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WORKSHOP PRACTICE SERIES from Nexus Special Interests

1. Hardening, Tempering and 10. Saws and Sawing 20. Metalwork and Machining
Heat Treatment Ian Bradley Hints and Tips
Tubal Cain 11. Electroplating Ian Bradley
2. Vertical Milling in the Home J. Poyner 21. Adhesives and Sealants
Workshop 12. Drills, Taps and Dies David Lammas
Arnold Throp
3. Screwcutting in the Lathe
Martin Cleeve
4. Foundrywork for the
Tubal Cain
13. Workshop Dra wing
Tubal Cain
14. Making Small Workshop
22. Workshop Electrics
Alex Weiss
23. Workshop Construction
Jim Forrest and Peter
B. Terry Aspin S. Bray 24. Electric Motors In the
5. Milling Operations in the 15. Workholding in the Lathe Home Workshop
Lathe Tubal Cain Jim Cox
Tubal Cain 16. Electric Motors 25. The Backyard Foundry
6. Measuring and Marking Jim Cox B. Terry Aspin
Metals 17. Gears and Gear Cutting 26. Home Workshop Hints
Ivan Law 1. Law and Tips
7. The Art of Welding 18. Basic Benchwork Edited by Vic Smoed
W. A.Vause Les Oldridge 27. Spindles
8. Sheet Metal Work 19. Spring Design and Harprit Sandhu
R. E. Waketord Manufacture 28. Simple Workshop Devices
9. Soldering and Brazing Tubal Cain Tubal Cain
Tubal Cain

28. Simple Workshop Devices

However well equipped the workshop may be there seems to be an incessant need
to make up special gadgets of one sort or another. These may range from mutilating
a clothes peg to act as a ‘third hand’ up to major modifications to an existing machine
tool.The making of such devices can be fun (indeed, some may appear to do nothing
else!) but nevertheless the time taken up in ‘devising the device' can often delay
the completion of an important project. Shared experience is a most potent tool in
reducing such delays, and can, moreover, often provide solutions to problems
hitherto believed to be intractable.

Tubal Cain has enjoyed more than 60 years' experience in designing and building
engines and machines (in both full size and model dimensions) and over this time
has made many ancillary devices. A number of these have been published from time
to time and some were assembled in volume form about 15 years ago. The opportu¬
nity has been taken not only to reprint that book but to revise some of the entries
to take advantage of user experience, to add new material and to introduce it into
the popular Workshop Practice Series. This is an essential addition to any model
engineer’s library.
ISBN 1-85486-150-6

Nexus Special Interests 9 781854 861504 >
Tubal Cain


10 758 5659
Nexus Special Interests Ltd
Nexus House
Azalea Drive
Kent BR8 8HU Contents
First published by Argus Books Ltd., 1983
This 2nd edition published by Nexus Special Interests Ltd., 1998 Introduction 1

Section 1 Getting Hold of the Job 5

© Tubal Cain, 1983, 1998 The thinpiece vice 5
Circular work in the drilling vice 10
Thinning washers (Turner's cement) 12
The right of Tubal Cain to be identified as the Author of this work A soldering and brazing clamp 13
has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Packing for the machine vice 17
Patents Rights Act of 1988.
Section 2 Jigs and Fixtures 18
All illustrations and diagrams appearing in this book have been originated
Why use jigs? 18
by the author except where otherwise indicated.
Co-ordinate setting out 20
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in Location jigs 29
any form by print, photography, microfilm or any other means Eccentric rod jig 33
without written permission from the publisher. A brazing jig 34
A cylinder boring fixture and alignment jig 35
A bearing boring fixture 41
Fixture for machining double eccentrics 42
ISBN 1-85486-150-6 A collet converting fixture 45

Section 3 Round and About the Lathe 48

The ball centre 48
Cover photo by Mike Chrisp Setting over the tailstock 49
The spring centre 50
Drilling an arbor for a draw bar 52
Turning fish-bellied rods 53
Crankshaft machining aids 56
A centre-height gauge and scriber 58
A micrometer screwcutting depth stop 62
Using 8mm watchmaker's collets in a
No. 2 Morse socket 74
A headstock length stop 79
Typeset by The Studio, Exeter A milling spindle drive or overhead 83
Printed and bound in Great Britain by Biddles Ltd., Guildford & King's Lynn A truly mobile handrest 89
Rigidity of lathe tools 91
Tangential tooling 92
'Gibraltar' - a really rigid toolpost 95
Taking very fine cuts - 'shaving' 101
Heavy drilling in the lathe 102
Cutting fluids and accessories 103
Splash guards 105
Extended chuck guard
Milling machine vice tray
Recovery 107
Leadscrew guard 108
My reminder 109
Protecting the taper sockets of the lathe 109

Reprinting this title to bring it into the it) and unless any such device will
Section 4 Miscellaneous HI
highly successful Workshop Practice either save a lot more time or will
Milling machine spindle speeds 111 Series has given me the opportunity facilitate accurate working - preferably
Filing buttons 112 both to introduce a number of new both - I will tend to disdain it. I try to
Making hollow mills or rosebits 114 devices and to revise some of the look for solutions to problems which
A holder for throwaway endmills 120 original matter but one important are both simple in conception and
A micrometer scribing block 122 change - metric equivalents to imperial speedy in construction. Most of the
Dividing from the chuck 134 dimensions - has not been made nor ideas shown in this book can be made
Straightening copper tube 134 have Morse number drill sizes been in a few hours (sometimes even min¬
Cutting and threading copper tube 136 corrected to millimetres. To have done utes) and few require bought-in material.
this without cluttering up the drawings In the introduction to the first edition
Awkward nuts 137
would have required that almost all of I mentioned (at the suggestion of
Catching rings and washers 138
them be retraced. I have, therefore, friends!) a sort of pecking order for the
Chatter on boring bars 138
assumed that readers are quite capable various devices, the implication being
My blackboard 138 of making the conversions themselves that these should be made first, but this
Tailpiece 139 where necessary. does present many difficulties. My
I should, perhaps, explain the use of most used device - a little piece of
the word 'simple' in the title and the wood or a length of string to hold bits
philosophy that lies behind it. I have the together - is not shown! However, the
greatest respect for those who design following may help.
and build sophisticated workshop equip¬ Over the years since the first edition
ment and do, in fact, take advantage of was published, the centre-height gauge
their work - it would be a poor workshop has been the most used by far, both for
which had no tool-and-cutter grinder! tool-setting and for marking out. As
But my interest lies in the designing frequently mentioned in my other
and making of models of engines, real books, I now rough screwcut before
or imagined, orthings forthem to drive. using the tailstock die-holder whenever
So, if any 'manufacturing device' is I can. The depth stop is invaluable and
needed I always carry out a study of its has also come in useful for milling
cost effectiveness (cost in my case flutes and cutting small gears. Tool-
being mainly the time involved to make posts - both the Gibraltar and that for

hand turning - I would most certainly lift?
replace if I lost them. The overhead m
drive is not often used but how could I \m
manage without it? I doubt if a week
passes by without recourse either to a
U..K b,k'.flT tt'liaf
cross-drilling jig or the filing buttons. In •i I’, !
short, the very fact that I have men¬
tioned a device in this book implies that
I have need of it!
Finally, to repeat myself, there is no
single, unique solution to any engineer¬
ing problem - that is what makes the
profession so much fun. Do not be
afraid to modify either design, dimen¬
sions, materials or construction meth¬
ods to suit your own circumstances.
Some of the devices described were
made before I had even a vertical slide,
let alone a milling machine!

Tubal Cain
The author at work! Westmorland, 1998
Workbench with storage


The 'heavy machining' end of the workshop. The lathe - the 'queen' of machine tools.

2 3

Getting Hold of the Job

A proper hold of the workpiece is fun¬ of them for material down to about ^in.
damental to all manufacture, whether thick. It was originally devised as an
of models or in full-scale production. apprentice training exercise by the
But we have a rather special problem as supervisor of the training school of a
many components are either too small large firm, and has given me excellent
or too thin to grip firmly. We cannot service for many years. The design has
afford either the time or the money to been simplified for the model engineer's
invest in the sophisticated workholding use, so that the drawings and the
devices used in industry. photographs do not quite correspond
In this short section I have not (e.g. items 4 and 5 are milled from a
The brazing bench, fined with a turntable, which is sited outside the main workshop area covered the obvious accessories like single piece of material in the original).
(Photo Mike Chrisp). chucks and bench vices, nor jigs and See Fig 1.1.
fixtures which come later. The former Make the jaws, items 4 and 7 (Fig.
are normal workshop equipment and 1.2) first, as these will be required as
the latter are usually special for each gauges for the top plate and body. The
job that crops up. However, I hope that ideal material is ’ in. square ground
the following pages may save a few gauge stock as this needs no prepara¬
workpieces, and perhaps also fingers, tion. Failing this, take an S^in. piece of
from damage. More important, they \ in. material and carefully file parallel
may suggest to you other ways of and square. Keep the width to a uni¬
tackling those awkward jobs; if so, form thickness - plus or minus 0.001 in.
please don't keep quiet about them - The depth is not so critical. File one end
make sketches, take a photograph and square, cut off a piece 4,’gin. long and
send a note to the editor of Model repeat the process. (The squared ends
Engineer (also published by Nexus will ultimately be the top of the jaws.)
Special Interests). Coat with copper sulphate or marking
blue and mark out all holes and the slots
The thinpiece vice in the lower ends, taking all dimensions
The holding of thin material in the vice from the squared ends.
has always presented problems. The Tackle the slots before the rest, so
unit described here will overcome most that if this job goes awry as little work

4 5
Now hold the jaws side by side in the
vice - making sure they are the right
way round - and file the previously
squared ends to the 2 in. radius shown.
The bottom end of the rear jaw may
now be radiused, but leave the front
jaw for the present.
The top plate, item 1, is best made
from ground flat stock, but mild steel
plate will serve if it is truly flat. File to
shape and mark out the slot and the
two rivet holes, taking care that the 352in.
dimension is reasonably accurate. Drill a
series of 4'". holes (1,000 rpm if ground
stock, 2,000 rpm if BMS for HSS drills)
well inside the lines of the slot and file
until the jaws are a nice sliding fit. See
that the ends of the slot are square. Start
the rivet holes with a Slocombe drill, but
do not drill through.
as possible is wasted. As an apprentice The body, item 2, calls for some
exercise these are made using hacksaw energetic work with hacksaw and file to
and file, which is probably quicker than bring to the T shape. It is important that
attacking them with a pin. slot drill, but the top face be flat, and square to the
if a 2’in. x pin. slitting saw is available front face with the ’ in. groove in it.
this will make short work of the cut. Mark out the front face for this groove,
Run at about 60 rpm and feed the work set up on the vertical slide with a piece
in steadily, using plenty of cutting oil. of packing behind, so that the groove
Finish off with a 4in. warding file if may be milled using the saddle cross
need be, making the front jaw a tight fit slide, and make sure (a) that the 2^ in.
on a 4in. thick gauge (e.g. the material wide top face is square to the lathe
for part 5) and the rear jaw a sliding fit. bed and (b) that the front face is square
Remove burrs. across the bed. Using a j*in. slot drill at
Drill and tap the holes in the front about 650 rpm take a full depth cut Fig. 1.2 Details of thinpiece vice.
jaw, but leave the two No. 31 holes at across the centre of the slot and then
the bottom for the present. The exact work carefully towards the two lines deeper than the drawing requires. Re¬ Use plenty of cutting oil during the
shape of the 'oval' hole in the rear jaw is with light cuts until the front jaw is a move the work, and transfer the centre milling operations, and keep a steady
unimportant, as part 8 can be made to nice sliding fit in the groove. of the slot to the other side of the body. feed allowing no rubbing without
fit. The quickest way is to drill two pin¬ Now adjust the vertical slide until the Set up on the vertical slide, squaring up cutting.
holes at p in. centres and file out the centre of the groove is at exact centre as before; line up with the p in. hole. The adjusting arm, part 5, is a simple
remainder, but professionals will height, and with a Slocombe drill in the Drill a |in. hole on the centre until it just filing and drilling job, best made of
doubtless use patience and a slot drill! chuck start a hole pin- from the t0Pface- breaks into the pin. slot and follow with ground flat stock, but BMS flat will do.
Do not drill the pin. cross hole yet. Drill Follow this with a pin. drill to make a a § in. slot drill to machine the slotted The row of holes can be drilled very
No. 37 as shown, open out one side to hole right through (hence the need for counterbore (if your drills have a ten¬ accurately by mounting the arm (with
l in. and tap the other side 5BA using packing behind). Chuck a pin. slot drill dency to run oversize holes, use a No. packing behind) on the vertical slide.
the |in. hole as a guide. and cut the pin- slot as shown, slightly 14 and letter U instead of pin. and |in.). With a Slocombe drill in the chuck.

6 7
deeply drill the first hole; advance the ensuring that the jaw is hard up against inch with Kasenit compound. Reheat to
cross slide 156 thou, drill the next, and the end of the slot. Drill and ream the red again (see the instructions on the
so on. The holes may then be finished two ,36 in. fixing holes. Dismantle and tin) and quench in water. There is no
to gin. in the drilling machine, but the countersink the holes as shown and need to get the whole of the arm hot, of
pitch and alignment will be really true. remove burrs. Insert the rivets 3, rivet course. This operation should be done
Lightly countersink both sides. Do not up and carefully file flush. File the end before uniting parts 4 and 5. After
drill the two No. 31 holes yet. of the slot in the top plate so that it is cleaning up and polishing this joining
The two rivets, item 3, are turned flush with the groove. It may be neces¬ can be done but, while brazing, im¬
from soft mild steel or from a longer ^in. sary to ease the slot a trifle to ensure merse the lower ends (that is, the hard
iron rivet. The dowels, item 6, are that the jaw can slide up and down. tops) in a water bath. This will prevent
parted off from ground BMS rod, not Insert the arm 5 into the slot in the drawing the hardness of the nose of the
silver steel, and the pressure-pin, item jaw 4, first smearing some Easyflo jaws.
13, from silver steel. The locking plug, paste flux on the mating parts. Check Although the top plate has got a little
item 8, is made by chucking a piece of that it is square to the jaw. Drill and scarred with use I doubt if it is worth
^in. x |in. steel in the 4-jaw, turning the ream the upper hole; press in one of the hardening this, although if gauge plate
screwed part 0.160/0.161 in. dia. and dowels 6 and rivet lightly. Check for is used it can be done by heating to
screwing 3 BA with the tailstock die- squareness, drill and ream the second about 800°C for say ten minutes (cherry
holder. The rectangular plug is then hole and fit the pin as before. Heat to red) and then quenching in oil, vertic¬
filed a nice fit into the hole in the rear dull red, apply Easyflo silver solder, Fig. 13 An underside view of the vice. ally. Temper to pale straw. The risk is
jaw. Assemble into the jaw with the allow to cool to black, and quench in
faces 'A' flush, and drill ^ in. right cold water.
through. (Purists may prefer to drill No. File the lower end of the jaw to the
24 and ream, but this is not necessary.) profile of the arm, and smooth off the
Lightly countersink the entrances to the projecting pins. Polish off with fine
holes. emery. Attach the spring. Push the plug
The nut and pin, items 9 and 10, are 8 into its place in the jaw 7, insert the pin
simple turning jobs, the exact shape of 13 and lightly tighten the nut 9. Assem¬
the heads being left to individual taste ble the jaw to the arm 5 with the pin 10.
but knurl before parting off in both The whole jaw assembly is attached to
cases. The screw, No. 14, may be a the body by the screws 14.
standard Allen socket-head, if desired. In service, the unit is held in the
It should be possible to put the kink bench vice (with fibre grips in place)
in the spring, item 11, without softening with the jaw 4 to the front, Fig 1.3. The
it, if held in the smooth jaws of the vice. projection of the jaws is adjusted by
If the holes are to be drilled, run no means of the screw 14 to suit the
faster than 360 rpm, hone the drill point thickness of the job to be held. The rear
so that it is really sharp; rest the work- jaw position is adjusted on the arm to
piece on a piece of steel packing and on suit the width of the workpiece, and the
no account hold the spring in the hand pressure pin positioned so that the
while drilling. It may be simpler to spring opens the jaws to follow those
punch the holes with a sharp flat punch of the bench vice.
on a lead anvil. My own vice has been in fairly
Attach the front jaw 4 to the body 2 constant use for 25 years. It would pay
with a piece of paper (or .002 in. shim) to harden the ends of the moving jaws.
in the bottom of the groove, using the This can be done by casehardening;
screw 2. Clamp the top 1 to the body, heat up to red and cover the top half¬ Fig. 7.4 In service - though the workpiece is rather thick!

8 9
that the plate may distort, and there is hard enough the drill will pull the job
the added point that a hard plate will out of the vice and do more damage
damage the files. My own is soft gauge still; to you or to the job!
plate and the way things are going I Fig. 1.5 shows how I got over this
may have to make a new top in ten or a problem. The block is made from a
dozen years' time; cheaper than new piece of close-grained hardwood. Do
files! not use oak - beech should do, and yew
better still. But I use lignum vitae, which
Circular work in the drilling vice can be obtained from worn-out bowls
All the books tell you that work should woods or old foundry rammers. A good
be clamped to the table or held in a vice alternative is boxwood if you can get
while drilling, and this applies especi¬ any. A series of holes, corresponding to
ally when working in brass or gunmetal. the most common diameters you find
The material drags at the drill point and in your work, are drilled through, the
unless you have the old-fashioned block having first been squared all over,
straight flute drills (or the modern, and of course. A small hole, I suggest Jin., is
expensive, slow helix type) a 'snatch' drilled as shown and the block then
when breaking through is inevitable. sawn through as far as this hole. It is
(You ought, of course, to take off the held between the jaws of the vice and
rake at the drill point when drilling will grip the workpiece well if put in the
brass and then resharpen for normal right hole. There is, of course, no
work, which means that after 12 months reason why it should not be cut into
or so all your drills will be tiny stubs of two separate pieces (it may break in Fig. 1.5a Drilling a gland flange.
HSSI.) So, drilling vice or clamp it must two eventually) but I find it convenient
be. The snag comes when holding small to have it as shown in Fig. 1.5.
round objects; stuffing box glands, for Fig. 1.6 shows a variation for holding
example. Even if your vice is furnished such things as engine cylinder covers
with vees on the jaw faces there is the etc. I make mine to fit the OD of the
risk of marking the carefully turned flange as getting a better grip than on
stem of the gland and if you don't grip the spigot only. This one is bored in the
Fig. 1.5 Holder for glands OD.
and similar small
diameter work.

Section on XX

Fig. 1.6 Holder for discs and similar work.

lathe to suit the job in hand, and I make and small objects can be used both
the block quite wide so that small sides of course, but even so will need
cavities can be opened up if necessary. replacing every few years. Why not
Naturally, either type gets riddled with make them of metal? No reason at all,
holes after a while. That for the glands exceptthat wood is cheaper and quicker

10 11
to work. In passing, lignum is a real and pumice powder. The easiest to A soldering and brazing clamp
engineer's wood. As you may know, it make and use, and almost the strong¬ Here is a little gadget you can make in
is used for stern-tube bearings on est, is three parts of common resin an hour or so which will save you
steamships and the old Alvis Firefly mixed with one part beeswax. The wax endless time and frustration for the
had lignum bearings in all the steering is melted (with due precautions against next twenty years! The photograph on
joints. So, you might care to consider it catching fire) and the resin, preferable page 14 shows the device in use, after
using it as a chuck fixture when holding in very small pieces, dropped in. The brazing a butt joint between a 16 gauge
cylinder covers in the lathe, instead of mixture is then heated a little longer brass wire and a ring | in. wide x 28
making up a steel or brass split collet. I and well stirred until it is seen that the thou thick - a job which normally
do and it is perfectly satisfactory. two ingredients are both melted and means endless fiddling and even then
well mixed. Cast it into sticks - I simply often comes out all wrong.
Thinning washers (Turner's cement) pour it into the vee of a piece of (clean) I lay no claim to originality for the
'Making big ones into little ones' was angle iron and then break up the length design. The incomplete 'bits' have been
once the standard punishment for into convenient sizes. sculling around my workshop for many
those sentenced to hard labour, and It can be used in many ways. For years and only a recent gap in the
this work is still a penance to the model woodwork the stick is held against the production programme made me think
engineer, especially when it comes to rotating faceplate until friction melts it Fig. 7.7 Six washers attached to a carrier of making up the missing parts 'in case
washers or similar round objects which on to the face. The workpiece is then plate with Turner's cement. it came in useful', which it did within a
must be thinned. The problem is hold¬ similarly held against the cement coat day or so, and I now regret that I didn't
ing the things - or indeed any thin until it again melts and then, when put it in order years ago.
object of irregular shape. The thinpiece increasing resistance is felt, pressure is of cast iron in the vice, and on the lathe The drawing, Fig. 1.9, shows the
vice (page 5) doesn't help and to alter it reduced until the work 'catches'. Then have faced down rings of up to 6 in. details. The clamping arms are the
to hold washers still leaves the other let go, and you will find the work is diameter. The grip is good (about 200 most awkward part, as they must be
awkward shapes which turn up every securely held - it is as easy as that! For Ibf/sq.in. of contact area on test) but springy. The one remaining original
now and then. I suppose that everyone metal work this is rather hazardous, and where there may be an interrupted cut was of a very hard brass, and to get
knows the dodge of pressing the article I apply heat to the holding piece (face¬ care must be taken, as the cement anywhere near the elasticity I had to
into a piece of softwood using the vice plate or whatever) until the cement melts won't stand heavy shock loads. You work-harden a piece of half-hard brass
jaws, so that it makes itself a recess in on to it in an even film. Then apply the will notice that in the photo the washers strip by hammering it well. Possibly
which it can be held while filing. It is warmed workpiece and heat again if are all touching each other, in a ring, so drawn brass might be hard enough as
indeed very effective, and I have lots of necessary to get an even thickness. You that all help to take the shock as the tool an alternative.
bits of wood lying around (kept just in must then let it cool, or hold it under the passes over the holes. The method is, Cut out a strip about 9in. long, say
case another job of the same shape cold tap, until the stuff has set. I have a of course, a variant on the use of solder 16 gauge, and planish it until you have
crops up) that testify to this! Opinions spare lathe backplate I use, but equally to hold things, but is less messy, doesn't reduced the thickness by at least three
differ as to the best wood to use, but I often I simply chuck a piece of scrap, need so high a temperature, and is thou. If you haven't a proper planishing
find offcuts of yellow pine the best, with face it true and use that. Fig. 1.7 shows much easier to clean off afterwards. hammer (which has a slightly convex
the work pressed into the side grain half a dozen washers being so treated. The cement can be used to hold face) you will have to use care and the
rather than the end grain as suggested These had to be thinned down to pieces while milling, but both cut and flat of your light riveting hammer. Keep
in some books. 0.020 in. thick, and cuts of about 5 thou feed rate must be small. I have used it the work flat on a suitable anvil and
However, the method has its limita¬ were taken with no difficulty. All were on the drill, and no problems arose ensure that the face of the hammer
tions, the chief being that it is difficult to equal in thickness within much less except that occasionally the work came strikes flat as well. Use a multitude of
get an even thickness and almost than half a thou. After machining they adrift from the backing piece on break¬ medium-light blows - don't give it a
impossible to achieve any degree of were removed simply by tapping them ing through. The one thing that must be belting - and take care to get the
precision. This is where the substance with a plastic mallet, although they watched - obvious if you weigh it up - impacts spread over the whole of the
known as Turner's cement comes in. could have been melted off if need be. is that you must not get the workpiece surface. Turn the job over periodically
There are many recipes ranging from I have used this method in place of hot during machining! Coolant will so that each face gets even treatment.
neat shellac to a horrible mixture of resin the 'block of wood', holding a flat chunk have no effect on the cement. If the strip starts to bend sideways

