af

B

σ xa = σ o'' 1 − …Eq.23

B Ab

Where σ’’o ~ 1.1σo to account for the complex stresses in tube sinking.

Residual stresses in rod, wire

and tubes

Two distinct types of residual-stress patterns in cold-drawn rod and wire:

Small reduction

residual stresses - Axis tensile

(<1% reduction per pass)

- Surface drop off to zero

Radial stresses

Deformation is - Axis tensile

localised in the surface - Surface compressive

layers. Circumferential stresses - Axis tensile

Large reduction

residual stresses - Axis compressive

(Commercial significance)

Radial stresses - Axis compressive

- Surface tensile

Circumferential stresses

- Axis compressive

Effects of semi die angle and reduction per pass on

longitudinal residual stress in cold-drawn brass wire

(by Linicus and Sachs)

• At a given reduction,

α longitudinal stress

• Maximum values of

longitudinal residual stress

~ 15-35% reduction in

area.

Defects in cold drawn products

abrasive particles)

• Slivers (swarf drawn into the surface).

• Long fissures (originating in ingot).

• Internal cracks (pre-existing defects in starting material or

ruptures in the centre due to overdrawing).

• Corrosion induced cracking due to internal residual

stresses.

References

McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-100406-8.

• Edwards, L. and Endean, M., Manufacturing with materials, 1990,

Butterworth Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-2754-9.

• Beddoes, J. and Bibbly M.J., Principles of metal manufacturing

process, 1999, Arnold, ISBN 0-470-35241-8.

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