CLAMPING ARMS: 2 off each, hard brass

Fig. 18 Brazing a butt joint between a wire and a narrow ring.

this means you are hitting one side of the end hole is to embrace the ball on
the strip more the other; give the next the clamp head. I used a ,56in. drill point
set of blows on the concave side to and this seems to work adequately.
correct it. For the thinned part in the middle,
Cut off into 2 in. lengths (you need make a groove with a 3-cornered file on
four) and mark out for the holes, noting the centre, l^in. from the end. Enlarge
that there are four holes in two arms this with a rat-tail file, and then proceed
and three in the other. Drill the ^ in. with about a 10 in. half-round file, which
hole in the end, clamp all four arms will give about the right degree of
together with a pin in this hole, and drill curvature.
through 6 BA tapping size the .holes The inner face of the last gin. at the
common to all arms; then open out the nose of the clamp is serrated - done
clearing holes and the additional either by making a pattern with your
tapped holes in the 'top' arms, finally centre punch, or by criss-crossing with
a sharp chisel and light hammer blows. Fig. 1.9 Arrangement and details of the clamp set.
tapping as shown. The countersink on

Do this after forming the profile in plan, It is much easier to get the flame where ^in. rod, and make sure that the clamp originally of brass, and it does look nice
but before tapering the thickness. The you want it if you can move the work as holds it across the full face; if it doesn't, when it's clean!
'heel' of the clamp (the other end, that you please. one or both clamp arms are twisted in
is) must be rounded a bit to clear the To fit the rod into the handle - find a their length, and this should be recti¬ Packing for the machine vice
ball head when at an angle. Finally, nice piece of rosewood or ebony - drill fied. I found, too, that it gave a better It is unfortunate, but when making (or
finish with fine emery and polish. a hole in the handle itself slightly larger grip if the nose of the clamps was buying) 'parallels' we tend to go for
The ball head on the original (there than the brass rod; introduce some opened out a trifle, so that when grip¬ round numbers of fractions e.g. ^ x | in.
was only one remaining) was turned Araldite and then push in the rod, and ping a piece of J'2 in. sheet the faces This means that if we use such packing
from the solid, and you can do the allow to cure. Don't forget the little bedded flat. on edge to hold j^in. stock the vice tends
same if you like. As a preliminary brass ferrule. The device is, of course, for light to grip the packing rather than the work-
measure I cheated a bit, and used an I have left the angle rod until last. articles only - it's not meant for use in piece. In this case || x ^ would be more
old terminal from an ancient wireless Mine is of very hard brass, and to avoid 5in. gauge boilersmithing! It is, in fact, convenient (precision-ground parallels
set, but it didn't fit the rod very well. So springing in use you need something a silversmith's clamp, and used by for use in marking out are a different
I made a new one and drilled a J in. similar. A length of Sifbronze or what¬ allied trades such as watchmakers and matter). You should, of course, use slips
bronze ball to about half diameter, ever will not be good enough. My sug¬ jewellers. I have successfully brazed to¬ of paper between both jaws and work
finally brazing this to the complete gestion for this part is that you make gether two ^ in. wires with it, and one and between packings, to improve the
body of the part. The only point about the rod up from ’in. or 3mm silver steel unexpected use has been the joining grip and to take care of minute irregula¬
this component is that the cross-drilling (drill the heads to suit) and after bend¬ together of short lengths of silver rities, then give the workpiece a thump
must be accurate - use one of the many ing it, harden and temper to blue. I solder. You could, of course, make a with a mallet to bed it down properly.
drilling jigs described later in the book - suggest, too, that you treat yourself to larger version and arrange it on a bench Do not, however, be tempted to
and the hole marked 'to suit rod' must two rods, one bent as shown, and one stand, similar to those used in the old thump the vice handle as well 'just to
be a good sliding fit. straight, about 4^ in. long. days by plumbers when jointing lead make sure'. The mechanical advantage
The lockscrew is a fancy knurled The arrangement of the screws in the pipes. But I find it is the little jobs that of most milling vices is of the order of
knob, but it would work just as well clamps is shown in the sketch. The 6 BA cause the trouble; heavier items usually 200/1, and even a moderate blow
with a plain cheese-head screw. Don't countersunk screw is not in a counter¬ stay put when brazing under their own (which is a shock load) on the handle
omit the little pip on the end which sunk hole, but the clearance is rather weight, or can be bound together with could impose an extra force of ten tons
prevents the thread from being burred greater than normal. (I have shown ^in. iron wire. or so on the workpiece. If the vice seems
over in use. I have specified phosphor drill, but it could be a shade larger.) Finally, why not make it all of steel? to need such treatment to grip properly
bronze, as the thread will get a lot of The other two screws are ordinary No reason at all except that mine was then it is overdue for an overhaul.
use. cheese-head brass with the heads re¬
The handle head is a repeat of the duced a trifle in diameter for appear¬
ball head but without the ball, and with ance sake. All three screws must be
a longer threaded part. There is no adjusted when making any marked
reason at all why you shouldn't make change in the width of grip of the
the ball head ^in. instead of ^in. here - clamp, but for small alterations it is
mine had to be as shown to match the only necessary to adjust the counter¬
existing one. The handle itself screws sunk one. The clamps can be turned
into the head, and locks on to the angle every which way on the balls, and the
rod (see the little line sketch of the grip on these balls should be enough to
assembly) and can be made to suit your 'stay put' but still be movable by hand
taste or your hands. It could, of course, pressure. You may need a little experi¬
be simply a piece of brass hex stock, to ment to get the tensions right, so that
hold in the vice, but experience shows the work is held with just the right
that it's easier to use if held in the hand pressure.
against a fixed source of heat rather The points of the clamps will need
than applying the flame to the fixed job. some adjustment. Grip a piece of say

16 17
the decision as to whether to use a jig slightly closer to the others as both
or not depends only on whether the couplings would be the same. There are
time taken to make the jig is less or many similar cases, but there are situa¬
SECTION 2 more than the time taken to mark out tions where it is important that holes be
the number of workpieces. In model a specific distance apart. In this case the
engineering circles if one has a single jig is no different, but is made with far
cylinder with two covers it is easy to greater care, using a jig-borer to posi¬
mark each cover and then to use the tion the holes.

Jigs and Fixtures covers as jigs for the cylinders; but for a
two-cylinder engine it may well be
quicker to make a simple jig to drill all
Well, few model engineers have jig-
borers, but you can come pretty close
to it by using the co-ordinate method I
four covers and the cylinders, with the am going to describe over the next few
added advantage that the covers are pages. Incidentally, the main difference
interchangeable. between this method and that of the jig-
Which is the second reason for using borer is that the latter does not depend
purpose jigs, but which have very jigs. If we sold an engine to a customer on the accuracy of the feedscrews, the
These are really holding devices and
general application. I have, at the end, overseas there would be some choice table being positioned by setting the
could, perhaps, have been included in
included a single-purpose fixture, very language floating around the engine- required number of accurate slip-
the previous section of the book. How¬
simple indeed, which saved me a lot of room if a spare part did not fit! A more gauges between the table and a fixed
ever they do have one significant feature
money, a matter not to be disdained interesting use was, perhaps, the case stop. A special device is used to ensure
- as a rule, they are all made for a
these days! of crankshaft couplings. These were that the gauges are squeezed up by the
particular workpiece and have not the
drilled to within a couple of thou ream¬ same force each time, and the whole is
universal application of a vice or clamp¬
Why use jigs? ing size at our works, but the generator in a temperature-controlled room to
ing device. The distinction is somewhat
When I was transferred from the erect¬ might well be made at the other end of reduce errors from thermal expansion
blurred, but in general a jig sits on, or is
ing shop to the drawing office - more the country or even in Germany or of work, machine, and gauges. Not
clamped to, the work and is used to
years ago than I care to remember - the Switzerland. Their drilling had to be exactly the average model engineer's
locate holes, cutters, or perhaps mating
first job I was given was the design of within reaming tolerance of ours, so conditions!
parts during assembly. A fixture nor¬
some jigs for the large-engine machine that the ground bolts would fit. Further, A final reason for using jigs may be
mally holds the workpiece in a particu¬
shops. I disliked the work intensely and the generator might not meet up with convenience. A casting may well be of
lar position or attitude so that cutting
was greatly relieved when some engine the engine until both got to their such a shape that marking out would be
tools can be applied in a convenient
design work came my way after some destination, perhaps on the other side a formidable task. In such a case the
manner. Some fixtures are also jigs,
weeks, but I did learn the value of jigs of the world. So, having used the jig on work can be set in a box jig or fixture
and vice versa, and the word jig is often
and a little of how they were made. This our shaft, it was then sent to the and drilled from that. Such a jig may
applied quite indiscriminately to either.
early experience served me well in later generator makers for them to use in take time to make, and can be of
It would be impossible to describe a
life, and not least in my model engi¬ drilling their coupling. Thus we could enormous dimensions, but even when
jig for every circumstance, not even to
neering, so I thought that you might like be sure that when assembled it would building only a few engines it could be
describe those I use, for I have scores, if
to have a few examples. be possible to put a reamer through considered worthwhile. An important
not hundreds, rigged up over the years.
Jigs may be used - or needed - for a both halves of the coupling without point here was that the engine designer
But the examples I give will, I hope,
number of reasons. The first of these difficulty. To be sure that we were not had to have this in mind in the design
suggest ways of designing others to
may be no more than the saving of held up for lack of the jig, we had stage; some of the odd projections you
suit your own particular needs. Part of
time; a workpiece may have a number several made from a master jig, used may see on castings may well be there
the fun of model engineering is finding
of holes in it which need not be solely for making them. to support the work in a box jig at the
out new ways of doing things. The first
accurately placed, but if each has to be In that case, the important matter machining stage. (Some of the odd
few pages of the section are concerned
marked out the floor-to-floor time could was that the holes in both couplings be holes that seem to serve no useful pur¬
with the principles, and especially with
well be excessive. A simple plate-type in their correct relative position - it pose on your lathe may be there for the
the accurate location of holes. The
drilling jig will save much of this, and would not matter if one hole were same purpose; there is a Jin. hole in the
remainder are more or less special-
Myford dividing plate which puzzled me workpiece and the results were then
until I found it was a jig location hole.) measured using very sophisticated
Model engineers might well keep this in measuring tackle. The results were as
mind if they are designing their own shown in the table, all figures being in
prototype and also the golden rule of all thousandths of an inch.
production - to ensure that there will be
adequate reference faces in the design Method Mean Max Min
Error Error Error
from which dimensions may be taken!
In the next few pages I shall deal Normal marking out 11.2 26 3
with the question of achieving accuracy, Co-ordinate marking out 8.0 12 6
for if you are going to make a jig it is Co-ordinate drilling 3.3 4.9* 0.8
worth taking a little trouble and getting *This one was a 'rogue' not typical of the
it just right. Further, there are cases whole.
where, even if no jig is to be used,
accuracy of setting out is important. By model engineering standards
Then I will cover the more general area, these were skilled practitioners doing
that of getting holes in the right places; similar work all day long, so it may be
and after that I will give details of some assumed that the amateur will be worse
of the more special jigs and fixtures rather than better, and we cannot ex¬
which I have found useful. pect to achieve mean positional errors - Fig. 2.1 A watchmaker's foret held in a small archimedian drill-driver.
with normal marking-out methods much
Co-ordinate setting out less than p in. and maximum errors a rule) when marking the lines. The work is easier. It goes without saying
Clearly if a jig is to be made it should be twice this figure. Some of this error will, next step, however, may be new to you, that the method can be no more accur¬
as accurate as possible, and the normal of course, be due to factors other than that is to use a watchmaker's 'foret', ate than the accuracy of the feedscrews,
marking-out methods used by model marking out; drill wander, for example, which is simply an extremely hard, tiny of course. Consider the example shown
engineers may not be up to it. I make as seen at * in the table. spear-pointed drill, very like those once in Fig. 2.2 to illustrate the principle.
use of a technique known as co-ordinate Most model engineers have the used in fretwork, to make a little dot at Four holes are required at the corners
setting to ensure accuracy; a system equipment necessary to reach the stan¬ the intersections of the lines. I hold of a 1-inch square. Never mind their
which, in effect, changes the usual dard of the third group in the table; mine in an archimedean drill stock - relationship with the edge of the work-
dimensions found on a part drawing indeed, many will be able to do better, again, like those used in fretwork - and piece at present, and concentrate only
to one which takes all dimensions from as the machine used was well past its with the aid of a magnifying glass it is on their relative positions. The first step
fixed datum lines. best and had suffered many years of possible to align the point exactly (or is to work out their position relative to
To show how effective this can be a hard work in the hands of less skilled almost so) at the right spot (see Fig. two bases or datums (Fig. 2.3) OF!
test was made at a technical college workers! First, however, a word about 2.1). This tiny centre-hole can then be horizontal and OV vertical. These can
some years ago. The guinea-pigs were marking out. It is not always possible to deepened if need be with a punch in the be anywhere which is convenient, but
all apprentice toolmakers who had had use the method I am going to describe normal way. This technique can bring
some years of experience, and they and it is then necessary to mark out, mean errors well down, as shown in the
were supervised by a very skilled in¬ centre-pop, and drill. Flowever, the co¬ second line of figures in the table. 4
structor. They were asked to set out and ordinate method can still be used to Now for the co-ordinate drilling,
then drill and ream six holes on a pitch improve accuracy, especially if a vernier which is exactly the same as used in 4 HOLES
circle. Four men to use normal marking height gauge is available. Even with a industry on a jig-boring machine. All 3/16“REAM |
out with dividers, four to use. the co¬ normal scribing block it has advan¬ that is needed is a centre lathe with an
ordinate marking-out method and then tages. All that is necessary is to convert index on the cross slide and a vertical
drill from the marks, and the third set of the dimensions in the same way as for slide, also with an index. A vertical
four to use a compound table to mark co-ordinate drilling and use these from milling machine will serve equally well
out and drill. Each man did his own the datum (base of the scribing block as - better, in fact, for the fixing of the Fig. 2.2

20 21
rotation which moves the slides in the If the holes are to be drilled in the assume the same geometry of holes,
direction of the arrows shown in Fig. drilling machine then, of course, the see Fig. 2.4. Assume also that your
2.3. This is most important, being the workpiece can be removed after using three-jaw is reasonably accurate, or can
only way in which backlash, or any slack the Slocombe. It is not always con¬ be brought within 0.001 in. by using
in feedscrew handle washers, can be venient to drill right through on a pieces of paper under one or more
eliminated. vertical slide and with larger drills the jaws. Grip a piece of 0.500 in. ground
Assume now that the drilling opera¬ strain on the saddle feed rack - and on stock (any diameter will do so long as it
tion is to be done in the lathe. Grip a the wrist - can be high. A little accuracy is accurate to diameter, true, and stiff;
Slocombe drill either in the three-jaw or is sacrificed. If the position only of the not less than l in.). Let it project far
in an accurate drill chuck held in the holes is needed, without any drilling, enough to reach the workpiece past any
headstock taper. Wind the cross slide then fit a marking centre in the head- clamps and check its truth. Set the
forward 0.500 in. and the vertical slide stock and simply press the work up workpiece on the vertical slide so that
up 0.500 in. Advance the saddle and against it. Clearly if the milling machine the sides adjacent to the proposed
Fig. 2.3 drill deeply at an appropriate spindle is used, with a vertical quill, the opera¬ baselines are truly horizontal and ver¬
speed as fast as you can for this size. tion is similar, but has the advantage tical. (It is assumed that the two sides
must be at right angles. The holes have Withdraw the saddle. Wind back both that the work can be positioned on the are truly square to start with; if not,
been numbered for identification. The slides a little and then advance the flat table instead of on the vertical make them so.) Measure the stock in
position of each hole is now stated in cross slide, again to 0.500 and the slide. the chuck and write down its diameter
terms of their distance from the point vertical to 1.500. Drill as before. That is (see page 139). Divide it by two. Select
'O', always giving the horizontal figure hole No. 2. Wind back a trifle, and then Location of holes from edges the best of your feeler gauges and write
first (though, in practice, you would just advance horizontal 1.500 and vertical It is seldom that holes can be planted down its thickness, say, 0.005 in.
write them down on the drawing). The 1.500. Drill No 3. Wind back, and then any old where on the workpiece. They Now advance the cross slide in the
table shows these co-ordinates. advance H-1.500, V-0.500 and drill hole must usually be located in relation to direction of the arrow OH until the
No. 4. Now replace the Slocombe with edges or centres. Consider the first case feeler slides sweetly between the work-
Hole No. Horizontal Vertical a No. 14 drill and repeat the whole - location from two edges - and piece and the test plug in the chuck. The
1 0.500 0.500 operation, drilling right through. Don't edge of the work is now exactly the half
2 0.500 1.500 be tempted to slack up on the care in diameter of the plug plus the feeler
3 1.500 1.500 setting the indexes just because you thickness from the lathe centre -
4 1.500 0.500 have a deep centre to drill to! Finally, 0.255 in. in this case, so that the base
replace the drill with a reamer, and at CV is 0.255 + 0.250 = 0.505 in. from the
Now set up the vertical slide, making much slower speed and plenty of oil, dimension line through hole No. 1.
sure that it is dead square across the repeat the whole. You can check your Make a note of the index reading, say
machine. Clamp the piece to the slide accuracy by making a second piece 87 (or adjust the index to zero if this can
with suitable parallel packing behind to exactly the same, and checking the be done). Repeat in the vertical plane,
allow the drill to go through. Make an holes in the two pieces one on top of thus locating OH relative to hole 1
arbitrary decision about the position of the other in any position. With reason¬ again. Note the index reading - say
the point 'O', and make a note of the able luck you should be able to push 25. It helps to note the readings on the
index readings. Let us suppose that this pieces of 0.186 in. diameter rod through drawing as shown in Fig. 2.2, but note
is where both indexes read zero (we will all four holes at once. that the CV index refers to the position
come to the method of positioning the A little explanation of the instruction of CV and is used in traversing along
holes relative to the edge of the work- to wind back between co-ordinate set¬ FEELER — 0.005" OH. You can now log the co-ordinates
piece in a moment). Now, a very impor¬ tings. This is simply to avoid errors O.V. INDEX —87 and the appropriate index readings, or
tant note; all readings of the index, which might result from vibration caus¬ O.H. INDEX —25 mark them on the drawing as you prefer.
including that at zero, must be made ing movement of the slides, as in this The log appears as follows, assuming
with the handles rotating the same way. example adjacent holes each have one the screws have 10 tpi threads, with 100
I have got into the habit of using a co-ordinate the same. Fig. 2.4 divisions on the index.

22 23
from the chuck and harden. Then If you have a device for setting lathe headstock, but if you can get a square
Horizontal (87) Vertical (25)
temper by heating the cylindrical part tools to centre-height (see page 58), this up to the workpiece at the same time,
Hole No Co-ord Index Co-ord Index
until the point reaches a straw colour, can be used for setting in the vertical against some reference face, you can
1 0.505 5/93 0.505 5/30
and quench. Return to the chuck, but plane provided it is accurate. My own take advantage of this fact. Simply set
(.505 + 87) (.505 + 25)
resist the temptation to polish the taper was specifically designed for this pur¬ both slide indexes to zero, roughly
2 0.505 5/93 1.505 15/30
- you want as little reflection as possi¬ pose, and can also be used for marking position the workpiece and lightly
3 1.505 15/93 1.505 15/30
ble. If the point is now blunt, sharpen out work held in the lathe. It is, in fact, a clamp up. Advance until the centre
4 1.505 15/93 0.505 5/30
by running the lathe fast and touch it up fixed height gauge and has hard chisel enters the hole and then carefully bring
by application of an oilstone. If the points similar to those used on vernier the saddle forward until it presses the
where the figure 15/ means fifteen turns
point does not run true it may be height gauges. centre into the hole sufficiently to move
of the screw and the 93 means turn
necessary to pack under the chuck jaws the work. Square up, and carefully
further until this index is reached, and
with paper, but the odd thou will not Setting to an existing hole tighten the clamps. Without moving
so on. If the hole is fairly large - say a cylinder the saddle, check the slide handwheels,
Frankly I find it easier to mark it up matter.
In use, it is only necessary to ad¬ bore - the most accurate way is to set winding in the correct direction. You
on the drawing, or even make a special
vance the work to the point until, using up a dial indicator in the chuck and will almost certainly find that the opera¬
sketch, rather than use a log, but which¬
a magnifier, it is seen that the point is adjust the position of the slides (always tion has moved the slides within the
ever method is used it is essential to
exactly at the intersection of the centre traversing in the OH and CV directions) slack in the slide nuts. Note the reading
write it all down! on the indexes, and proceed as before.
lines. Do not allow the point to touch until it is found to be concentric with
the work, as there is a risk of breaking it. the spindle on pulling the belt round by
Location from given centre lines
Do not forget that the slides must hand. The same method may be used More complicated hole arrangements
This is nowhere near so easy and I
always be wound in the direction of for smaller holes if they are of such a A very simple arrangement of holes has
always prefer to re-dimension the work
your OH and OV arrows. Having made a size that a plug can be fitted in them been selected to illustrate the principle.
so that location can be made from
note of the index readings it is then a without shake, the DTI being traversed Clearly the operation will not be much
datum edges. However it is often not
simple matter to establish the position round the plug instead of within the different if the holes were six in num¬
possible to do this, and the following
of suitable bases. These can run bore. In cases where split thousandth ber, arranged in a rectangle, as on a
method is then adopted. Chuck a piece
through the centre you have marked accuracy is not necessary, a very simple valve-chest (in which connection I al¬
of \ in. carbon tool steel, marking the
up to, but it is always preferable to have method is to fit a true centre in the ways drill cylinder, chest, and chest
position of the No. 1 jaw so that the
bases outside the workpiece itself - headstock taper and advance the saddle cover, at different times, using this
device can be accurately set in future.
then all co-ordinates are forward ones, so that the end of the centre is within method, and have never had to draw a
Turn a point after the style of Fig. 2.5 to
and there is less risk of forgetfully the hole. The position of the sides is hole since I started; and the covers
project far enough to clear clamps etc.
winding the slide the wrong way. then adjusted until the centre touches usually fit either way round!). With
Get the point reasonably sharp. Fiemove
the edge of the hole all round. Care more complicated arrangements, how¬
Fig. 2.5 A ‘dotting' must be taken, as it is quite possible to ever, some recourse to geometry is
marking punch for use shift the workpiece in its clamps if the necessary, and a few examples follow.
in the chuck. saddle is pushed too hard towards the Fig. 2.8 will refresh your memory on the

■£§ = TAN 9 AB= /BC2-AC2

qq = SIN 0 BC = v(b2+ AC2

c *£ = cos e AC = s/bc2- ab2

Fig. 2.6 Triangular and angular relationships.

Fig. 2.7 V in the cylinder head of an engine within
Holes in a circle, 3 a few thousandths of an inch. The
equally spaced. method is more accurate than is pos¬
sible with the normal dividing disc.

Holes dimensioned to radius and pitch

Fig. 2.8a illustrates this case. The first
step is to redraw the arrangement as in
Fig. 2.8b with the holes 1,2, equidistant
from the centre line AC which runs
through the hole C. The angle 1c2 is not
known so that the other relationships
shown on Fig. 2.6 are used. Note that
we have altered the isosceles triangle to
the two right-angled triangles to make
the calculation easier.
From Fig. 2.6
basic geometry required - the necessary
tables of values, as well as of squares AC2 = 1C2 - 1 A2
and square roots, will be found in The = 4 — 0.25 = 3.75
Model Engineer's Handbook (Tubal
AC = V3.75 = 1.936 in.
Cain, published by Nexus Special Inter¬
ests Ltd.), and comprehensive tables The co-ordinates of the three holes
can be bought for a small outlay from are now shown on Fig. 2.8c, the two
bookshops. It will be seen that there are bases being Jin. removed from hole no
several ways of finding the length of Fig. 2.9 Holes in an unknown triangle. 2. These co-ordinates assume that the
any size of a triangle if either the angle workpiece is set up in the machine with
or the other lengths are known, and if = 1 x Sin 60 or 0.866 in. Length x-c is line AC horizontal.
the arrangement of holes is split up into given by z-C Cos 60 = 1 x 0.500 = 0.500.
a series of such triangles the dimensions Thus the co-ordinates of hole 2 are Holes in a triangle - angles not known
can be rearranged into co-ordinates as 1.000H, 2.366V(1.5 + 0.866). Note that This is a more difficult case, for if the
for a rectangle. the other lengths we need are the same triangle cannot be rendered right-
as those already found in this case 2-x = angular and if no angles are known,
Holes in a circle x-6 = 3-7 = y-5, and x-C = C-y. The table the relationships in Fig. 2.6 cannot be
Fig. 2.7 shows six equally spaced holes of co-ordinates then reads: used. Fig. 2.9 shows such a case.
on a 2 in. diameter circle. Select a posi¬ Denote the lengths of the lines by small
Hole No. Horizontal Vertical
tion for the bases OH and OV outside letters corresponding to the opposite
1 0.500 1.500
the circle at a convenient distance from angle e.g a opposite A, b opposite B etc.
2 1.000 2.366
the centre, say 1.500 in. The co-ordinates Then the relationship is given by:
3 2.000 2.366
of holes 1 and 4 are easy, 1 being 0.500H,
4 2.500 1.500
1.50OV and 4 being 2.500H, 1.50OV. b2 + c2 - a2
5 2.000 0.634 Cos A =
Now take hole 2. We need the distances
6 1.000 0.634 2bc
2-x and x-C. The triangle is x2C and the
Point C 1.500 1.500
angle is 60 degrees. Length 2-C is a2 , r2 _ u2
known, as 1 in., the radius of the circle. From this example it will be seen and Cos B =--- Etc.
Fig. 2.8 Holes in a circle to a pitch dimension. Hence (from Fig. 2.6) 2-x = 2-c Sin 60 that it is possible to locate all the holes 2ac

26 27
Putting in the figures will give the which is depressed until it only just and the slide screwed down until it can
angles A and B. We can then use these emerges from the shank. The work- go no further. It is no more accurate,
angles to find the lengths x and y in Fig. piece is then traversed across in the but saves time and avoids mistakes in
2.9b by writing, from Fig. 2.6: other plane over the necessary range of setting. I use a similar device on the
co-ordinates. In the case of Fig. 2.4, for table of the milling machine which has
example, one could drill the four holes adjustable stops. These are set first and
y = c.Sin A (OR a.SIN B)
first, and then mark out for the outline locked, and then gauge bars interposed
x = c.Cos A of the square. A similar method is used for the various table positions.
when marking out for cylinder ports in I have taken rather a long time over
Note that it is not necessary to know those cases where co-ordinate milling this section, because those unaccus¬
the angle B, but it is useful as a check on Fig. 2.10 Angles in a semi-circle. is not to be applied. (This requires the tomed to what was called geometry at
the working. The length of y should end mill or slot drill to cut to an exact school may not be familiar with the
come out the same in each case. Useful accessories width and this, in turn, depends on the principles, and those who are may not
A worked example is taken from Fig. Enough has been said of the method to run-out of the chuck or arbor used.) appreciate the possibilities. When
2.9c. enable you to develop it further for Fig. 2.12 shows a device used when working on models of my own design
yourself. It will be appreciated that the a number of components had to be I now tend to dimension all holes from
16 + 9-4

Cos A = - = 0.8750 principle is exactly that used in jig machined with the same vertical co¬ datum lines and increasingly use the
2x12 boring, except that precision slip ordinates. The vertical slide is set to miller instead of the drilling machine -
gauges are employed for measuring each co-ordinate in turn and a gauge- it is, in effect, a drill with a compound
From, tables, the co-ordinates on the machine, rather block made (shown shaded). A similar table. Flowever, as it is not always
than relying on the feedscrew indexes. block is then made for each vertical convenient to pack up the work, as a
A = 28 deg. 57 min. setting. There is then no need to use the rule I start all the holes with the appro¬
Computer-controlled machine tools use
BD = y = 3 x 0.4841 = 1.452 in. the same principle, the computer being index - the appropriate block is fitted priate size of Slocombe drill. I can then
AD = x = 3 x 0.8750 (from above) used to calculate the co-ordinates. A move to the drilling machine to finish
few words on useful accessories may the job. When making plate jigs, how¬
= 2.625 ever, I always drill right through and
Fig. 2.9d shows this triangle ren¬ Fig. 2.11 shows a scribing centre ream on the miller.
dered into co-ordinates. You may care which may be used for any marking In conclusion, to repeat two impor¬
to check this - easily done by drawing out done by co-ordinates. It simply tant points. First, get into the habit of
the figure to scale. comprises a very hard steel scribing stating the horizontal co-ordinate first
point held in a Morse taper shank in the when writing them down. Secondly,
Useful special case headstock, with a fairly strong spring always traverse feedscrews in the same
A very useful geometrical truth is behind. In use, the workpiece is set to direction when coming up to the mark,
shown in Fig. 2.10. This shows a the desired co-ordinate in one plane, and if you overshoot always go back at
number of points, 1, 2, 3, disposed and then brought up to the scriber least half a turn before going forward
around a pitch circle, of which AB is the again.
diameter. In this case, the angles A1B,
A2B, A3B, etc., are all right angles. The Location jigs
Taper to suit head 20“ point
theorem is stated in the geometry hardened I do not propose to describe jigs for
or tailstock
books in the words "the angle inscribed every purpose - it would take far too
in a circle on the diameter is a right long, and in any case, part of the fun
angle". This property can be made use lies in thinking out your own solution.
of in setting out co-ordinates in some sliding But I will illustrate one or two devices
circumstances, and saves time in find¬ fit which may help to suggest others.
ing angles, especially when the points Fig. 2.12 Use of the co-ordinate setting block My first example is that of drilling a
are not equally spaced. Fig. 2.11 The spring centre. gauge. cross-hole in a spindle. Everyone knows

I w the two holes truly in line. Do it this holes in the plain stock, with an excess
way. The piece of square or rectangular of length, first, and then to do all the
material is held in the machine vice turning operations. Step 1 is to drill one
mounted on the vertical slide, and one end of the stock, using the jig at Fig.
hole is drilled. If it isn't convenient - or 2.13a. I then make a plate-jig (but see
Fig. 2.13a Cross-drilling jig with end stop. possible - to ream, use an undersize later also) as Fig. 2.14.
drill first and then open out to correct The already-drilled stock is slipped
___ _ h should be ot least l-5d sizes. Without shifting the vertical slide Fig. 2.14 Hole-spacing fixture for use with over the long peg in the plate, the
h* __ w should be ot least 2d the work is now rotated through 90 Fig. 2.13b. drilling jig is located by the short peg
X_ -..
degrees (set it dead square in the first in the second hole, and the stock
place) and the second hole drilled. You being drilled before any turning is done. drilled. Provided the fit of the pegs is
may have to adjust the cross slide, but This method does present some good, and you have taken reasonable
Fig. 2.13b Straight-through jig. provided you have not interfered with problems as I have already suggested, care to align the drill to the work the
the vertical setting the two holes must and you may, for example, meet some two holes must be dead in line and at
be in line. Drill and tap for the stop- difficulty in extracting the workpiece the correct centres. Fig. 2.15 shows the
screw if you need one. I think, too, it after drilling. I tend to use this type of thing in use, and Fig. 2.16 a finished
pays to enlarge the one end of the jig only when I have a fairly large rod. Note that in this case it is important
cross-hole for the drill to break through number of similar workpieces to make. not to enlarge the bottom half of the
into, but there are cases where you In most cases my practice is to drill the hole in the drilling jig.
can't do this. If you do, you must mark
which side is top - as well as the sizes of
Fig. 2.13c Cross-drilling jig for spacing holes. the holes. Harden it? If you like; it
depends on how much use it is likely
to get, but it is true that you only need
one drill to walk a little and you may
spoil a soft jig.
If a number of cross-holes are to be
drilled in the workpiece the arrange¬
ment shown in Fig. 2.13c may be used,
although I will describe an alternative
later. To make this type, the longitudinal
hole must first be drilled (and reamed if
Fig. 2.13d A collection of small cross-dril¬ desired) in the four-jaw, taking more
ling jigs with a sample workpiece. than usual care over clearing chips so
that the hole is straight. The cross-holes
how to do this, but perhaps not all are then drilled using the method
realise how greatly it can be extended. already described. It is clearly necessary
Two forms of the jig are shown in Fig. to take care in setting up for the centre
2.13a and b, the only difference being lines, both in the four-jaw and when
that one has an end-stop and the other mounting in the vertical slide. The
not. The former is needed when the dimensions 'x', 'y', and 'z' are set up
hole must be positioned in relation to using the cross-slide index and are best
one end, but I use the latter when the recalculated as co-ordinates from the
rod needs subsequent machining op¬ reference face of the jig as shown at 'X'
erations - a case I will come to in a and 'Y'. I use this fixture when making
moment. The main problem is to get handrail stanchions, the holes in the stock Fig. 2.15 A universal hole-spacing jig in use.

30 31
your taste, but if odd lengths are and astern events correctly. The proce¬
required it is usually better to make a dure is to machine the bore of the
'special'. In this case the pegs are eccentric strap to size, and make and
stepped, so that one end fits the base fit the eccentric rod to it. The strap is
jig and the other the hole in the drilling fitted to the peg 'a' and the end of the
jig. These pegs may have to be made rod into the 'gubbins' - 'b'; this latter is
specially for each job, but that doesn't no more than a drilling block with a slot
take long and the device saves hours of in it. A peg is slipped into the base block
time. and into the lower part of the gubbins
An alternative method is to make a to locate the eccentric rod sideways, as
cross-drilling jig long enough to accept at 'c'. This arrangement has proved very
the blank and drill all the holes with successful with small rods, especially
this. It is quicker, as it involves less those made in one piece, which cannot
setting up, but it is a little more difficult be fine-adjusted by filing the foot of the
to make as you need a long, parallel rod.
Fig. 2.16 Link turned from the blank in Fig. 2.15. hole instead of a relatively short one. I For large rods I use the jig shown in
have one or two such, but only for Fig. 2.19. The principle is the same, but
In these photos, you will observe spaced that I could use it for centres components needed in quantities of in this case the eye end of the rod is
that the base is no more than a lot of advancing by ^in. one way, and by Ain. more than half-a-dozen. drilled and (if need be) bored in the
holes surrounded by metal. This makes another, with a few centres at the Jin. lathe. The hole for the locating peg, and
a good universal jig. This particular interval, but it gave me the idea that a Eccentric rod jig the setting centre, are set out by the co¬
piece came to me with some junk at fully universal jig could easily be made, A special case is shown in Fig. 2.18. It is, ordinate drilling method. The peg is
an auction, and what it was for I don't Fig. 2.17. You can, of course, space the as everyone knows, imperative that the made a good fit on the eccentric bore
know. Fortuitously the holes were so holes, and have as many of them to suit eccentric rods of any Stephenson link and a hard push fit in the base. (You
motion be of the same length, other¬ may wish to take it out and use for a
wise it will be impossible to time ahead different job later.) The base is set true

Fig. 2.18 An eccentric-rod

drilling jig.


Fig. 2.17 Suggested dimensions for a universal plate jig.

32 33
Fig. 2.20 Jig for holding

lot of gas as the heat tends to be con¬ the bed centre line but also to the main
on the faceplate to the locating centre, extension of the principle, designed to ducted away, but if too light a section is bearings axially. Similarly, the column
and a balance-weight fitted so that the facilitate the brazing-up of a set of six used then it may distort and fail to serve holes in the cylinder block must be in
lathe can be run fast enough. The drag-links. These were made by brazing its purpose. The use of a soft mild steel, correct relationship to the two bores,
eccentric is located sideways by adjust¬ bosses to the ends of a steel strip. In preferably black stock, will reduce the and these bores to each other.
ing the two screws (or you could simply this case the centre-distances were not latter risk, but the end 'steps'should not If the old-fashioned device of making
use pegs) which I find, if nipped up, will critical and alignment error could have be too thin. the columns a slack fit so that the
be sufficient to hold the job without been corrected by slightly twisting the cylinder could be adjusted had been
clamping. The eccentric is, of course, links, but a jig was used solely for A cylinder boring fixture and alignment adopted, there still remained the need
tightened onto the peg, and if not really convenience in holding the parts while jig for the cylinder bores to be aligned and
tight a piece of cigarette paper put brazing. The sketch is self-explanatory I now propose to describe a fairly spaced in relation to the main bearings.
under the cap. for the most part, the jig being cut from elaborate jig set-up as a bit of a contrast Flad the engine been larger the problem
An almost identical jig is used for a solid piece with a slot drill; as the to what has gone before, and to might have been a little easier, as some
dealing with any connecting rods short stock was in the vertical slide anyway, illustrate how a jig may be needed for end-float could (and in any case should)
enough to be swung in the lathe, and I the holes were co-ordinate drilled be¬ a one-off job to ensure alignment of an have been allowed at the crosshead
use this even if I have only one connect¬ fore tapping. Why use screws instead of assembly. This bit of jiggery was de¬ pins, but in a small engine it was quite
ing rod to make. It has the great pegs? Experience showed that molten signed to cope with the building of a impossible to leave enough float to
advantage that it ensures that the bores flux could solidify over pegs, and make marine engine in which the cylinder accommodate the probable, let alone
of the small and large ends are truly in it difficult to remove the finished job, so assembly is supported on columns the possible maximum misalignment.
line, in both planes. Any twist will, of stainless steel screws were used in¬ from the crank-bed (see Fig. 2.21). A The solution adopted was to design a
course, cause binding, while misalign¬ stead. Further, to ensure that the work little reflection showed that there were plate-jig for drilling both bed and
ment in the other plane will cause was not brazed to the jig by accident the considerable possibilities of misalign¬ cylinder block, and then to use this jig
sideplay at the crosshead or on the latter was heated before use until a ment if the work was carried out in the to make a second one to hold the
gudgeon pin in an 1C engine. good film of oxide was formed all over, usual way by marking out. Co-ordinate cylinders for boring on the faceplate.
too heavy for the flux to reduce. One drilling could have reduced these er¬ This reduced the probability of errors
A brazing jig point has to be watched; if the jig is rors, but not all. The columns must be due to machining to those of the
The next device - Fig. 2.20 - is a further made very heavy then you may waste a correctly set out in relation not only to dimensional accuracy of the crankshaft.
cig. 2.2 7 A small model launch engine. The design can present alignment problems.

is the main-bearing thrust faces would, shaft, and this proved to be the case -
n any case, have to be fitted in the an end-float of three thou, at the cross¬
isual way. This fitting operation would, heads absorbed all other errors.
t was expected, absorb any error in the Fig. 2.22 shows the outline of the two
taking care that they were square to finish, so that it could be used for
same material. Again, the only marking surplus hole B to remind that this was each other, and the job then clamped setting-up again should the same job
out that was done were the two centre not needed except on the boring jig, up to the vertical slide (left there from turn up a second time,
lines, and even this was not really and also marked to show from which making the other jig) and the centres A The cylinder block was then attached
necessary. The holes B are tapping size side of the jig each component was to and DD set out and marked by the co- to the jig with six screws; in fact four
for the columns, and it will be observed be drilled. Incidentally I should have ordinated method. 'A' was lightly would have been enough to take the
that there are six of these, though only mentioned that all holes were drilled in centred with a tiny Slocombe. The cutting forces but by using six any
five columns, this being a requirement two stages to ensure that they were the drilling jig was then set over the faces differences between screw and hole
for the jig mentioned later. Holes C are correct size. and the centres DD observed through were averaged out, making the overall
tapping size for the main-bearing studs The making of the jig took surpris- the corresponding holes in it - also setting pretty accurate. The first bore
- if a jig is to be made these might as ingly little time, and drilling of the marked D in Fig. 2.23. When truly was roughed and finished, and the
well be jigged up also. (The main- workpieces only a few minutes, and it centred - and this is a more accurate casting then removed and reset with
bearing caps can be drilled in a simple is likely that it would, in fact, have taken procedure than many might imagine, the other bore presented to the tool. As
box jig or by co-ordinates in the lathe.) longer to mark out the two parts and as the eye has considerable critical the jig had not been touched, this was
At D are the holes for the screws to hold drill in the conventional way; the cylin- acuity when any misalignment is ob- bound to be correctly aligned. Fig. 2.25
the jig to the bedplate. The reference der would not have been too easy to served - the two were clamped to- shows the set-up, with the drilling jig
plates AA are made to fit the reference hold for marking out. gether and the tapping holes at BB alongside, and Fig. 2.26 boring in
faces on the cylinder block, and the only Fig. 2.24 is the boring fixture; this is were drilled. (I should have mentioned progress. This procedure has taken a
measurement that needs to be done on made of more substantial material, and that the drilling jig holes are tapping lot of words to describe but in fact it
the jig is the setting of these plates - all selected to be of even thickness. Had size, and the clearance holes in the was remarkably rapid throughout. It
holes were drilled by co-ordinates, such not been available I should have cylinder block opened out afterwards.) will be noted that there was very little
Even here, a slight error is not impor- used a piece of thick frame-steel and The fixture was then set up on the lathe marking out to be done - a time-
tant, the only effect being to put the riveted two thick stiffeners each side, faceplate and accurately centred to the consuming operation even with a ver-
slide-valve faces a trifle out; a tolerance checking with a micrometer to see that point A, after which the cavity was nier height gauge - and that the biggest
of ± 10 thou, would not hurt. the overall thickness was uniform with- bored out to allow the boring bar to risk of normal procedure was avoided
The jig having been made, it was in a few thou. To make the fixture, the emerge from the cylinder bore. This almost entirely, that of the drill point
marked with yellow paint round the two main centre lines were first set out, cavity was in fact bored to a good wandering sideways. The slowest part

38 39
of the work was the conversion and boring is not practicable at scale sizes.
subsequent checking of the dimensions The recesses in the bed can be milled
to decimals. with a slot drill and (provided the usual
I could extend this section consider¬ precautions are taken) are bound to be
ably, but I hope that the examples given in line both vertically and horizontally.
will give you some idea of the possibi¬ If, however, the brasses are then
lities. There are, of course, many books machined one at a time there may well
dealing with the subject for production be considerable misalignment when
engineers, many of them vast tomes. the shaft is offered up. The little fixture
Such complexity is not necessary for shown in Fig. 2.27 will ensure that the
the model engineer (and some would relative positions of the bore and the
say is overdone in industry, too) but I alignment faces are held within close
do know some who go to a great deal limits. Naturally the dimensions will
more trouble than I do; and why not, for differ depending on the size of the
if you like jigs it is great fun! I believe, brasses you are making; those shown
though, that for most applications the correspond to the Stuart Turner triple
simpler the device the better, provided expansion engine.
it adheres to the basic principles of The first step is to machine the rough
working from a definite datum line or brasses dead square all over - they will,
plane. One final point before going on of course, be made from two pieces
to consider a few specialist applica¬ soldered together in the usual way. This
tions. When you have made the jig - or having been done the recesses in the
any such accessory - mark it for what it sides, bottoms and tops of all four must
is before you put it away! You never be machined to identical dimensions.
know when you may need it again and Whether done on the vertical slide or a
an unmarked jig can be a snare and a milling machine the procedure is the
trap, for it just may be a special one you same - work to co-ordinates, and take
have forgotten about, made ten thou great care with the setting up, especi¬
over the design size! ally the squareness of the vice.
The fixture shown was made from
A bearing boring fixture aluminium alloy, simply because I had
(Adapted from an article in the a chunk the right size handy, but any¬
S.I.M.E.C. Magazine) thing would do: indeed, for only four off,
Large multi-cylinder engines nowadays even lignum vitae. The rectangular slot
have the bearing housings in the bed¬ is machined very carefully to be a slide
plate line-bored and these take semi¬ fit to the brasses, and two lines scribed
circular bearing shells, which may across to correspond to the centre of
sometimes also be line-bored in situ. the bearing. The fixture is thicker than
The compound, triple, and quadruple the width of the slots in the bearing
expansion steam engines of earlier brasses, to allow for a recess at the back
days, however, had rectangular ways to clear the point of the boring tool, but
for the brasses, as these could be you could use packing behind to
machined on the planer when the rest achieve the same result, in which case
of the work on that part was being the fixture need be only ^ in. thick (for
done. There is much to be said for using this engine, that is). The little clamping
Fig. 2.26 Boring in progress. The boring bar is damped as shown in Fig. 4.28 (p. 138). this construction on a model, for line bar has one fixing hole slotted so that it

40 41
is only a case of loosening the screws will put the bore out of line by the same
to change workpieces - less risk of one amount. Drilling and boring follow the
getting lost in the swarf tray! The edges usual procedure: I started by drilling,
of the slot should be bevelled so that bored out to reaming size, and finished
the brasses don't bind here. with a reamer. Fig. 2.28 shows the Fig. 2.28 The bearing boring fixture in use.
To set it up on the faceplate, clamp fixture in action - note the balance
up more or less in position and then weight, which enabled boring to be within reason; the limit is the size of time on the face of it, but I always prefer
use your centre-height gauge (or scrib¬ done at about 600 rpm. your chuck. to turn the top diameter when doing
ing block if you haven't one of those Fig. 2.29 shows the device, and chuck work. The spigot which fits inside
useful accessories) to set the centre Fixture for machining double eccentrics shows that the angles of advance were the main body can be reduced by about
lines of the fixture truly at centre- All reversing engines using Stephenson 120° and 150°. Make the arbor or a thou with advantage. The body
height. Alternatively, if you have a gear need a pair of eccentrics providing mandrel first - ground stock will save should be as large as will enter the
vernier height gauge you can work the same angle of advance ahead and
from the sides of the slot. Once true, astern. Personally I prefer to use two
clamp up securely, and check again to separate eccentrics, so that each can be
make sure that the job hasn't shifted set individually, but this is not always
when you tightened the nuts. Before possible. Several methods have been
using it, mark each of the brasses on published in books over the last 90 or
one side - say letter A for aft - and make 100 years. The fixture described here
sure when assembling the fixture that was made to deal with a set of such
this faces the tailstock; when fitted to eccentrics in which the angle of ad¬
the bed all should face aft, so. that they vance differed between the HP and
are all the same way round. Make sure those for the IP and LP cylinders. They
that there is absolutely no dirt either in were about ^in. diameter with a throw
the slot or on the recesses of the of j2in ' the shaft bein9 sin- diameter,
brasses, for even a thou displacement but the idea can be used for any size
Fig. 2.29 Fixture for machining twin eccentrics Ican also be used for single eccentrics).

42 43
hole in your three-jaw chuck, as it must chuck. There is no real need to set any and, a few, in the nose angle, though
be capable of being gripped by the full of the lines on the face in line with a these are not often met with. The table
chuck jaw but I usually try to get the on page 79 shows the differences. Over
length of the jaws if at all possible. Face
zero line aligned more or less with the the years I have collected quite a range
both ends and then scribe two lines
No. 1 jaw of the chuck, just to make it of these collets as well as arbors for
exactly at centre-height and at right
easier to see where I am. But first you holding little cutters, drill chucks and
angles on one end. With one of these
lines vertical, set off the throw of the must rough machine the eccentric the like. Some came with my little Boley
eccentric, marked with a short line. blanks and bore the hole. You must & Leinen watchmaker's lathe, others
Now transfer to the four-jaw and set also pay particular attention to which with the Wolff-Jahn miniature milling
this throw dead true but with the long way round the blanks are to be fitted. It machine, and others again from odd
doesn't matter whether the boss is purchases at sales in case they came in
centre line aligned with one of the
outwards or inwards when attached to useful. Most of these, I found, could be
chuck jaws. To do this, apply a spirit
the fixture as far as use is concerned, used in the Boley, but very few would fit
level to the jaw and ensure that the line
but it does matter that the boss be on all of the machines and accessories in
also is horizontal using a scribing block
the correct side or you may find you Fig. 2.30 Machining a twin eccentric. the shop. I shall refer to the draw bar
or your centre-height gauge. Once set,
tighten the jaws and drill, bore and tap have machined an angle of retard! If the fitting later (page 77). This is not a
blank is a casting, of course, the posi¬ the bore as well. I have never had one difficult job to deal with, but the
the hole. Now for the setting lines. Mark
tion of the cast lobes will be a guide; slip but there is always a first time. difference in the keyways did present
the original centre line in some way and
set this horizontal and to the front of the otherwise you must study the drawing problems. Apart from anything else
carefully. A collet converting fixture there was the risk of damaging the key
machine. This need not be exact. Rotate
Set the blank on the mandrel and get When referring to 8mm collets very few in the machine spindle if an undersize
the chuck in the normal turning direc¬
the correct throw running more or less writers identify them by make, assum¬ keyway was drawn in.
tion (i.e. top towards you) until the next
concentric. Tighten the nut and mark a ing, no doubt, that all are the same. The fixture shown in Fig. 2.31 was
jaw is nearly horizontal. Set a 30“
line (not permanently yet) on the face, This is far from being the case. They designed to bring all keyways to the
protractor gauge on top of this jaw
dead in line with the '120' line. Slacken differ in draw bar thread, in keyway size same dimensions. It is not all that
and rotate still further until a spirit level
set thereon shows the top of the gauge the nut and rotate the eccentric until
to be horizontal. Check the level both this line aligns with the 'O' on the
ways round. The jaw is now 30" below fixture. Check that this lobe of the
the horizontal. Scribe a line across the eccentric is reasonably concentric. If it
face of the body, from the hole towards is not, then you must adjust to reach a
you and mark it temporarily '120'. compromise then return to the original
Repeat this process with the protractor position, tighten the nut properly, and
gauge set at 60° and mark this line 150. mark the setting line on the face of the
Naturally, these angles will be set to blank permanently. Machine that lobe
suit the engine you are making. If you of the eccentric then rotate as before
have no protractor gauge you will have until the line on the blank's face aligns
to set out the angles on a piece of sheet with 'O' and machine the back lobe. I
steel or brass and file this carefully to won’t go into details of the machining,
shape, but for the angles shown an as this depends so much both on the
ordinary draughtsman's set-square will type of eccentric and on your own
do. The fixture can now be removed machining practice. Fig. 2.30 shows
from the chuck and the arbor-screwed the job in progress on my own lathe.
in with some Loctite retaining com¬ One point - it will, of course, be fatal if
pound on the threads. Mark the angles the blank slips on the mandrel! So, in
permanently. addition to the locknut you may wish to Fig. 2.31 Left: collet keyway milling fixture. Below: critical dimensions of collets of the same
use a spot of Evo-Stik or similar glue in diameter.
The fixture is used in the three-jaw

important if a keyway is oversize in this as the latter, being split, is not uniform brought forward until the cutter also rod - just a bit of rag held in a twist of
application as its sole function is to in diameter when unloaded. An 8mm aligned with the collet keyway and then 16 gauge wire - had to be made to cope
prevent rotation of the collet when reamer would have been a help and if locked. Trial cuts were made on a dud with this.
tightening the draw bar. The dimen¬ boring is the only way then care must arbor, cutting starting from the head De-burring took some time, and was
sions of the block are not critical. I used be taken to get a good finish. After end of the existing keyway (so tending done on the cylindrical part with a fine
®gin. thick because a piece that size was drilling and tapping the holes the block to drive the collet further into the India stone. Burrs on the threads did
in the bitbox but \ in. would have was split as seen in the drawing, the top fixture) and running right through the present some difficulty in a few cases.
served. After squaring off all sides it of this split being opened out with a thread. Some collets had flats here so Those for which I had a die were easily
was marked out for the holes and then warding file to clear the cutter. that no cutting was needed, but most dealt with but for others I filed the side
set up in the four-jaw chuck with the This was a 2.0mm Woodruffe key¬ had the keyway full length. Once the faces of the slot with a No. 4 cut Swiss
centre for the 8mm hole running true. way cutter, this size corresponding to depth was correct (that for the Wolff- file first and then used a bit of softwood
The ,96 in. dimension helped, as it just the widest keyway (the Boley). The Jahn, the deepest of my collection) the and some superfine emery powder in a
fitted the groove for the chuck jaw. It is vertical slide was set up with more than vertical slide index was noted, and little oil on the threads. The wood soon
important that this hole be square to usual care to get it square across the cutting started on the range of arbors. took up the thread profile. The collets
the front face of the block when in the lathe (Fig. 2.32). The collet was set in After the first few the average time were all washed in clean paraffin and
chuck, and also that it be parallel to the the fixture with the shoulder behind the taken was about 48 seconds. As the then re-oiled. As remarked elsewhere
1’in. side. The hole was drilled and then taper bedding against the end of the fixture had been set with its edge (p. 77) there was little trouble with the
bored to be a sweet fit on a solid arbor. block. After setting the collet keyway in overlapping the face of the vertical slide draw bars. Two of the cutter arbors and
This was used in preference to a collet line with the slit (by eye) the saddle was a little it was possible to machine three collets were rather stiff in the
arbors carrying chucks without remov¬ Boley drawbar, and these were eased
ing the latter - a great saving in time. with the die which came with the
Each collet of unknown provenance machine. I suspect that these ones had
(some had no markings at all) was been made to fit the IME lathe, which
checked for hardness first, and two, has a thread about 7 thou larger in
which seemed to be dead hard, were diameter than most. They had a Craw¬
left as they were. Any which seemed ford number which I could not identify.
tougher than the others were left until The fixture took about an hour to
last. Macron Bcutting oil was used, and make, and the machining time was little
the cutting speed employed was about more, but the result is that I can now
25% less than that given in the Model use any collet or arbor on any machine,
Engineer's Handbook (published by and this has vastly increased the range
Nexus Special Interests) for silver steel. of sizes available. To have bought new
The only problem met with was the collets of these sizes might have cost
mush of small chippings that got into hundreds of pounds today. Well worth
the socket of the fixture, and a cleaning the time spent!

Fig. 2.32 The fixture in use.

46 47
centre. Few were at 60°, and I have confess that I detest having to do so
some which measure 90°, one at 75°, after I have taken so much care to adjust
and one which is markedly curved on it to turn truly parallel. Furthermore, the
SECTION 3 the taper - all genuine and as the lathe- less my parallel test mandrel is used the
maker provided. The centre thus punch¬ better, for although it is precision
ed was often deepened or enlarged by ground it is not hardened. For many
using the square centre which acted as years I had in mind to design a
a negative rake countersink bit, and calibrated attachment to fit to the tail-
Round and About the Lathe Myfords for one still list them. Our
surprise is not, therefore, justified and
stock poppet but never found the time,
until one day it occurred to me that I
we should expect to meet the odd one had one all the time in the shape of my
out especially when repairing old boring head fitted to a No. 2 MT shank
machinery or, as I seem to do quite and calibrated in thousandths of an
often, when restoring an old lathe. inch! See Fig. 3.1.
There are many ways and means of This accepts g in. diameter round-
not all model engineers have years of dealing with these, but I find the use of shank cutters and all that was necessary
The lathe is the mainstay of our work¬
experience behind them. In addition, a ball centre the most handy and the was to make a 60" point and harden it.
shops, and rightly so, for it is the most
the machining instructions for e.g. the least trouble. This was first devised In the event I made it slightly more than
versatile machine that has ever been
indexing knob of the screwcutting when an ancient tower clock was being 60 on the grounds that when in use, set
invented-though invention is probably
depth stop may have other applications overhauled, where the centres in some over towards the front of the lathe, it
the wrong word for it has been the
as well. of the arbors (some over an inch in would bed better that way. The next job
subject of development over several
It has proved unusually difficult to diameter) were found to have spherical I had to do required the setover to be
thousand years. The number of acces¬
arrange the items in this section in any centre holes. backwards, so this was a waste of time
sories and attachments devised over
logical order, and there is inevitably This is how I dealt with this one. A and 60' would have served both ways
the years is legion; one manufacturer's
some overlap of matter. Few model hard steel ball was interposed between round. The point was made of silver
price list contains one page covering
engineers' lathes experience a produc¬ the work and the normal female centre. steel (known as drill stock in the USA
the machine itself and seven more are
tion run and if my experience is any¬ The diameter is not critical as long as and Canada), machined by setting the
needed to list the ancillaries. Anyone
thing to go by, the making of models is the ball bears on the flanks of the taper boring head in the headstock taper with
who has seen the two books on turning
often interrupted by essential repairs to where there is one. However, it must be the index at zero so that the centre-
by Holtzapffel will know that the true
domestic equipment or even the neigh¬ a hard steel ball, from an old ball¬ point went in the same way each time I
ratio is nearer 700 to 1 than 7 to 1.
bour's hay-baler. You never know what bearing, and not the rustless balls filed a small flat. Here I should mention
However, it would be true to say that
may crop up in the machine shop so the supplied for use in valves etc. These that many failures to reach adequate
many of the artefacts made on a
arrangement of the subsequent pages will serve for light work but they wear hardness are due to the hardening
Holtzapffel would seldom find a place
follows the same pattern! rapidly. Worn balls are perfectly satis¬ temperature not being held long en¬
in a model engineer's workshop!
factory provided they are not chipped ough. The transition from one state to
The following pages are not all
The ball centre or too badly pitted. The method has the other when hardening takes time,
concerned with 'things'; some deal with
We are so accustomed to the standard since been used on a variety of repair and it is not only necessary to heat
methods of using things rather than
60" centre and the Slocombe drill to jobs with perfect results provided, of slowly but also to hold the final temp¬
their design or construction. This is
match that it comes as a surprise when course, the original centre hasn't been erature for about five minutes for each
quite natural, for turning is a craft in
some other form appears. However, it burred over or damaged. It saves the one-eighth of an inch of thickness (or
which skills will develop over many
must be remembered that our friend chore of setting up the fixed steady and diameter) if the work is to be hard right
years. The way in which tools are used
the centre punch started life as just that re-cutting a new centre hole. through.
is as important as the tools themselves.
- a punch for marking the centres in To prevent scaling I use an anti-scale
I have included detailed instructions on
bars to be turned. The turner would Setting over the tailstock paint obtained from the makers of
the manufacture of some of the de¬
take great care to ensure that his punch This is always a nuisance. The actual ceramic enamels, but a pasty mixture
vices. Some may think this unnecessary
matched the angle of his machine's setting over is little trouble, but I must of powdered chalk and water (or meths)
- for them a drawing is sufficient - but

stud (this is to prevent the centre from
falling out and getting lost in the swarf
and to serve in the final stage of
manufacture) using the tailstock die-
holder on the threads.

Making the socket

The socket is made from a soft Jacobs
drill-chuck arbor, preferably one with
the Jacobs No. 6 chuck taper (chuck Nos
6A and 34) or larger. You will notice that
Fig. 3.2 Arrangement of the spring centre. the tang has been cut off - this is not
essential but it makes matters easier.
you have a Quorn, I suggest you set up You can't bump the centre out anyway
and grind a male point on the tap tails (hence the flats on the head end). Set
and use the female centre shown in the the arbor in the headstock socket and
inset sketch. I find that most of my taps machine the chuck end parallel, say ^in.
above 2 BA do in fact have centres. dia as far as the beginning of the Morse
Make the centre first. You will see taper. Now drill the No. 10 clearance
(Fig. 3.3) that the shape is different in hole right through. Part off the surplus
the arrangement from that shown on of the chuck taper, facing the end to a
the detail - entirely a matter of choice. good finish. Drill ’Jin. dia x 1|in. deep,
Chuck a piece of Jin. dia mild steel and and then bore to a smooth fit to the
Fig. 3.7 Using a boring head as an offset centre.
face the end. Centre, and drill and tap centre you have already made to 1 ^in.
the 2 BA hole for the retaining stud, deep. Very slightly bevel the edges of
tail of the tap from the tailstock centre' then turn the sliding barrel to 0.375 in. the hole. Remove from the lathe and file
will serve, the only snag being that you
when tapping a concentric hole in the dia by 1 in. long, getting a really good two flats to fit any convenient spanner.
cannot then judge the temperature so
lathe. This is all very well, but as soon finish and making sure it is parallel. Fit the retaining screw to the centre
easily. Otherwise you will just have to
tolerate the scaling and remove it with as a slight bit of thread has been cut the Make a little recess at the shoulder. and, using washers if necessary, draw
tailstock ceases to perform its office Reverse in the chuck, using paper to get the centre hard up against the shoulder
emery afterwards.
This device has been used for taper while the regulation reverse rotation of it running true, take a skim over the Jin. in the arbor; then refit in the headstock.
the tap to clear chippings is hazardous. dia and form the shape of the end. Get a Take a final skim over the point - you
turning now for 25 years or more and it
It is possible to have one hand on the reasonable finish but we shall true it up now have this dead true. Whether you
has proved perfectly satisfactory. To be
wrench and the other on the tailstock in situ later. Now make the retaining harden the end or not is up to you. It
on the safe side I don't rely on the
readings of the micrometer index, but handwheel but this is difficult. This
check with a dial indicator; there is a little gadget is designed to overcome
slight difference sometimes. However, these problems. As you can see (Fig.
although I have used it for turning fish- 3.2) it is no more than a spring centre
bellied rods (see page 53) I would not and is easily made. The spring holds
apply it to any which were above about the centre-point engaged with the tap
^in. diameter, as the side forces would for perhaps J in. or so of travel, after
which the tailstock barrel can be re¬
then be too great.
adjusted. I know that some taps don't
The spring centre have centres at the tail and I use a
Sooner or later every writer of descrip¬ Jacobs chuck in such cases, however
tive articles will tell you to 'support the the wrench has a habit of slipping. If Fig. 3.3 Details of the spring centre.
won't get much wear, but it may get with the boss faced, but not centred; portion just above the tang, about | in. when turning) and if you haven't got
knocked so I recommend you case- leave this until last and drill a little long. The diameter doesn't matter but straight flute (or slow helix) drills
harden it using Kasenit or a similar centre with a Slocombe, with the whole the finish should be good. In carrying especially for brass it pays to stone
compound. Wrap a length of iron wire assembled in the arbor, as you did out this part of the work, take care that the acute cutting angle a little to reduce
round the parallel shank and clart it up when finishing the male centre. There the lathe carrier does not mark the the rake.
with powdered chalk made into a paste is less need to harden the female part, chuck taper at the other end. While still
with oil or water, or use a proprietary as the hole can't get knocked! between centres, set up the fixed steady Turning fish-bellied rods
brand of anti-scale paint to stop the The device has other uses, as no and adjust it to this short parallel part. Models of many early engines require
shank from being heat damaged. When doubt you will find. It is a handy 'holder- Then, after sliding back the tailstock, parts to be turned to a fish-bellied curve,
hardened - and I recommend a double up' - for example if you want to lay a slide the steady along the bed out of the examples being parallel motion links,
dose of Kasenit - clean up and chuck rule across a job on the faceplate. It can way for the present. Cut off the tang. connecting rods and parts of valve gear.
the part to polish the working surfaces. hold two pieces together while Araldite, Attach the drill chuck to the arbor These can be machined using the hand-
The spring is made from 20 or 22 Loctite or chucking cement is curing and grip in the three-jaw chuck by the rest, but if in steel this requires some
swg steel wire with 11 turns wound on a and I find it more useful than a plain cylindrical part of the fixed body, some¬ experience - particularly if the part is
\ in. dia mandrel, the ends ground centre when spinning work in the lathe where between the keyholes. Bring the slender. The use of a file is to be
square. However, you may care to to check for truth under a DTI. However, fixed steady up to the arbor and secure deprecated and, in any case, will need
experiment a bit. If most of your work please don't try to use it as a substitute it. You can then safely drill the end of hours of work to remove the rough
is done with taps below J in. then a for a running centre - it just isn't man the arbor and tap it say ,56in. BSF. Most marks and it is very difficult to obtain a
lighter spring will prevent excess pres¬ enough for that sort of work! taps this size have a centre in the head, symmetrical shape by operating cross-
sure when starting small taps, but if you so you can guide it with the tailstock and top-slides simultaneously. The fol¬
use many taps over gin. you may find Drilling an arbor for a draw bar centre to ensure that it runs true (but lowing method has been applied suc¬
the spring pressure not sufficient to The Morse taper socket of the lathe is a see page 50). Finally, machine the end cessfully to all materials, including
prevent the centre from sliding back wedging taper and any arbor properly of the arbor with a slight radius at the stainless steel, provided the work is
when turning the wrench. The solution fitted should grip sufficiently to prevent edges. It will help if a 60' centre is offer¬ not too stiff. It relies on the fact that a
is, of course, to have two (or more) any rotation. However, in most milling, ed to the tapped hole; this will guide the cantilever, loaded at the end, deflects
springs. Incidentally, although I men¬ and some drilling, operations there is a end of the draw bar while fitting. very nearly to the arc of a circle.
tioned a ]in. mandrel you may have to force which can tend to pull the taper The draw bar itself need be no more Fig. 3.4 is an example. The proce¬
reduce this a little with the heavier from its socket. This is why milling than a piece of studding, but it will help dure is first to cut off a piece of stock
gauges of wire to get the spring to cutters are best held in the three-jaw if the rear end is supported in a bush in rather longer than is needed - not less
enter the hole. chuck rather than a drill chuck. I hold the hollow mandrel. Brass is best as than two diameters each end - and after
The works should be assembled with most drills that way too, but there are this won't damage the mandrel. My facing both ends to centre fairly deeply
the two locknuts adjusted to allow the times when the ordinary drill chuck own draw bars are 'permanent' (see with a Slocombe drill. Set up between
centre to slide outwards between \ in. must be used. A similar consideration page 121) and have a cap nut secured at centres and turn the full length to about
and gin.; no more than that or the side applies to arbors carrying boring heads the end, and the same draw bar fits 0.005 inch above the largest diameter.
thrust will be excessive. In use, the tap and the like. The problem is that chuck several boring heads, chuck arbors and With a sharp-pointed tool cut a tiny
is started either with maximum spring arbors drilled and tapped for draw bars the holder for the little Clarkson throw¬ groove to mark the position of the
pressure or by screwing the tailstock are somewhat expensive; most are away slot drills I use. On the old ML7, shoulders A and B. With a felt-tipped
forward until the shoulder butts on the fitted with tangs and it isn't easy to which had a hollow tailstock, I used a pen mark the position of maximum
arbor. Once started, the tailstock barrel see how to drill and tap the 'wrong' end similar arbor for the tailstock drill chuck profile, C, which is not necessarily in
should be retracted about ^ in. and of the arbor. You can, of course, set it and so never had any problems with the middle of the length.
moved forwards as required - about the right way round in the chuck and scoring. In passing I would mention Refit the three-jaw chuck and set the
every ’ in. of tap penetration. .The tap drill right through, but this means that the most usual cause of rotating tailstock over towards you by an amount
can be worked back and forth quite buying or making an extra long drill. drill chucks is the use of drills with full equal to half the difference in diameters
freely, and the tailstock barrel can be I suggest you try it this way. Set the 'rake' when drilling brass, particularly at C and A or B. Grip the stock in the
locked if desired. arbor between centres with the tang at when breaking through. This material three-jaw with the section at C just
To make the female centre, finish this the tailstock end. Turn a short parallel does 'grab' (hence the use of zero rake inside the jaw faces. Fill the centre-hole

52 53
c D

Fig. 3.4

with a mixture of tallow and either looked for by the judges at exhibitions!
graphited or 'Moly' based oil and The work is now removed to machine Fig. 3.5 Added decoration disguises the discontinuity at the centre of the link.
engage the tailstock centre, with the the other end. If BC is shorter than the
poppet projecting no more than is chuck jaws it can simply be reversed made that way. The decorated pattern The finishing of the ends follows
absolutely necessary. You can angle and the operation repeated. If the can be turned between centres in the normal practice, the unwanted surplus
the topslide if necessary and use the diameters at A and B are not the same, ordinary way. However, if an exact being parted off and, if necessary, a tiny
leadscrew handwheel (or, better, power then the tailstock must be readjusted to blend is needed the following proce¬ centre being left in to complete the
feed) fortraversing. The length BC will suit. There is little difficulty if the ends dure is very effective. Set a very sharp operation. (Don't forget to reset the tail-
now be curved towards the tool and as ought to be smaller than the diameter round-nose tool (not too great a radius) stock, though! See page 49.) The method
the latter will travel in a straight line the at C, as these can be turned down in the slide rest and offer it to the work is very successful, the only proviso
work must adopt the curved profile afterwards, but if C is the smaller then a between centres until it just shaves the being that the part be slender enough
shown. Note that the tailstock centre is collet must be made to fit over the diameter at C. Traverse back to the for the offset tailstock to be able to bend
very heavily loaded and must be kept workpiece at C, split, of course. The point where the previously machined it. You could not expect to be able to
well lubricated. I do not recommend the important point here is that the edges curve just ends without adjusting the machine a stiff column this way.
use of a running centre as this will of the split must be smooth and well cross-slide and apply thumb pressure There are cases where a curved taper
almost certainly get in the way, and in rounded or the work will be badly on the back of the work until the tool runs the full length. If that is so, then
any case not all such are designed to marked. Finally, a problem may arise if again just shaves the work. (You may you will need a length of stock greater
take side loading of any great magnitude. the length AC or BC is greater than that have to use a piece of wood if your than that of the finished part by an
Machining procedure depends a little of the chuck jaws. In this case a holding thumb gets too hot!) Apply longitudinal amount about equal to the axial length
on the stiffness of the work, but all tools jig must be made. This is no more than feed either under power or with the top- of the chuck jaws. It is better to use the
must be honed to a fine finish and, with a piece of steel about twice the dia¬ slide and as the tool traverses gradually four-jaw in this case. This can be parted
steel, ample cutting oil applied. When meter of the job, drilled and preferably release the thumb pressure. Now re¬ off later. It is essential that the chuck
machining the connecting rods for reamed to fit the work, and slit longi¬ peat for the other side of the centre gets a good grip of the work or it will
'Rainhill' I plunged down with a tudinally. Again, it may be necessary to section, traversing in the opposite not take up the desired shape. In cases
round-nose tool almost to diameter at fit a ring inside this collet if the dia¬ direction. A little practice on a piece of where there is a straight taper at the
the base of the curve (A and B) and then meter at C is less than at the ends. scrap will help judge the amount of larger end, only the top two-thirds or
'shifted metal' with a knife tool; this It remains to deal with the short pressure required, but the procedure is more being curved, proceed as normal,
puts all cutting forces in an axial parallel portion which is left at the surprisingly easy. So much so that in but terminate the matching at the
direction away from the loaded tailstock centre of the length. Often this may be some cases I have done the whole job required point - say D in Fig. 3.4. The
centre. The final cut was made with a barely noticeable, and in many cases I this way, dispensing with the tailstock taper should be machined full length
round-nose to finish the end radii and make a feature of it as shown in Fig. 3.5; altogether. The one thing to watch out first.
to get a good surface on the rest. I you cannot do this, of course, if work¬ for is that you don't get a piece of swarf Where the bases of the part are
always use power feed when I can, and ing to a known prototype, but many between work and finger, hence the sug¬ square the same procedure is used with
this gives the desired machine finish 19th century engines were, in fact, gestion that you use a piece of wood! the four-jaw; obviously this needs more

54 55
care as the chuck must be reset each some movement as internal stresses
time. I am fortunate in having a seif¬ are relieved) then the lack of stiffness at
centring four-jaw, bought secondhand the web or webs will be felt. A packing
many years ago. It is worth its weight in piece should be set between the webs,
gold; not particularly accurate, but it however, the system can be stiffened
does save an enormous amount of up still more if clamping pieces are
setting up in the many situations where used as well, and these have the
the cylindrical part of the workpiece advantage that the cross-bolt prevents
need be no closer than about 3 thou the packing from failing out. See Fig.
coaxial with the square ends. 3.6. Note that the clamps bear on three
points, one on one web and two on the
Crankshaft machining aids other. This ensures that the clamps
There are three main problems when themselves do not impose any distor¬
machining crankshafts: (a) the long tion on the shaft.
overhang of the tool, especially when When machining the crankpin, pack¬
the throw is large, (b) the accurate ing must be set between the webs and
setting-out of the throw-pieces, and (c) the throw-pieces to take the thrust from
preventing deflection of what is a very the tail stock and also to stiffen up the
long and slender workpiece - especially assembly. Fig. 3.7 shows one solution
and Fig. 3.8 another; the first for a Fig. 3.7 Purpose-made jacking screws to take tailstock thrust.
if it is a multi-throw crank. Some con¬
tribution to the solution of (a) is given slender three-throw shaft and the sec¬
on pages 93 and 95. To meet (b) I always ond for a stiff single crank model of that which is being machined. Mention dealing with tangential tools (page 95
use the co-ordinate method, drilling the some size. I always provide a centre- is made elsewhere of the tool shape and Fig. 3.44) but a word about measur-
necessary centre-holes, and even bor¬ hole in the throw-piece for the end of used for crankpin machining when ing the pin may be helpful. It is often
ing, either on the vertical slide or on the the Fig. 3.7 type jacking screw to sit in.
milling machine. The following notes This is located without any attempt at
may help with the rigidity problem, (c). real precision; a small drill is taken right
If the crank throw is solid then there through the throw-piece from the cen¬
will be no difficulty in the initial machin¬ tre-hole drilled for the lathe centre, and
ing of the journals - the shaft can be set (if need be) opened out with a Slocombe
between centres with no risk of bowing. on the back.
However, if, as is good practice, a final Additional stiffness can be achieved
skimming cut is taken over the journals (and is strongly recommended when
after all other machining is done (for dealing with a multi-throw shaft) if
whether a forging, or chewed from a clamps as used when machining the
solid piece of metal, there is likely to be journals are fitted to all webs except

Fig. 3.6 Use of clamps

on crankweb to stiffen
the shaft while

Fig. 3.8 Toolmaker's jacks in use on a 1-inch single-throw crank.

56 57
not possible to get a micrometer onto
the pin, and even a vernier caliper may
be difficult. Even when the anvil of a
micrometer can be applied it may be
difficult to be sure that the pin is
parallel. In such cases I start by machin¬
ing a short stub of steel to two dia¬
meters, one the desired size of the pin,
and the other 0.004 inch more in
diameter. A piece of ^ inch gauge stock
(or even mild steel or brass if it is only
going to be used the once) is then filed
with two gaps each a sweet slide fit to
one of these diameters. This can then
be used as a gauge when turning. If the
large (oversize) gap 'goes' then I know
that I am within less than 0.004 inch of
drawing size, and can proceed accord¬
ingly. If it 'goes' too easily, and the other
gap doesn't, one has to be careful! I
then use feelers in the gauge to check
the size before taking off any more.
Every shaft is different, and it would
not be right in a book like this one to go Fig. 3.9 Combined centre-height gauge and
through the various methods. But one scriber for use on the lathe.
point, already hinted at, is worth em¬
for presenting yet another, for it offers
phasising. A fair bit of metal is removed
several advantages. As will be seen
when making a crankshaft, and in its
from the photograph Fig. 3.9 it is
very nature there will be locked up
stresses in the rough material, whatever double-sided, so that it can be applied
equally well to tools in the front or rear
form it takes. It pays to rough machine
toolpost. Secondly, the hard HSS points
all over, and especially clean up the
of the gauge are available as an accur¬
webs, first, and then leave the job for
some days before proceeding to finish ate and preset scribing block for mark¬
ing out work in the lathe. There is, for
machining. I would never cut a crank¬ but none of these are vital and will
example, no difficulty in setting out a very fine oilstone and much care, so
shaft blank from bright drawn mild depend on the size of HSS toolbits
rings of holes using the jaws of the that the 'point' is both sharp, and
steel without stress relieving at about which are available. Those I used are
three- or four-jaw chuck as a dividing square across the end. The burr under¬
350"C or at the hottest, barely visible made from a single piece of ]in. square
agent (see page 133), and really accurate neath must also be removed with the
red, for about half an hour and would material that was nicked on the grinder same fine stone and equal care.
marking out can be done by using the
still allow a gap of some days between and snapped in two. The ends are then The base part (A) started life as a
device in conjunction with the vertical
roughing out and final machining. squared very carefully on the grinder,
slide; the thing then becomes a sort of piece from the junk-box and is steel,
vernier height gauge, but with the work and the long sloping bevel is ground, though a bit of cast iron would be
A centre-height gauge and scriber
rather than the scribing point being leaving a 'witness' of the squared end a better. But pick a piece which has not
A number of devices for setting lathe few thousandths of an inch wide. The
moved. been knocked about too much, to save
tools to centre-height have been des¬ final sharpening of the end is done with
The dimensions are given in Fig. 3.10, work later. The first step is to make all
cribed in the past, but I make no excuse

faces as square as possible with a file subtraction to ensure that the bottom of square on the base, and clamp up so the tightening of the screws can cause
(or with a milling cutter, of course) and the upright is clear of the lathe bed in that the lower end of the upright is the upright to move. Once all is correct,
then pick three of these faces, marked service. The top end must now be about gLin. upwards - set the block on and the screws tight, drill and ream for
(X) on the drawing, as being the most accurately squared across the thickness the lathe bed and the upright with a 30 the two dowels. These should be a
square to each other for further work. (otherwise the scriber blade will lie thou feeler underneath - and clamp good fit, but check they don't shift the
Note that the actual dimensions are slantways, with consequent loss of securely. upright.
unimportant. Now start with the under¬ accuracy) and both flat and square in Spot through with the clearance drill If you have a vernier height gauge, of
side of the base, and with a suitable file the longer direction; the flatness is already used, to mark the base, and course, the job can be done with that,
excavate a cavity a few thou deep in the more important than dead squareness, then use the tapping drill and finally tap and in this case - provided it has a
centre; leave a 'frame' about j*in. or Jin. but make it as near as you can. Drill the the holes. Make the holes about \ in. reversible index point - you can set the
wide all round untouched. This will two holes for the bottom fixing screws, deeper than the screws are long. As¬ gauge after assembling the two toolbits
save work, for the next step is to bed with rather more clearance than nor¬ semble the two parts, using the square, into the stirrup, and set to the points.
this absolutely flat using scraper and mal, but don't drill for the pegs yet. and gently pinch up the screws. Do not Note, however, that in using this method
marking blue on your surface plate, or, The stirrup piece (D) is the most fully tighten them. you may be taking a bit of a risk,
if you haven't got one, on a piece of difficult part. If you have a cutter which Now to set the height; if you have a especially if you have an older lathe.
plate glass, or even the lathe bed for is the right width and which will reach vernier height gauge, see later. Mea¬ The centre-height may not be as it once
want of anything better. If the latter, use deep enough, this will ease the job, sure the toolbit - it won't be exactly to was, and in any case even new lathes
the part at the tailstock end which is otherwise you will have to attack the dimension, but probably a few thou are made to a tolerance. The turned
least worn. piece with drills, saw and file and make down on the nominal thickness. Set a bobbin method allows for this.
Now file the two upright faces - the slot. This should be a reasonable fit piece of waste material in the three-jaw Final assembly calls for little com¬
those shown ij in. and 2\ in. long - on the toolbits and the upright, but it - or between centres, if you prefer - and ment, but once done you should make
and, if necessary, scrape them until does not matter if it is a trifle easy; it machine a cylinder which is exactly a further check. Set up a fairly wide
they are square to each other and to will not hurt to 'close' it a bit in the vice twice the dimension measured from piece of material in the lathe - a chuck
the scraped base. Note: it is most to make it a slide fit on the upright. the toolbit and a little over 1 in. long backplate held in the three-jaw will do -
important that the end face be squared Clean it up so that it looks reasonable, (or width you have made the upright). It and scribe a line right across with the
to the base; next most important that and drill and tap the two screw-holes. is important that this test cylinder be centre-height gauge. Turn the mandrel
this face be square to the long face; and Take care in this job to get the holes parallel and, of course, the accuracy of through 180° and adjust it until the
least important that the long face be square to the work, and tap with care to the diameter will control the accuracy scriber point just coincides with one
square to the base. This having been get a good fitting thread. If the two of the gauge. Now comes the tedious end of this line. Transfer the scriber to
done you may now 'prettify' the block - screws to be used have not already a part, but if you take care here it is worth the other end of this line, and it should
Duplex would probably frost it with a radiused end, spin them in the lathe it. You must adjust the upright so that it still coincide. If it doesn't, then the
scraper, but I did no more than clean it and put a smooth end on. just touches the underside of the cylin¬ gauge is in error by half the differ¬
up with emery. You may now drill for the two der full length. This means much wig¬ ence between the line and the scriber
Now for the upright, part (B). This dowels which hold D and B together. gling the thing about, and tapping with point.
must be of material the same width as Put a piece of packing in the slot so that a hammer this way and that until you If an error does show, repeat the
the toolbit, and may be bright drawn when the job is assembled there will be get it right, and it may prove stubborn! operation on another part of the back-
steel, brass, or what you will. I used a in. to l in. gap between the upper However, if you check with feelers and, plate using the second scriber point. If
bit of ground gauge-stock that was scriber bit and the top of the slot in say, find that it is parallel but .005 in. the error is in the same direction in both
handy. service. Clamp all up to part B and drill low, then set the assembly on a flat cases, then the upright as a whole is too
Clean it up all over, but try to avoid the holes right through, finally reaming block, fit feeler strips below the upright high or low (you can tell which by
reducing the thickness to below that of l in. for the dowels. These are made until they just slide in, add another inspection of the lines). If one shows
the toolbit. Square off one end.as true from silver steel. They need only be a .005 in., and give a smart tap to the 'up' and the other 'down' (or correct)
as may be. Now mark out for length. good push fit - they are not driven in; base. You must keep on trying until you then the upright B is slantendicular, and
This must be equal to the centre-height this is unnecessary. Now drill and tap get it right, and then tighten up the base can be tapped sideways to correct. Note
of the machine, less the thickness of the the holes in the base for the screws screws. Warning: do this a bit at a time, that this method of checking shows the
toolbit less again say ^ in- ~ this ,ast attaching the upright. Set the latter and check the accuracy afterwards, as error doubled; if the difference is only

60 61
there is already a slight rake on this left- couple of thou on the opposite side.
just discernible it may well be no more points projecting more than that shown
hand side (about 3° with most threads) This 'gashes' the thread and not until
than .001 in., but if the scriber points in the photograph; the longerthe points
and this appears as a negative rake on the tool has advanced in depth by the
have been properly sharpened, an error the more accurate the rest of the work¬
the thrust-bearing flank of the thread. amount of the initial cut will the tool
of .00025 in. can clearly be seen - this manship must be. On the other hand, if
Any increase in the cutting rake pro¬ engage fully again. This process is
would result in a difference on the far they are much shorter you may find
duces an increase in negative rake on repeated, using smaller and smaller
side of the plate of .0005 in., and such is there are occasions when they won't
the side of the thread that matters, so depths of cut as full depth is ap¬
easily distinguished. reach when marking off.
that even if a final, shaving, cut is made proached. Every two or three increases
Since I made my gauge the price of In use, there is only one precaution
the finish on the side of the thread that in depth the topslide is moved towards
HSS toolbits has rocketed, and you may necessary - apart from making sure that
carries the load will be inferior. If any the headstock by about 0.001 in. - or the
care to consider the use of carbon there is no dirt beneath the base - that
rake is needed it is on the opposite side reverse, it doesn't matter much - until
(silver) steel or gauge plate. This is is to take care not to ram the scriber
to that suggested by those advocating the final cut is reached. The tool is then
quite in order and, in fact, carbon steel points hard on to a tool edge. This will
this method. allowed to 'shave' both flanks, and the
is slightly harder than HSS, but it does damage both. Finally, you will see that
So far as 'chip congestion' is con¬ increased rake on the right-hand side
mean more work though less wear on there is no reason at all why you cannot
cerned, if the nose of the tool is will produce the fine finish needed
the grinding wheel. The taper nose can remove the toolbits and replace them,
rounded (as it should be) then this will there to carry the load on the screw.
be filed to shape before hardening, but perhaps with longer ones for special
be cutting a curved chip anyway. But This method gives a better finish,
leave the end blunt; a face about ^ in. jobs if you wish. The accuracy depends
finish cuts when threading are very and avoids the need to set over the
wide. There is no need to harden the on the setting of the upright member,
light, and even when cutting heavy topslide - and, more important, the
whole issue, just the last half-inch taper and provided the replacement bits are
threads there are other ways of over¬ fiddly business of resetting it to turn
part. Heat to 780"C for 10 to 15 minutes, of the same size, this will be retained.
coming the problem. The difficulties parallel for the next operation. As
to give time for the heat to soak right experienced by many turners are due screwcutting is usually an intermediate
through and for the metal to change its A micrometer screwcutting depth stop
more to lack of rigidity at the tool point operation in the making of a part this is
character, then quench, point down, in Before describing the device, a word
(or of the workpiece) resulting from, as not always easy, for it may mean
water. Don't swirl it about - a gentle up about the screwcutting operation may
a rule, excessive tool overhang or too unchucking the workpiece in order to
and down movement is better, but be desirable. Many authorities recom¬
light a tool section. fit a test mandrel. But it doesn't get over
don't withdraw until you are sure the mend that the topslide be set over by
The preferred method of screwcut¬ the main problem, that of remembering
metal is cold. Clean off the scale and half the thread angle, the idea being
ting is to use a tool which has the top the dial setting on the cross-slide at
then temper by boiling in a deep-frying that the tool then cuts on one flank only.
surface ground with a slope rising to each pass; even more so when, as the
pan for about 15 minutes. This, it is claimed, avoids the problems
the right-hand edge at about 3° - or the description below indicates, there are
There is a slight risk that the piece of the congestion of chips at the point
appropriate pitch angle if that is known. distractions! The first part deals with
may bend, so the bottom of one and the of the tool, enables rake to be applied to
This means that both cutting faces have the ML7, and the second with the
top and bottom of the other part must the active side of the tool, and produces
zero rake. If this slope is increased modifications I made when fitting one
be ground flat. I suggest you do this a better finish on that flank as a result.
slightly there may be an advantage to the Super-7.
with grinding paste on a flat piece of Frankly, I doubt if either consideration is
with certain metals; I use 5° for silver I recommend that you read the
glass or, better, a lapping block if you of much importance to model engi¬
steel. The active flank of the thread then whole before starting on any work. As
have one. Check the thickness of the neers as the majority of our screwcut
has a better finish, at the expense of will be explained later, I redesigned the
bottom arm with your micrometer and threads are very shallow at 32 or 40 tpi.
that on its less important face. For deep device after changing from the ML7 to
ensure that it is parallel. Fortunately the However, to deal with the last two
threads (say below 14 tpi) take a fairly the Super-7. It may well be that the later
shank part will be relatively soft, and a points first. A little reflection will show
deep initial cut. Return the carriage and, design would fit equally well to both,
sharp scraper will enable you to correct that, with right-hand threads, the left-
at the same depth, repeat the cut with but as the ML7 had gone I had no
any bulges without difficulty. Finally, hand flank of the thread cannot touch
the topslide (which is parallel to the means of checking. The Mark 1 (ML7)
form the sharp scribing points with a its mating thread - the nut or whatever.
lathe centres) advanced towards the type cannot be fitted to a lathe with
fine India oilstone. Take care to keep the Once the threaded pair is tightened the
headstock by 2 or 3 thou. This widens power cross-feed.
corners sharp, as these act as the unavoidable clearance is all on the left-
the groove. Repeat again, but with the Those readers who followed the
hand flank - that on which this method
scribing edges. topslide adjusted again to take off a articles in Model Engineer describing
Note that it will not pay to have the claims to give a better finish. Second,
my workshop will recall that it included taking off the cut, and no feat of (it can both be felt and heard) is one fast, and one click will give a feed of
a small bench for the daughter of the memory required. (Only one of calcula¬ thou. The travel on this need be no about 1.2 thou. However, the device is
house, Georgina, then six years-old. tion, for the thread on the Fenn was more than the depth of the largest not intended to be bumped in this way,
Being young and enthusiastic - and 22.18 tpi!) A little study showed that an thread to be cut, but the drawing shows rather treated as the micrometer which
female - her work was always accom¬ hour or so's work would provide a a travel of about 0.2 in. Just as easy to it is! (A preferred alternative is sug¬
panied by a running commentary on similar facility on the Myford, and very make, and one never knows - some gested in Fig. 3.16, as fitted later to my
the behaviour of tools or workpiece, effective it has proved. local farmer may one day have a break¬ Super-7, see page 72.) File this down to
interspersed with requests for assis¬ Fig. 3.11 shows the arrangement. down requiring the cutting of a 3^ in. ]|in. wide, square the ends and clean
tance. Always entertaining, often amus¬ The slide-bar (A) is provided with a Whitworth screw! up the faces. Mark out a centreline
ing, but occasionally most distracting, slotted hole and is held by the Allen The first step is to see that you have, across the workpiece 1]J in. from one
especially when trying to remember the screw and strong-back washer (2) (3) or can obtain, a pair of Allen screws end, and from this set out for two 372in.
last dial setting while screwcutting! using the hole in the saddle to which longer than those holding the feed¬ holes at l]|in. crs, in. from the top
Now this problem never arose with the travelling steady is attached. This screw bracket by the thickness of the edge, to form the ends of the two slots.
my Fenn ornamental turning lathe bar is adjusted to suit the diameter of stop-screw bracket. (These screws are 2 (Put a centre-pop at the end of the
(housed in the old workshop). In com¬ the workpiece, and that shown will BA by the way and not ^ in. BSF; very centreline to mark which is the top
mon with my Holtzappfel, and other allow for cylinders up to 3gin. diameter. close, and easily mistaken.) If not, you edge.) Mark out for the Jlin. hole into
similar machines of 100 years ago, the The bracket (4) is slipped in between will have to make do with cheesehead which the screwed boss will be fixed.
cut is put on by lever, with a screw stop the end of the cross-slide and the screws while waiting for them. The Using the vice, with a bit of scrap
which acts as a restrainer to the depth feedscrew bracket, and has a tapped bracket (Fig. 3.13) was made from a steel beneath the work, first deepen the
of cut, and a second similar screw with boss at one end to carry the stop-screw piece of ^ in. x 1 in. bms flat - i36 in. centre-pops with a Slocombe drill, and
index on the head for use as a final (5). This has 40 tpi, and the head is would be better as there is a very slight follow with a drill of the desired size.
depth stop. There is no alteration to the engraved with 25 serrations engaging deflection if the cross-slide is wound in Follow with a 90-degree rosebit to
setting of the restraining screw when with the click spring (6). Thus one click

Fig. 3.12 The stop fitted to an ML7.

remove burrs both sides. Put a decent them to the shelf for use on steel when
countersink on the front of the ^ in. they start feeling slippery on brass.
hole, as this will make a better job of the After which homily, you should have
brazing later. Now with a fine saw take no difficulty in shaping the end of the
out most of the metal from the slots, piece, rounding the sharp corners and
and put a cut up the centreline to guide giving a final polish, using emery if you
the file when making the centre aper¬ must.
ture. Clean out the slots with a warding I have said nothing about the 4 BA
file, making sure that the edges are at tapped hole shown on the drawing.
right-angles to the bottom face of the Don't tackle this until you have made
bracket, and remove the sharp edges. the spring detent, as you may have to
With the piece upside down in the alter the dimensions given.
vice, attack the centre aperture (this is Make the boss next; a simple turning
to clear the feedscrew nut) with a round job. Chuck in the three-jaw, face the
file. Don't nibble at it, use a ten-inch end, centre, and drill No. 2. Grip a ]in. x
bastard. If need be, start the groove 40 taper tap in the drill chuck, disen¬
with a three-square in the saw slot, gage the mandrel drive, and using a
especially if you are not well-blessed delicate hold on the chuck start the
with sharp files. Once you have reached thread in the hole; don't go right
the depth of ^ in., open out the sides through. The object is to make sure
with a flat file to the dimension given, that when you do tap the hole it is true
and then finish off nicely and remove with the axis of the boss. Starting the
burrs. Incidentally, this business of thread will guide the tap later. With a
filing always seems to be one of the knife tool turn a shoulder that will just
bugbears of the model engineer - and enter the hole in the bracket. It won't be
not a few 'tradesmen' as well. To be exactly ^in. The boss so formed should
able to file flat requires experience (and be about T in. less in length than the
the right file; you can't file flat if the file thickness of the plate. Reverse in the
is flat!) but even professionals at the job chuck, face off to length, and turn down
seem to make two simple mistakes. The the end to form the little boss shown on
first is referred to above - that of the drawing. Don't make the sawcut yet.
'nibbling' with a small file. The second Take the job from the lathe and,
(and this applies to saws also) is to using soft jaws in the vice, complete
forget that a file is a cutting tool just like the tapping operation. Take care to keep
those in the lathe. There is a correct the tap square, despite the guide, and
cutting speed and it is quite low - files use your best tap to finish with; you
are carbon steel. A 14 in. file will allow a want a really good thread here. Use
stroke of about a foot. A cutting speed cutting oil and clear the tap frequently.
of 80 ft/min. means about 40 strokes per Make the screw next; this is in two
minute (you have to draw the file back, parts, the thread proper, and the head.
remember) or 1± seconds each. This For the thread, simply chuck a selected
sounds very slow work, but if the piece of \ in. stock - a piece that is
pressure is right the metal will pour 0.250 in., preferably ground. With about
off, and so will the sweat after about 10 |in. projecting make the little boss. Get
minutes! A third point - always reserve a good finish on the end, and aim at the
your new files for brass, transferring shape shown. Draw the workpiece out

66 67
of the chuck so that about 1^in. of Jin. bottoming tap go in J in. - 10 threads, towards you until the index on the reverse, and grip very lightly in the
diameter projects. Now, you want a no more. handwheel is at zero, then, always chuck to finish the head. Remove from
really good thread, a sweet fit in the The next step is to divide the parallel rotating the same way, turn until the the lathe and degrease - I use carbon
boss previously made. You may, per¬ part into 25 grooves; 24 would do, but index is at five, then ten, then fifteen, tetrachloride, but Stergene in hot water
haps, get a true thread with a tailstock 25 is quite easy. (You can do 24 just and so on, 25 times, and you should be will do. Anoint both screw and head
dieholder alone, but I roughed mine out using the chuck jaws, that's all.) There back where you started. If your lathe threads with Loctite Studlock and screw
by screwcutting first. A 40 tpi thread is have been a number of articles showing has a 10 tpi leadscrew, then set up for the parts together. Leave to cure. (If you
0.016 in. deep, and I took out about how to divide using the changewheels 10 tpi, and go forward four divisions at have no Loctite, drill ^in. and fit a taper
0.012 in. with a sharp screwcutting tool, and a detent, described both in Model a time. pin, filing the ends flush, not forgetting
simply to act as a guide for the die. This Engineer and in many of the books Now for the cutting. Advance the to ensure that any groove affected is
didn't take long, running at the slowest published by Nexus Special Interests. tool until it touches and note the index still a groove!)
direct speed (225 rpm) and the long Alternatively you can use a dividing reading. Withdraw the saddle to the The slide-bar needs to be very rigid,
overhang from the chuck did not prove head, if you have one, but for five or 25 right so that the tool clears the work. as it is held rather a long way back from
the problem I feared it might, taking out divisions the leadscrew handwheel will Set the chuck round until the leadscrew the operative end. The drawing shows a
a thou at a time. do it for you. Set up as for screwcutting handwheel is at zero. Put on a small cut piece of J x ^in. material, with a strong¬
Next, fit up the tailstock dieholder, 8 tpi; then the mandrel and the lead- - say 2 or 3 thou - and wind the saddle back or elongated washer to give some
and adjust the die to the largest pos¬ screw will rotate together at 1/1 ratio, chuckwards until the tool reaches the stiffness. This served me well for some
sible. With care and cutting oil cut the and the divisions on the handwheel groove. Retract the cross-slide and years on the ML7, but when transferring
thread full length. Try it in the screwed indicate the workpiece rotation. The saddle, put on another small cut and to the Super-7 (on which more later) I
boss. If it runs on, but stiffly, take only care to be taken is to avoid back¬ repeat. As you go deeper you will prob¬ made a new one of f x | in. material,
another cut at the same setting, but if lash in the system. ably have to reduce the depth of cut. described on page 72. The slot can be
not, very slightly reduce the die dia¬ Grind a sharp-point tool of about 60° About 12 thou should be deep enough, milled out with a slot drill, but by the
meter until you get a really good fit, or 70° angle, and hone the end until you and you will get a better finish if you time you have set up for this you could
with neither wobble nor backlash. This have a radius of about 20-40 thou wide. repeat the final cut two or three times. just as quickly drill a row of holes and
is very important, and if you get a Set it sideways in the toolpost, first The groove should then be about Jj in. file it out; hand work is often quicker!
sloppy fit, make another. having honed it up to a really keen wide. Don't bother about the burrs at The piece of angle at the end is either
Now for the head. Chuck a piece of edge, so that it is exactly at centre- present. riveted or brazed; either will do (or
l in. stock with about 1 in. projecting - height, cutting face pointing towards Retract the tool fully, and then rotate both) but if you are using the j]in. thick
enough to be able to part off to size. the chuck. Angle it so that you have a the chuck to bring the index to 'Five'. If bar, then a short piece of the same
Clean up the end, and take a fine skim top rake of about 5 degrees. Now set you go too far, go well back with the material brazed on to the end will be
on the diameter. With a pointed tool the changewheels or gearbox for 8 tpi, chuck and try again; it is imperative that sufficient (see Fig. 3.16). You can braze
make two grooves about ^in. wide, one and get them in good mesh. Make sure you always approach the setting from up this part and the boss to the bracket
3 in. from the face, and the other a that the direct drive pawl, if using an the same direction, to avoid problems now; I found my little Soudogaz butane
further 3^in. Set up a knurling tool and ML7, which engages with the bull- with backlash in the system. Repeat the blowlamp quite adequate for both jobs,
using oil and the back-gear knurl on the wheel, is also well in mesh. Slip the shaping process and go on, right round but don't forget that you are working in
chuck side of the first groove. Don't run tailstock to the end of the bed, tie a the drum. It will pay you then to set on a steel; this means plenty of flux and heat
on to the parallel part between groove piece of string to this, then twice round very small cut - just a shaving - and go as quickly as you can, or the flux will fail
and face, but if you do, just turn it off. the leadscrew handwheel, and hang a right round again, but this is, perhaps, to cope with the oxide formed.
The diameter is not critical but deepen heavy nut on the end or your riveting aiming at perfection! It is a slow After pickling and washing, apply the
the groove again. Centre the end, and hammer. This will make a friction brake process, but it is surprising how fast 'finish'. The device will work as it is, but
drill No.2, ^in. deep. As in the case of to keep the backlash all one way. Try a the work goes once the initial try it and it is a quality product and should be
the boss, start the thread with, a taper few practice runs without cutting. Loos¬ woe period is over. treated accordingly. A good drawfile
tap in the drill chuck, but in this case en the headstock belts first, though you Once this is finished, remove the finish if you like (but no fancy curlicues
you can finish the screwing operation, may find it easier to engage the back cord and the sideways tool and set up or 'engine-turning' - quite inappropriate
using a tap-wrench, while the work- gear and use the belts to pull the to machine the little bevel. Polish off all on workshop equipment to be used!).
piece is still in the chuck. Let the mandrel round with. Pull the chuck over burrs with fine emery. Part off to size. However, an attractive and functional
you can to this size; you may have to stop-screw (5) and then adjust the
reduce the width. If so, then a saw-file detent until the drum can be rotated
(the type called a slim taper) will without too much resistance but is, at
usually tackle the job, for springs are the same time, held firmly by the
well tempered. Don't cut any off the coil spring. Tighten the locknut. The job is
but grip the end in a little hand vice so now ready for work.
that about 36in. projects. Soften the end
with a spirit lamp and then put a kink in Mark II as fitted to the Super-7 lathe
it with a pair of pliers. If it breaks off try Before telling you how to use the stop,
again, but this time get the spring a bit it might be worth while saying a little
hotter. The less heat you apply the about the device as fitted to my Super-7.
better, and it is more effective if you When the ML7 was sold, the stop then
have to make three to get the last one fitted went with it. I did not want to lose
right than to overheat the first one and any of the travel of the cross-slide, so
have it fail in service. Don't cut it off instead of fitting a plate to carry the
yet. stop-screw I bolted a small block to the
Find, or make, a little 4 BA screw as side of the cross-slide, as seen in Fig.
shown on the drawing. It should be one 3.15. This is | in. square x about 3 in.
with a fairly tall head and should be long and attached with two 2 BA Allen
steel. Put a slot in the end as narrow as screws (see Fig. 3.16). The only other
you can manage - you may have to change is in the length of the stop-
grind the 'set' off a 6 in. mini-hacksaw screw itself, which is made so that the
blade, but I have an Eclipse jeweller's screwed portion projects from the drum
hacksaw which is worth its weight in a shade over ’ in. This provides a
gold for this sort of job. Remove any working travel of ]in. which is enough
Fig. 3.74 Another view on the ML7. varnish and, if necessary, the tempering for the largest screw likely to be met
colour from the spring and tin it with a with.
finish is to heat-blue the job. This looks tage.) In fitting the bracket, part (4), you small, hot, soldering iron. Enter it to the There is no adjustment for thread
well and has the advantage of provid¬ may find (on the ML7) that the cross¬ slot with the screw held in place on the clearance on this one, so that more care
ing slight rust-resistance. Heat the whole slide gib projects and fouls it. The plate and adjust the length until the kink must be taken with the fit of the J x 40
gently and evenly, keeping the inner handwheel bracket has a cavity to engages nicely with the slots in the screw. Note that I mean fit, this does
core of the flame well away from the accept this. There is no alternative to drum; then remove the screw and not mean using a smaller tapping drill,
metal. It will go through the 'temper removing the gib and shortening it as solder the spring in place with tinman's but rather to take more care to ensure
colours' until it reaches blue, at which necessary, but this will give you the solder, not the soft resin-cored stuff. that the threads are well formed. The
point dump it into engine oil or clean chance of taking off the topslide, clean¬ Note - if the spring is a bit slack in the tapped hole in the block is made
quenching oil, if you have any - though ing out the underside, re-greasing the slot pack it with brass shim, don't try to progressively i.e. the taper tap is taken
cooking oil will serve. screw, and readjusting the slide when make it good with thick solder films. part through, followed by the seconds,
Offer all up to the lathe to see how it you put it back - all jobs which I do once Wash well, and then cut off the surplus then the 'plug'. The taper is then put
fits first, of course. You may find that a year, and the only way to ensure that spring. through further and the process re¬
the bar doesn't sit quite flat on the all stays in order. Offer up to the drum again and mark peated until the hole is tapped right
saddle; if so (and this applies especially Now to make the detent, part (6). the exact spot for the tapped hole. Drill through. A tapping oil is used, such as
to the thin type shown on the drawing) Here you will almost certainly have to and tap 4 BA (after removing the drum, Rocol Ultracut, and the chips cleared
bow it slightly, so that when the fixing experiment a little, as it is most unlikely of course). Fit a locknut on to the detent frequently. When cutting the male
screw is tightened it flattens the bow. that any spring steel you have will be thread and screw the whole in place thread I started by screwcutting to
(The strong-back, which is a simple job the same as mine (1.6mm wide x with the spring about ^in. from the face about | full depth and then followed
to make, is also bowed with advan¬ 0.25 mm thick). Find a piece as near as of the bracket, part (4). Put back the with the die, adjusting this as described

70 71
Fig. 3.16 Details of the
Mark II design of depth stop.

Fig. 3.15 Mark II design fitted to a Super-7 lathe. The square-headed screw should be
replaced by a socket grubscrew.

already until the thread was a sweet fit you leave it there or fit it only when
in the hole. needed, for it takes but a second or so.
Once the block was made it was The square-headed screws seen in Fig.
clamped to the cross-slide and the 3.15 (which retain the topslide) are best
holes spotted through, after which the replaced by j*in. BSF socket grubscrews.
holes were drilled and tapped |in. deep. After setting up the device, the index
I did not want to break through on to drum is screwed right forward and then
the dovetail shear of the cross-slide. back about six clicks. The tool is
The slide bar. Fig. 3.16, is much stiffer, advanced to within ten thou of the
giving a more positive 'feel' in action. workpiece and the slide-bar then
brought forward until it touches the Adjust the knob of the stop-screw to the drum as many clicks as you need
Method of use stop-screw. Tighten the Allen screw - it apply the cut you need; one click is one thous of cut and advance the cross¬
Whether the bracket or the side block is should be tight, but don't overdo it and thou. Advance the cross-slide to the slide to the stop, engage the clasp nut
employed, either can be left iri place - strip the thread! Start the lathe and with stop and start screwcutting in the and make another cut, and so on. You
they don't get in the way, but I find that the cross-slide against the stop adjust ordinary way. At the end of the cut don't have to look at the cross-slide
the slide-bar assembly can be a nuis¬ the drum until the tool just touches the withdraw the cross-slide, disengage the index at all unless you have to use it to
ance at times. It is up to you whether work. You are now at 'zero' cut. clasp nut and retract the saddle. Adjust determine a definite depth of thread.

and even then you only have to keep an slotting (e.g. keyways) in the lathe. The
eye on it every now and then. The drum normal procedure of reciprocating the
looks after the depth of cut at each pass. tool with the saddle results in rubbing
At the beginning of each pass the cross¬ during the back (idle) stroke, causing
slide is brought into contact with the wear on the clearance edge and vir¬
stop; at the end it is retracted as much tually blunting the tool. However, if the
as you wish to clear the thread already slotting tool is carried in the rear tool-
cut. You will be agreeably surprised at post the depth stop can be used in the
how easy it is to use and how quickly manner already described for internal
you can cut a thread once you have got screwcutting. This avoids all rubbing,
used to it! and it will be found that the cutting
I do use the device for normal turning action is much sweeter. There is one Fig. 3.17 Adaptor to accommodate 8 mm collets within a No. 2 Morse taper socket.
when there is a lot of repetition work further point worth mentioning - it will
and if you think a little you will realise pay to take two cuts at each depth small 8mm arbor-mounted cutters 2.1/4! + 1/64"
that it would have simplified the cutting when milling in the lathe. It was no
setting, as there is usually some whip in
of the grooves in the drum to even depth the necessarily slender tool. problem to alter the design to enable it
to be used with a normal draw bar “
no end. It can also be used for internal )
release from the tail of the mandrel, and 1
threads. The obvious way is to fit the Using 8 mm watchmaker's collets in a
measuring drum at the other end of the what follows allows for this. 1_
No. 2 Morse socket Fig. 3.78
cross-slide and reverse the slide-bar, but The basis is a No 2 MT Jacobs chuck
(Based on an article which first
this is awkward to use and you would appeared in Timecraft). arbor; almost any size will do, but I
need two drum assemblies, as other¬ The collet is the Rolls-Royce of work¬ advise those which have a moderately
wise the time taken to transfer would large chuck end, say Jacobs taper No 6
make the exercise hardly worthwhile.
holding devices but unfortunately those
for lathes of any size are prohibitively
or thereabout. These are of carbon ) CK
But there is another way, which has steel, but not hardened, and with care
expensive for most people. However, Fig. 3.79
decided advantages and that is to turn and sharp tools a good finish can be
the change from mechanical watches
the screwcutting tool upside down and obtained. I recommend the use of a
and clocks to quartz crystal timepieces
work at the back of the hole. The soluble (water diluted) cutting oil, but a of the cylindrical part to carry in the
has meant that 8 mm collets are appear¬
operation is then exactly the same as straight cutting oil like Macron B will steady; say T5gin. (Fig. 3.19).
ing for disposal fairly frequently - even
for a male thread. There is the further serve. A good finish is important, of Set up the large end in the four-jaw
new ones are relatively cheap. True,
advantage that all the movements are course, especially in the bores. chuck and centre very carefully, using a
they have a limited capacity - about
exactly the same as for external screw¬ 6mm is the limit - but within that The main problem is to hold the dial indicator, with the other end
cutting - you don't have to think back- thing, for it is very difficult if not im¬ equally truly set in the fixed steady.
capacity they offer a very accurate
to-front, and you can see what is going possible to obtain the enlarged bore at This can best be done by setting a dial
method of workholding. I have two
on much better. The tool can be held in the back unless the work can be tackled indicator on the free end before fitting
adaptors which enable 8 mm collets to
the normal four-tool turret if the hole is from both ends. The first operation, the steady, and then using the cigarette
be held directly in the No. 2 Morse taper
not much more than an inch in dia¬ therefore, is to set the arbor between paper technique to adjust the jaws of
socket of the Myford. One is by Wolff-
meter, or you can mount it in the rear centres and machine down both ends the latter. Face the end, centre, and drill
Jahn, which has a No.1 MT and has to
toolpost. Parting-off tools have been as shown in Fig. 3.18. The diameter at 39, for 1.375 deep. Bore the hole 0.375 in.
be used with a sleeve; the other is
used in this fashion for a long time - it the large end (which will later be held in aia, full depth. This may be hard on
home-made. This one is easy to con¬
is odd that no-one has thought of struct and though, when first made, it the fixed steady) I recommend should such a tiny boring tool, and my own
screwcutting (or even boring) with an be not less than 0.475 in. Now set the method was first to use the boring bar
had the disadvantage that it had to be
inverted tool as well! workpiece in the lathe mandrel socket to true the hole, then follow with
removed from the mandrel to release
and machine off all but 1 in. of the progressively larger drills up to ^ in.
the collet, this can be overcome. See
Slotting operations cylindrical end, and form a new, deep, under size and finally bore again.
Fig. 3.17. It was, in fact, made not so
The device can be of real help when centre. Remove from the lathe and saw Set the arbor back in the mandrel
much to hold workpieces as to carry
off most of the tang - leave just enough socket, drill (say ^ in.), bore truly, and
finally ream ^ in. This hole must be then checked with a solid collet arbor even kinder to the threads. It is turned face which will bear on the end of the
made in two stages, as it must be and marking blue, adjusting the set- down from | in. dia stock. Grip in the adaptor. Again, aim for a good finish,
mounted on a mandrel between centres over of the topslide until I got at least three-jaw, about 1] in. projecting, and as friction here will reduce the grip of
to form one face. Do this next. Cut off 75% transfer of colour. Finish machine chew off surplus metal down to ,7gin. dia the collet. The gin. dia shoulder should
all surplus at the small end with a saw, the socket until the head of the collet just under 1’ in. long. Face the end, be a smooth fit in the hole in the
mount on a mandrel as explained and just sinks flush when gripping a rod of centre, and drill tapping size for your adaptor.
face the end. A small countersink can the correct diameter. Carefully deburr particular type of collet, g in. deep. This Reverse in the chuck (after sawing off
be made by hand afterwards. Back to all sharp edges. Incidentally, if you are may present a problem! Table 1 (page any surplus length) and machine the
the lathe mandrel socket, face the end, not happy about the finish on the cone, 79) gives the threads of several of the head. Note that this head must fit
bore 8 mm making this a sweet fit to don't polish with emery. Rehone the more common makes, but is by no within the taper socket of the lathe
your particular collets. They do vary tool, getting it really sharp (I use an means exhaustive. I may say that I have mandrel, so that the sizes shown
from make to make by a fraction of a Arkansas stone on mine) and take a fine found that 40 threads/inch draw bars fit should not be exceeded. If you wish to
mm, and an over-tight collet can be a shaving cut to rectify matters. all my own collets, even though some operate the collet from the tail end of
nuisance. Whether or not you fit a locating are 0.625 mm pitch; the difference is the mandrel, then you must now drill
You must carefully check the angle of dowel is a matter of choice. I have only 4 tenths of a thou per pitch. Where and tap for the operating bar, so drill and
your collets before forming the conical another machine which has none, and I do have the proper tap, I still screwcut tap ^in. x 22 (BSF) or x 26. Remove all
socket. What I did was to machine the only the occasional collet 'acts awk¬ 40 threads/in. and follow with the 0.625 burrs. On the other hand, if you are
cone almost completely to 40°, and ward' and turns in its seat. However, I mm tap; not, perhaps, the best tool¬ content to take the whole thing out to
show (Fig. 3.17) a simple way to fit one. room practice, but it works! Those with change workpieces, all you need is a
The §in. hole is drilled from one side, metric lathes can, of course, screwcut cross-hole for a tommy bar.
0- 120"dia.
right across the bore, and penetrates properly - their problem comes if the The operating rod is shown in Fig.
, 0-5mm. about in. across the bore. This is fol¬ pitch is 40 threads/in. 3.21. The lengths marked * must be

VdS lowed by a 52 in. drill. The little peg can

now be made - I use silver steel but
Expanding a little on this matter,
the chief difference between these
taken from your particular machine.
That shown as d* should be a good,
don't harden it - and set in the ^in. hole threads is the thread angle; those at but not tight, fit in the hole in the end
5/32!' 3/32"dia.
quite easily. You will find you have to 40 threads/in. will be 55° Whit form, the of the mandrel so that the whole does
adjust the dimensions a bit to suit your 0.625 mm threads will be the metric 60° not wag about. Note, however, that
TO SUIT. collets. See Fig. 3.20. shape. The difference in o/d between this is not a draw bar, and the face of
The drawhead (Fig. 3.21) is made the largest and the smallest collets is the knob should not butt against the
from mild steel, not carbon steel, as I only 0.007 in. and is unlikely to cause end of the mandrel. I have shown the
prefer this to give way rather than the problems. knob as 1^ dia, and this should not be
Fig. 3.20 Peg to prevent rotation of the thread on the expensive collets. Drawn The tapping size for either pitch exceeded. If anything it is a bit large as
collet in the socket. gunmetal will do just as well, and be should be Jmm smaller than the thread you don't want to over-tighten collets in
o/d; this will give about 64% of full use.
thread engagement - quite sufficient Check that the length is correct and
Fig. 3.21 The collet-tightening rod.
for this application. If you have the will draw up the collet without fouling
Note this is not intended as
a draw bar (see text). L correct tap, there will be no difficulty, the end of the mandrel, and then screw
11 /2'! d ia.
MAX. rpo otherwise you must screwcut the hole
until the collets fit sweetly.
the operating rod firmly into the draw-
head; use either Loctite or a 332in. pin to
3/8'dia I i Try more than one, especially if they fix it. You will appreciate that when
H are old, as I find they do wear in time.
Lightly countersink the end of the hole,
assembling the parts on the machine
the adaptor must first be set in the lathe
5/16- -7/l6'! then follow with a 4.5 mm drill - this is mandrel; then the drawhead and oper¬

the largest size you can pass right
through an 8 mm collet - about in.
ating rod must be threaded through
from the tail end of the lathe mandrel.
deep. Next, finish turn the o/d and the This leads to an important point. It is
vital that you thoroughly clean out the rough 'fabrication' set in the lathe TABLE 1 Threads on various 8 mm collets and the internal length bar. The latter is
mandrel bore before setting up, other¬ mandrel socket; the cavity for the supported in the centre of the hole by
Make Dia. Pitch (mm) or
wise there is a risk of dirt getting into tightening screw has, on mine, been means of a collar. Normally the bar is
the threads or, worse (if you change slotted out with a slot drill, and the used alone, but if (as in the case of
collets) of dirt getting onto the collet concave sides have probably been cut GeoAdams 0.268* 0.625 mm these columns) there is a screwed peg
seat. with an endmill before polishing. Boley 0.268 0.625 mm projecting beyond the shoulder to
The device has proved to be very I don't use this one in the lathe, Boley-Leinen 0.268 40 t/i which the 'exact' dimension applies,
accurate in service and has enabled me following an unfortunate impact Coronet 0.268 0.625 mm then a socket-pad is attached to the
to transfer work from the Boley to the between a finger and the rotating tee, Derbyshire 0.268 40 t/i end of the bar.
Myford and back with no loss of con¬ but I do use it in the milling machine to IME 0.275 0.625 mm Fig. 3.23 shows the arrangement.
centricity. The only snag I have found is hold small cutters mounted on 8 mm Lorch 0.275 0.625 mm The inner cone 'A' is made from silver
that the knob does foul the change- arbors. One does not (if fit to use a Pultra 0.268 0.625 mm (carbon) steel hardened and tempered,
wheel guard - not important if you have milling machine at all) bring fingers Wolff-Jahn 0.270 40 t/i but mild steel will serve for the remain¬
a screwcutting gearbox, but a nuisance close to the revolving quill! It is a handy *Stated as 0.270 in. (6.86 mm) in some der. The dimensions shown are those
if you rely on changewheels. The solu¬ little gadget, and, as one would expect sources. for the Myford Super-7, but should also
tion is to work with the guard off when from this manufacturer, accurate and fit the ML-7 series. Note that though the
using collets. well finished. Collet keyways lathe specification shows the spindle to
Make be bored to pass ’jjin. the greater part of
Width Depth
Wolff-Jahn adaptor this bore is 0.625 in. dia - this should be
(mm) (mm)
Figure 3.22 shows the design. It is checked before making the fittings.
actually for a No. 1 MT, but I use it with Boley & Leinen 2.0 0.5 The outer cone 'B' should be made
a converter socket. It has the advantage GeoAdams 1.75 0.7 first. I used hex steel stock to fit a ^ in.
(a) that the collet grip is external and (b) Lorch 1.75 0.65 Whit, spanner, and the same size
it can be used with a draw bar (though Wolff-Jahn 1.875 0.7 served for the nut 'C'. I don't advise
the hole had to be screwcut first - it had the use of knurled hand-knobs here as
no thread when I first had it). The defect though they look nice they don't give
is the fair amount of overhang from the A headstock length stop sufficient grip.
mandrel nose - almost 2’in. when used There are many methods of setting-up Chuck the stock with a couple of
with the reducer socket. As I have not to part off successive pieces of stock to inches projecting and turn the o/d to the
made it myself I will give no description dead length, the easiest, perhaps, dimensions shown, at the same time
of how to do so, but if I were going to being to use a pad fitted to the tail- bevelling the edge of the hexagon.
make one I should start with a No. 2 MT stock barrel against which the bar can Centre and drill ,7g in. Now set over the
arbor as before, and use a fabricated be set before parting off. However, topslide to 3° (the taper is not critical)
construction. The end of the arbor could there are cases where this cannot be and bore the cone until the diameter at
be threaded say \ in. x 26 threads/in. done, and it is of no help when stock the large end is ^in. Take care to get a
into a 'tee' of | in. square material, and already in short lengths must be cut to very good finish from the final cut.
the nose likewise, the threads fairly exact size. Internal length stops are Remove the internal and external sharp
slack and the whole brazed up solid common accessories for collet-type edges. Leave the topslide set to this
with silver solder. Note, however, that it headstocks. This one is of similar design, angle until the mating cone has been
would be prudent to drill the Jacobs and was made to ease the machining of made. Draw out from the chuck and
arbor and thread for the draw bar first, a number of columns for a marine part off. While the hex. stock is still in
as there is just a faint risk of it,going engine. the chuck you can make the nut, part 'C'.
hard on you when brazing. I know it The length bar is held inside the Face and machine the bevel, then drill
shouldn't happen, but it does! The o/d hollow headstock mandrel by means of 3jin. and tap ^in. x 32 (or use ,76in. x 26
and the bore, together with the conical an internal and external expanding if you have none finer, adjusting the
Fig. 3.22 The Wolff-Jahn collet adaptor, in
seat, can all be machined with the this case for No. 7 MT. Dimensions in mm. taper, which grips both the mandrel tapping drill to suit; don't use 40 tpi, as
this is too fine for such an application). stone the tool to get it really sharp and Note that I have shown three slits in the
Part off, face the other side and make a the correct angle (55°) and very slightly outer cone, and four in the other one.
Details of the headstock fitted length stop.

bevel there, too. Return to part 'B'; grip round the point. After setting to the You can use four in each if you like. I set
by the cylindrical part and either drill or work with your gauge, bring the tool up out the holes at the end by eye, drilled
bore to g|in. dia for l| deep i.e. as far as, until it just brushes the old and set your 332 in. at the inner end, and then slit
but not running into the taper. Face the cross-slide index to zero. (You should, down with a small hacksaw. No doubt
end, put on the bevel and remove all of course, have reset the topslide, too.) the purists would object and call for the
burrs. Screwcut carefully, adjusting the top- use of slitting saws, but 6 in. hacksaw
The inner cone, part 'A', is a bit of a slide one thou to the left for each 3 or 4 blades are cheaper and quicker! Which¬
pig to hold, but the following procedure thou you feed in - this eases the cutting ever way you use, file off the burrs
seemed to work well enough. I had a action. Carbon steel is not easy to cut inside and out with a fine three-cornered
piece of 36 in. dia silver steel available, with no top rake on the tool (and all my file and then go over the whole and
otherwise I should have turned down screwcutting tools have zero rake) so again remove all sharp edges.
from gin.; you will need a piece at least don't use too much infeed at a time and The inner cone will work well enough
4 in. long in. stock will, of course, use lashings of cutting oil. Full thread without hardening, but will last longer
pass through the headstock bore). Centre depth is 0.020in., so stop when you and work better if heat treated. Wrap a
the end and drill reaming size for Jin. have fed in 0.018in. - the rest can be bit of iron wire round the thread and
and follow with the reamer, running removed with a die in the vice later. coat this well with a mixture of pow¬
slowly and with plenty of cutting oil and
Fig. 3.23

Part off, reverse in the chuck and grip dered chalk and water. Set to dry,
frequent withdrawals for chip clear¬ lightly by the thread, with the cone assisting the process with gentle heat
ance. Bring up a large Slocombe drill within the chuck jaws. Put a J7 in. drill if you like. This will reduce the amount
and put a slight cone in the mouth of down 2 in. deep - this leaves only the of scale on the threads. Heat to cherry
the hole. Draw out about 3^ in. from the bore under the cone reamed to exact red and hold this temperature for a
chuck and bring up your tailstock to size. Round the end of the thread and couple of minutes before plunging
support the end. take off the sharp edge from the hole. vertically, cone downward, in oil. I have
With your parting tool make grooves Try on the nut, and if need be take off a the proper quenching oil but thin motor
in. deep to coincide with the end of little bit at a time with a die; don't do oil will serve for this job. You can
the taper, the forward end of the thread, too much at once, as the workpiece isn't quench in water, but it is just a bit fierce
and the 3 in. overall length. The depth all that strong at the centre recess. The for this application; if you have no oil,
isn't critical at all, but better a few thou nut should run on easily but not be use water heated until it is just too hot
deeper than too shallow. Now turn the sloppy. to bear your hand in (that is about
taper, again taking great care with the Part 'E' should need no instructions! 150"F). When quenching, move the
final finish; polish with emery if neces¬ The o/d should be an easy but not work about gently in the oil or water;
sary. The taper should just run out at 'rattly' fit in the bore of the headstock. this is more effective than rapid swir¬
®gin. dia at the large end - let the other The Allen grubscrew can be any con¬ ling about.
end look after itself, but not more than venient size - mine is 4 BA - but the Dry off and then polish the conical
1 in. long. The next step is to reduce the 'point' should be ground off so as not to end. Heat gently by the threaded part
diameter between the two grooves to burr up the bar 'D'. (The latter is no until the cone turns purple-blue and
| in. - a good tool finish is all that is more than a piece of J in. BDMS, and I quench in water or oil. The cone may be
needed here - and then machine the have three, of different lengths from left in this condition - indeed, I blue
remainder to ,76 in. dia. Set up the 15in. to 4in. long.) The recessed but¬ many of my tools of this sort, both to
changewheels for 32 tpi, and screwcut ton, part 'F', is made to suit the job in reduce risk of rust and for appearance
the thread. Now, you can't test this hand; the dimensions shown are for a 4 sake.
against a nut, and you can't hold the BA stem projecting from the shoulder Clean up all parts, and assemble the
work the other way round to use the of the columns. collar 'E' on the stem 'D'. Assemble 'A',
r-~ f*".
tailstock dieholder either. So, carefully The collet cones must now be slit. 'B', and 'C' hand tight and slip the stem

80 81
Fig. 3.25 An example of the work
for which the stop is used in
bringing the length between
shoulders to within acceptable

was just under one thou and all were collet shank. The outer diameter of the
within this tolerance of the designed adjusting screw must be small enough
length. This I regard as satisfactory, to pass inside the draw-tube, and (on
especially as measuring to such small mine, anyway) both the 'nut' and the
shoulders with a vernier is subject to outer cone are fine knurled. The core
slight errors. diameter of the threads of such (8 mm)
This method will not, of course, collets is about 0.235 in., so that the o/d
serve for short workpieces, as the stem over the knurled nut should be a few
cannot enter the chuck jaws in many thou less than this. The design is very
cases. For such work I use a 'top hat' much the same, the taper being of the
fitment shown in Fig. 3.26. I have a few same order on the cones, and the rod or
of these, made as the need arose, and spindle is about 2 mm dia. In such a
Fig. 3.26 is one which served when I device I would recommend hardening
had a multitude of little collars, }in. dia and tempering all parts.
and in lengths ranging from j*in. to gin.,
about a dozen of each to make. Note A milling spindle drive or overhead
that this device is not intended to hold There is no more versatile machine tool
the work while turning on the cylinder - than the centre lathe, even in its basic
there is always a little run-out. Its pur¬ form. With the addition of a vertical
pose is to hold for machining to length slide it can become a small milling
only, it is not a substitute collet. Most of machine or even a jig-borer of tolerable
those I have made have no adjusting accuracy, while the accessories used by
screw - Fig. 3.26 is an elaboration for the ornamental turner enable work of
the special case just mentioned. astounding complexity to be done.
through. Enter into the headstock man¬ topslide or the leadscrew handwheel. Finally, for those with collet-type These, in their modern form i.e. those
drel and tighten up the nuts - you may In the case of the engine column I lathes a device similar to Fig. 3.23 can built since about 1825, depend a great
need two spanners at first. After a while mentioned (Fig. 3.25) the shortest of be made up to fit inside even an 8mm deal on the use of drill spindles and
you should find the collet set gripping these was measured between the cutting frames held in the slide-rest and
the bore of the headstock mandrel but shoulders using vernier calipers and BACK OF JAW driven from an overhead gear, the
the rod 'D' can move. Adjust the rod fitted with the appropriate attachment headstock mandrel being stationary or
and then tighten still further, until a part 'F' with about gin. projecting from being used only as an indexing head.
light tap on the end causes no move¬ the chuck (to the shoulder, that is). The There have been many designs of such
ment. This is tight enough. To remove, measured amount was then taken off accessories over the years, although
slack off the nut, and give it a tap using the topslide index, and the tool that due to the late Mr Potts is perhaps
inwards. This will free the two cones then locked. After a check measurement the best known. Indeed, the Potts
and the whole can be withdrawn. Fig. on this column, the other seven were spindle is almost a generic name,
3.24 shows the parts. then machined in turn. A check showed irrespective of make.
In use, of course, the final, precise, that all were within half a thou up or Such devices need a separate drive,
process of setting to length is done with down compared with each other i.e. the Fig. 3.26 A headstock length stop for a and there are many types of these also.
the lathe index dials either on the maximum difference between lengths short workpiece. Some, like the Pittler, incredibly complex.

while others are simple in the extreme, sufficient to take the very light drive CAP
with consequent defects in service. needed for quite hefty cutting frames.
Many incorporate a long drum mounted Little rubber feet prevent any 'walking
on standards above the lathe bed, the about' and on my larger Holtzapffel the
idea being that as the cutting frame is cutting-frame motors sit quite happily
traversed so can the drive band follow on a polished mahogany back shelf.
it. Unfortunately a jockey arrangement The final design comprised a vertical
is needed as well, to keep the band standard made from electric conduit
tight, and this - almost without excep¬ secured in the Myford hand-rest bracket
tion - does not or will not traverse with which can be clamped to the bed in any
the cutting frame. Others rely on com¬ position, or to the cross-slide. To the
plex systems of pulleys, again with the upright is attached a horizontal arm
idea that the final pair can swivel and so which can be rotated through 360° and,
follow the travel of the slide-rest. I have of course, be set at any height. Two
had many types on various ornamental deep-groove jockey pulleys can be slid
lathes I have owned from time to time, along the arm. Thus the assembly can
and although all 'work', none was very be set anywhere on the lathe bed not
satisfactory. occupied by the saddle (or tailstock) or
The original design of my lathe on the saddle, and the pulleys can face
bench provided for a substantial over¬ in any direction; and, there are only two
head drive, with its own motor, all pulleys! Experiment showed that the
disposed on a shelf above the lathe. motor could also be set almost any¬
For various reasons this was not pro¬ where - behind the lathe, at the end, or
ceeded with, and just as well for as the even on the lathe bed if necessary.
years passed and I gained more experi¬ The standard (Fig. 3.27) was made
ence with those on my ornamental from 3 inch o/d conduit, the end being
lathes I realised that something much turned down for about 2 inches to fit the
simpler could be devised. The require¬ hand-rest base. The side arm, also seen
ments were: in Fig. 3.27, is ^in. dia steel and brazed.
(The drawing shows a plain spigot
(a) minimum number of jockey pulleys
(b) quick to set up and take down which would be adequate.) Buttons
are turned to fit into the ends of the
(c) not to be too expensive
conduit, decorated to taste. The jockeys,
(d) not to lock up a motor which would
Fig. 3.28, were made from aluminium
spend most of its time stationary
alloy, although cast iron is preferable
(e) one which would face all ways as
provided it is bushed with gunmetal;
this will better stand the wear. However, COLUMN AND ARM
The nearest to this had been the you may not have any stock that size so
'ship's davit' type as fitted to Holtzapffel why not use wood? My Holtzapffel No. B.M.S. Throughout.
lathes, but the shelf above the machine 484 has the overhead pulleys of wood,
would have got in the way. However, it the former box and the latter mahog¬ badly split. However, almost any wood can be sawn off and faced afterwards.
did not seem impossible to use this as a any. They have lasted for nearly 200 will do, and the procedure is to drill the The only point to make in this simple
basic idea. A further point I had found years! But the best species for this blank say | in. dia and Araldite in a turning operation is to make sure that
was that with foot-mounted motors of application would be lignum vitae, length of brass or gunmetal projecting the diameter is at least 8 times the belt
about ^ hp there was no need to bolt and this can be obtained from a worn- about an inch. This is then your chuck- diameter; the drawing is right for \ in.
these down - their own weight was out bowls wood provided it is not too ing-piece for the turning operation, and leather. The bore should be an easy

84 85
running fit to the spindle, which is have decided the right length. splice in a piece of cotton cord, and
bright drawn steel. Alternatively, of I have given up using plastic belt, as have the best drive belt of all!
course, you can fit small ball bearings. it tends to whip a lot, though I do have Now for the application. First,
The pulley hanger can be made from some heavy ribbed material which is though, note that the normal Potts
I4 inch square or round material - steel not too bad. All plastic belt must be pre- spindle has a pair of jockeys of its
or aluminium alloy - and calls for a fair stretched by hanging a weight on the own. In some cases these can help,
bit of hacksaw work (or you can mill it end overnight. The joint in this case is but the set-ups shown in my photos are
out if you like) but is not at all critical as made by heating the ends with a hot deliberately made withoutthem, to give
to dimension. You will see that it has knife and welding it. A third alternative some idea of the flexibility of the
two holes at right angles to fit the is braided nylon cord, as used for starter device. Fig. 3.29 shows the motor on
supporting arm, so that it can be set cords on hovermowers and chainsaws, the lathe bed standing on a piece of
up either way round. The pulley spindle Make sure it is nylon, though. This can wood with the Potts spindle set up as if
is secured in the block with Araldite or be welded too, by teasing out the ends to drill a ring of holes on the face of a
Loctite or you can use a setscrew. It and after twining the two ends together, disc. The spindle was running at 1500
should not be free to move. heating in a match flame or small spirit rpm and was quite satisfactory with
ol. oiloy or BMS. Having read so far you will wonder lamp. The drawback with this stuff is both leather and braided nylon cord,
lor ol/C l. coit^g) how to machine the foot of the standard that although it is very strong it has Fig. 3.30 shows the identical set-up of
when your lathe is only 19 inches practically no 'give' and is difficult to the Potts, but with the motor behind the
groove between centres. Remove the tailstock, adjust. Finally, those of you with Navy bed. In both these cases it was possible
set the tube in the three-jaw and adjust service will, of course, make a long to traverse the saddle about 4] inches,
the fixed steady to it. Move the steady
to the end of the bed and re-chuck the
tube, holding about \ inch in the chuck
jaws. Machine a 2 inch length to as close
to the jaws as you can get, and then part
off. Remove burrs, and there you are!
Now a word about belts. I use
leather, joined with a proper bent-wire
fastener as on the old-fashioned sewing
machines. This is still obtainable from
some sewing machine shops but if in
JOCKEY PULLEY difficulty ask a saddler to get you some.
ol. oiloy C l.or GM.
He will also be able to supply you with a
(or wood 2 Off J
little neatsfoot oil in which you should
soak the leather for an hour or so,
wiping off the surplus afterwards. This
will make it supple. For belts gin. dia or
below the screw hook-and-eye type of
fastener is best, and these are not
always easy to get. Both Buck and
Hickman and Buck and Ryan used to
stock them, as did the sewing machine
people or try horological suppliers.
8M S. I off
The best joint, of course, is one which
is glued and sewn and again, the
Fig. 3.28 Jockey pulleys and hanger. saddler can do this for you once you Fig. 3.29 A Potts spindle driven from a '6hp motor on the lathe bed.

lathe. This involves long driving belts A truly mobile handrest
but was otherwise very satisfactory. In The use of a graver, toolmaker's scraper
fact, with leather belts the additional or even a proper hand tool for forming
length (and hence weight) of belting radii on corners or doming the ends of
meant that the drive was quite ade¬ workpieces is common practice, but it
quate even when the travel of the has to be accepted that the handrest
saddle was considerable. provided for most small machines
My final photo, Fig. 3.33, shows a leaves much to be desired. It is difficult
similar arrangement as used on my to fit and awkward to use - often the
little Boley watchmaker's lathe. The saddle gets in the way. The 'Quick Fit'
principle is identical, but the whole rest devised by Mr George Thomas
issue is made up from laboratory (Model Engineer, 1997 p.157 et seq) is
clamps and stands. The same stand an improvement, but involves a major
holds my magnifying glass! constructional project. Neither can be
I hope this will give you some ideas. used comfortably on workpieces of any
Simple? Yes. Cheap - yes again, for the length (see Fig. 3.34).
motor and most of the rest came from
'Jack the Scrap' (and you need a motor
whatever design of gear you use).
Effective - indeed yes, and I wish I had
set it up 40 years ago!

Fig. 3.32 Standard clamped to the rear of

the cross-slide.

Fig. 3.30 Spindle set up as in Fig. 3.29 but

with the motor behind the lathe.

but had the standard been fitted to the

saddle itself the second set-up allows
up to 7 inches travel.
Fig. 3.31 shows the Potts carrying a
milling cutter, attached to the vertical
slide, the standard at the front of the
cross-slide and the motor again behind
the lathe. At above 8 inch travel of the
saddle there was some slackening of
the drive. This did not matter with
leather, but braided nylon lost its grip.
This was a situation where the more
'stretchy' plastic belt might have had an
advantage. Fig. 3.32 shows yet another
I have also used the device with the Fig. 3.3 7 Standard clamped to the front of Fig. 3.33 Spindle drive on a Boley watch¬ Fig. 3.34 A memorial altar cross, about 7 6
motor on the bench at the end of the the cross-slide, Potts spindle vertical. maker's lathe. inches tall, hand-turned in brass.

88 89
Set up as for normal screwcutting not as much as you might think. It is
with the machine in middle speed back hardly worthwhile setting up for short
gear, say 50 to 60 rpm. With the rest to threads, but for any longer than an inch
the right of the work engage the half¬ the procedure certainly saves time. Fig.
nut. Hold the chaser firmly on the rest 3.36 shows a |-inch dia x 12 tpi thread
with one hand and advance it to cut in brass which took about 4 minutes
with the other. It helps if the chaser is from start to finish excluding prepara¬
slightly angled sideways so that each tory work such as chucking, facing and
tooth cuts slightly deeper. Make two centring the end etc. Of course, I did
passes (later, after practice, you may have the tee rest set up from a previous
find that one is enough). job - changing from topslide to rest and
You have now a part-formed thread back again might have added a couple
to guide the chaser. Disengage the of minutes to the time.
leadscrew and throw out the back gear
to run at approximately 25/35 ft/min. Rigidity of lathe tools
Advance the chaser to the formed It is a truism to say that model en¬
grooves at the beginning of the thread gineers use their lathes on work far
Fig. 3.35 Dimensions of 'mobile' handrest to suit the Myford Super-7. and take a cut full length. Repeat this larger than they are designed for. In the
until you see that the crest of the early days the normal machine would
The little device shown in Fig. 3.35 adjusted to suit your machine so that threads is approaching completion, have been of 5 in. centre-height - true, it
fits on the cross-slide and provides both the tee can be adjusted to bring the top then try on the test nut. You can then was treadle driven, but the bed and
convenience in use and the maximum of the thickest tool to centre height, in 'shave' the thread as and where re¬ saddle were proportioned to the size of
choice of position. The drawing shows which connection I must emphasise quired to get a smooth fit throughout. the work, not the driving power. The
a design for the Myford Super-7, but a that you need a metal-cutting tee with This does need a little practice but leadscrew of my daughter's 3’ inch
flanged type for use on other lathes a flat top, highly polished (that nor¬
would not be difficult to devise. Mine is mally supplied for woodturning is not
made from aluminium alloy and after suitable).
some 25 years of use is showing some With this device the difficulties of
few signs of distress. An iron casting forming shapely curves on wheel han¬
would be preferable, or machine from dles, clock arbors, and even ball ends,
2\ inch round cast iron stock. disappear as hand and eye work to¬
It is a simple turning job, the only gether - no more fiddling with topslide
points to note being: and cross-slide indexes and no more
brutalising of workpieces with files and
(a) that the upper edges should be well emery!
radiused as shown
(b) the bore should be dead square to Hand-chasing screw threads
the face of the 2\ inch diameter flange An unexpected bonus from this rest
(c) the tool used to form the 30" taper was the ease and speed with which
should have a small (say ^in.) radius screw threads could be cut. Anyone
nose. who has seen old craftsmen brass-
finishers at work will recall how quickly
Good finish is needed on this taper. they cut BSP threads. The problem for
The hole is, of course, bored to be a those of us less skilled lies in striking
smooth fit to your tee-rest stem. the initial thread. This can now be
The dimensions shown should be overcome. Hg. 3.36 A hand-chased l inch Whitworth thread.
Britannia was 1 inch diameter and the variety of ways, the chief of which is of disaster provided, of course, that the type of tool become apparent. And, of
toolpost is designed for half-inch square probably the tangential tool. In all cases workpiece is strong enough to stand course, it is just in this situation that
tools. Indeed, the smallest size of tool where the feed is diametral - that is, the strain; all too often in model there is no room for a normal screw¬
listed in their catalogue of 1896 is gin., plunging into the workpiece - the engineering it isn't! jack. Very difficult - so all the more
intended for their light 3^ inch machine. classical overhung cantilever type of Naturally, there is a snag so far as we reason for doing something about it!
Modern lathes are, of course, much tool is liable to chatter and 'dig in', are concerned. Such a tool does need a Fig. 3.38 shows one answer. The ^in.
stiffer in their construction, the de¬ especially on lathes as light as the sophisticated tool-holder, with provis- x ^in. strip acts as packing beneath the
signers having made use of a better majority used by model engineers. ion for adjusting the tool height and for tool proper, the end marked 'L' being
distribution of metal rather than sheer The tangential tool is virtually free from setting both the attitude and the angle reduced in width to correspond to the
mass. However, when it comes to the these problems, and is illustrated dia- of the cutting edge. I have built up a business end of the crankpin turning
tool in relation to the work we seem to grammatically in Fig. 3.37. tangential parting-tool before now, but tool, and being the length necessary
have moved backwards. Many model It will be seen that the main cutting it was a tedious affair to set up and to clear the crankwebs (and balance
engineers perhaps do not realise that force (downwards in a plunging cut) is though I could part off up to 3 in. dia weights if forged with the shaft). In fact,
the toolbits they use are really intended transmitted directly to the slides. No with it, it was, quite frankly, more 'L' can be a bit less than this, as the
for application in a holder, the smallest bending forces are involved in this trouble than its rare use warranted. work rotates about a centre some way
of which are about |in. deep, with only plane, the only overhang being that I have also, from time to time, sup- above the top face of the device,
the actual point of the bit projecting. due to the very small front clearance ported wide form tools from the cross- The vertical support is a piece of gin.
Our tools are usually supported on a angle. Further, in the case of a form slide with toolmaker's jacks. Again, very or ^ in. wide strip, in the case shown
relatively weak pyramid of sliding com¬ tool, resharpening does not reduce the effective, but useless in many applica- ’in. thick, brazed to the underside of the
ponents - there are five 'joints' between resistance of the tool to the cutting tions where the jack would foul the flat; weld it if you like, better still. The
the lathe bed and the tool clamp, and forces, as only the top face of the tool is workpiece. It is important to appreciate height 'H' is made a few thou greater
even more with some tool support ground. that any such support must be secure; than the difference in height between
systems. Not the least of the advan¬ There is a small bending stress in the not only the work, but the machine as the cross- and topslides. This extra
tages of the rear parting tool-holder is vertical plane, but this is very small, well may become more than a little ensures that the foot is truly taking the
that most of these sliding supports are partly due to the deep tool section, and disordered if the support comes adrift cutting load and not just floating; if it
eliminated. This gives a pointer to the partly to the presence of the clamping during the cut! doesn't quite touch the cross-slide in
basis of the many problems met with device, not shown in the sketch. The This is especially the case when service, chatter will be inevitable. True,
by model engineers when dealing with result is that large and fast cuts may be turning crankpins, and it is just when you can put in a shim, but it is better to
machining operations such as parting taken with excellent finish and no risk machining this type of component that make it right in the first place,
off, using form-tools, and turning slen¬ the limitations of the normal cantilever The underside of the tool must, of
der workpieces like crankshafts. Some
of the devices used to ease other prob¬
lems - the quick-change tool-holder, for Fig. 3.38 Tool
example - may aggravate the difficulties giving the same effect as
of lack of rigidity. They are appropriate a tangential tool.
enough in the industrial setting, where
even small lathes may weigh half a ton,
but create difficulties in circumstances
where tool forces are high, or long
projection is needed. The two devices
which follow were designed to over¬
come some of these problems.

Tangential tooling
The problems just mentioned are over¬ H —cross slide to topslide height plus 0-003*
Fig. 3.37 The principle of the tangential tool
come in production workshops in a Itool clamps not shown). ® For UftoolSi use for /^tools & smaller

course, be fully in contact with the tant that the support pillar is square to 'Gibraltar' - a really rigid toolpost
support, and my own practice is to the flat, sideways. A little fore-and-aft Not too long after making the tangential
grind the underside of the tool very lean doesn't matter, but if it leans side¬ type tooling described on page 92 I had
slightly concave over its length. When ways it may throw the tool over on a an even more flexible shaft to machine,
clamped down, this straightens out and \
heavy cut. I made mine in. wide as and as the topslide could not be used
brings the underside of the nose of the shown, but | in. is better, as this then with the tool-point support there shown
tool hard down on the support. To always spans the boring table slots by a I decided to design a toolpost to sit
correct for centre-height, packing is fair margin. The length shown as 3 in. directly on the saddle. There have, of
used between the tool and the support, should be such that this part of the course, been hundreds of different
not underneath the latter, for obvious device spans the full width of the styles of tool-holder described over
reasons; and for equally obvious reas¬ topslide, and any packing used should the years, all claiming some advantage
ons, this packing must extend right to also run this full width. The thickness, or other. Most were devised either to
the nose, suitably reduced in width. shown on the sketch with an asterisk, ease the changing of tools or to facili¬
There are limitations. It can't be used can, with advantage, be greater; it is tate adjustment to centre-height. My
with a normal four-tool turret, as there best arranged so that the tool point objective was different - to achieve
isn't enough depth, but the turret offers comes to centre-height with the mini¬ maximum rigidity without sacrificing
Fig. 3.40 The tool and support set in place.
little advantage when crankpin turning mum of packing. The stronger the thing It is now normally used in the Gibraltar too much in other directions. The use
and you shouldn't use tools of any is, of course, the better it will work. of a tool-holder mounted on the cross¬
toolpost (see next column).
great overhang in a turret anyway. Similarly, if you are going mainly to slide itself would do away with the
Secondly, you can't traverse with the support wide form tools, then the up¬ flexibility of the topslide for one thing,
topslide, but must engage the lead- right part can be as thick as you like - machine cranks of 2 in. stroke, with the and also permit a more rigid holder -
screw and use the calibrated hand- even a round column. tool point overhanging about l^in. from one can't do much on the confined
wheel instead. The device shown in the photos space available on the topslide. I also
the front edge of the slide. This tool by
A few minor points. It is fairly impor¬ (Figs 3.39 and 3.40) has been used to hoped that I should be able to devise
the way, is at least 70 years old, carbon
steel, which I obtained at a sale a few something which would enable me to
years ago, and very useful it has been, run close up to the tailstock; it has been
too. It is really a ]in. wide parting tool, a grumble of mine for decades that the
but I use it solely for crankshaft turning. designers of this component seem to
The tool point is, of course, shaped as have forgotten that it is no use having a
in Fig. 3.41, and is traversed from side strong support at that end if you can't
to side while cutting. get at the workpiece to machine it
without having an excessive tool pro¬
jection. I have already found that there
, FLAT - 0 01." to 0 0151 WIDE were no problems when using the
jL^1— RADIUS AS BEARING FILLET. tangential-type tool-support arising
from the absence of topslide move¬
ment; indeed in some ways the use of
-7° to 10° the leadscrew handwheel seemed to
£ ease matters rather than the reverse.
The first, prototype, toolpost was
- l/lO.x BEARING DIA APPROX. made from a hefty chuck of DTD130B
aluminium alloy and is shown in Fig.
I—LESS THAN l/2. BEARING LENGTH 3.42. It did everything I had hoped for
and more. Fig. 3.43 shows it in use
Fig. 3.41 Tool planform used by the author during a 'metal-shifting' session, with a
Fig. 3.39 A crankshaft turning tool and its support.
for crankshaft machining. cut of just over gin. deep at 3j thou/rev

running at 70 ft/min. in En3. I was able
to run right up to the tailstock with
minimum tool projection and with the
tailstock poppet within half an inch of
the body. I was also able to use tools of
larger cross-section than usual - the
hefty \ inch butt-welded tools normally
used on my hand planing machine. The
tool gap does, in fact, permit the use of |
in. square tools if desired. There was a
last-minute refinement, too; the little ^
in. dia vertical peg seen in the photo,
which carries my Verdict-type last word
dial indicator!
On several normal jobs the facility
with which the whole issue could be
rotated was very helpful and, of course,
in facing jobs the holder can be rotated
so that the tool may be either at the
front or the back when looking at it from
the operator's position. For its initial
purpose it worked admirably, as seen in
the photograph (Fig. 3.44) and the long
Fig. 3.42 The first Gibraltar toolpost made three-throw shaft was fully machined
Fig. 3.44 The Gibraltar together with the tangential tool support makes for maximum
for trial. without incident. (A note about the
rigidity at the tool point.

various clamps and thrust pieces used House, Greens Lane, Burstwick, Hull
appears on page 56.) HU12 9EY and is in cast iron - better
There were some snags. These did than light alloy for such a job, even if a
not apply to the crankshaft, which was bit heavier (which is not in itself a bad
turned between centres and could be thing for a toolpost).
changed ends as needed, but as the Grip in the four-jaw by the base and
tool was virtually at the centre of the after setting true face the pads on the
topslide (on the Super-7) it was possible top. Then reverse in the chuck - you will
to get close to the chuck only if the see that I have provided a chucking-
swarf guard was taken off, and this was piece to ease this. I suggest that you
a nuisance. However, as the device had leave this on afterwards; it does no
been so successful I arranged for cast¬ harm and may come in handy if ever
ings to be made and altered the design you want to alter things. Machine the
to avoid this particular difficulty. This base to suit whichever lathe you have,
was shaped so that it could be used noting the little undercut adjacent to the
either on the Super-7 or on the older spigot in both cases. If working to the
type ML7 machines - see Fig. 3.45 and ML7 drawing you will have rather a lot
the drawing Fig. 3.46. The casting is of metal to machine away, but the alter¬
available from Hemingway, Wadworth native of providing a different casting
Fig. 3.43 Shifting metal

would have added considerably to the
I was able to machine out the slot on
my miller, using an Autolock Rippa
cutter, but I suggest you do it with
normal slot drills; the lathe is not a
milling machine and will not cope with
very heavy cuts. Set the casting upside
down on packing on the cross-slide and
mill out a slot say § in. wide to full
depth. Then adjust the packing thick¬
ness to clean up to the full width,
tackling first one side and then the
other. I recommend that you make the
tool slot a little over the ^in. shown. The
1| in. height will allow the use of | in.
tools, but if the point has been ground
down you may not be able to bring it to
centre-height otherwise. There is plenty ^ BSF with washer
of metal for the screws and the material A—-& nut
4 off
Fig. 3.45 The production model of the Gibraltar. Compare with the final design. (Photo Neil is 17-ton high grade cast iron, though
Hemingway) very easily machined.
When machining the base of the ML7
type I suggest that you use a carbide
tool if you have one - not so that you Y-T'standard Myford
tee-bolt head
can work faster, but because when
chewing off the surplus metal in redu¬
cing the square corners to round you Fig. 3.47 Details of clamps and bolts for the
will, part of the time, be skimming the ML7 version.
surface of the circular back of the
casting. Aim to get a good finish on Allen key is always more likely to get
the bottom face of the circular groove lost than a spanner!)
which takes the clamping pieces (Fig. Drill and tap for the tool securing
3.47). These are made from mild steel, screws, which can be hexagon, square
shaped as shown on the drawing, with or Allen heads to suit yourself. I have
a small bull-nosed packing riveted or shown three such, as there is little point
brazed to the outer end. I have asked in having a rigid tool-holder if you don't
you to make four, but in many applica¬ hold the tool rigidly in it! The drawing
tions you will need only a pair, opposite does not show the hole for the dial
each other. The holding bolt is a indicator peg, but you can fit this in to
standard Myford tee-bolt shortened, suit your own type of indicator. This I
but you may care to use tee-bars in would regard as a must - it saves
the slot of the cross-slide and Allen removing the tool and can be set up
screws with washers. (I don't like these and taken down so quickly that you will
screws here, by the way; the socket use it when you should and not just
head gets full of swarf, and a small when you can find time to fit the thing

98 99
up! I finished my own with a coat of machined. For short traverses not under
primer, a couple of undercoats and a power (and you should use auto
top coat of more or less Myford grey (I traverse on all but short travels) it does
believe they are painted differently take a little time to get used to using the
now) so that when in use it looks part leadscrew handwheel instead of the
of the machine (Fig. 3.48). knob on the topslide. However, once
I don't claim that this accessory is you are used to it you will find, as I have
the sole and definitive answer to the done, that it is perhaps easier to work to
toolpost problem. It does not, for a definite setting on the index. Those
example, supplant my four-tool turret on the leadscrew handwheel seem to
(which does, of course, remain on the be easier to work to than the little ones
topslide when using the Gibraltar) for on the topslide. However, despite these
there is no need for complete rigidity in limitations the advantages far outweigh
much of my work. There is the added them. For heavy roughing cuts it is a
point that there are some jobs where wonder, and on long finishing work I
the topslide is needed - in some cases it have found that somehow the tool
is essential, when turning short tapers, seems to stay sharp much longer. It is
for example, or for 'picking up' a thread virtually essential when carrying out
in screwcutting a job which is partially any metal-spinning; see Fig. 3.49. For

Fig. 3.49 Using the Gibraltar when spinning the domed top for a boiler (Photo Mike Chrisp)

the purpose for which it was first really sharp tool it is possible to take
devised - machining crankshafts - it is very fine cuts indeed.
far superior to anything else I have used It is vital that the tool be honed razor
except, perhaps, the toolpost on an 18- sharp and set at centre-height - defi¬
inch crank-turning lathe I used over half nitely not above. The front clearance
a century ago! This, of course, had no should be about 7° and the top rake 12°
topslide. for steels, 6" for cast iron and zero or
minus 2° for brass. To avoid waviness
Taking very fine cuts - 'shaving' the front planform should be a radius of
This is a technique rather than a device, not less than ^ inch (3 mm). Power feed
to meet the situation when the odd few is essential, at about 0.004 inch (0.1 mm)
tenths of thousandths of an inch must rev. The cutting speed should be about
be removed from the workpiece. Many 10 per cent lower than 'normal'.
will resort to emery cloth - this not only To put on the cut an experienced
risks tapering but is certain to round turner would simply tap the cross-slide
Fig. 3.48 Even with very short tool projection work can be done right up to the tailstock. any sharp corners. However, given a handle very lightly. Such skill is not

100 101
given to all of us, and we must rely on sometimes necessary to take the risk,
the machine instead. This is done by and I have used up to gin. drills on the
setting over the topslide at an angle, so Myford.
that its index divisions are reduced by a Occasionally there is a problem; the
known factor. At 5°44' this factor is 1/10, workpiece cannot be held either in a
but is difficult to set. However, at six chuck or on the faceplate and must be
degrees an index movement of 0.001 carried on the saddle, with the drill in
inch becomes a depth of cut of the headstock mandrel. The risk of
0.0001048 inch which is near enough slippage is still there but as most
for anyone; if attempting a cut of one- headstock sockets are hardened these
tenth of a thou we are not going to days it isn't quite so great. There is,
worry about the error of 4.8 millionths! however, another hazard. The normal
In practice it is best to set on cuts of method, mentioned by many writers, is
not less than 0.0002 inch (0.005 mm) to to use the saddle handwheel or, as I do
give the tool edge a reasonable amount for smaller drills, power traverse. With
of work to do. It is also advisable to large drills this will put an excessive
tighten up the cross-slide gibs a trifle twisting force on the saddle, increasing
(or even lock it) to avoid accidental the friction losses, and overloading
movement here., either the rack pinions or the leadscrew
This technique can be used when half-nut as the case may be. The forces
boring provided that the tool is reason¬ in drilling are very large - on a] inch
ably stiff, but it is advisable to take the drill in steel, about 150 Ibf. If you don't
cut in the reverse direction - from the believe me, set the bathroom scales on
headstock outwards. the drilling machine, a vice on the
To reiterate - the tool must be scales, and drill a hole. You'll see! Fig. 3.50 Using the tailstock to apply thrust when drilling from the headstock.
honed, preferably with hard Arkansas To get over this, why not use the
stone, to a razor sharp edge, finishing tailstock to push the saddle along? Fig. saddle is so close to the headstock that idle I prefer to avoid the need for a com¬
the top surface last. A smooth surface 3.50 shows a casting being drilled, with the machine lighting cannot reach. Note plete clean-up each time the machines
here is as important as the sharpness of two bosses requiring the holes to be also the turned cover in the hole which are used.
the edge. parallel and in line. It has been clamped normally is filled by the topslide, to Most of you will be aware of the
to the saddle on packing and a ’in. drill prevent swarf getting onto the cross¬ corrosion which can arise from soluble
Heavy drilling in the lathe is in use. There is a piece of dowelling slide feedscrew. oil, which is, more properly, an emul¬
A lathe fitted with backgear can be used between the tailstock poppet end and sion and not a solution. This corrosion
to drill quite large holes if the drill has a the work, so that when the drill breaks Cutting fluids and accessories is not rust caused by the water, as many
suitable Morse taper shank to fit the through this takes the cut (it starts to believe, but a rather special form of
tailstock. I must confess that I go quite rotate as a rule, but this makes no Cutting oils attack brought about by anaerobic
slowly and gingerly as there is always a odds). All the thrust is now contained in I do not intend to discuss the relative bacteria present in the fluid. In the
risk of the drill 'grabbing' and turning in a straight line and no damage can be merits,of soluble and straight cutting presence of oxygen they do no harm,
the taper. On a normal drilling machine done anywhere. Further, all the strain is oils. I use both - for general service, a but if air is excluded these bacteria
the tang on the drill will engage and taken off the clamping screws. Note, by relatively light straight oil (enriched multiply, feeding on the emulsion and
prevent this, but there is no correspond¬ the way, the spare backplate on the with an additive), pump circulated and releasing corrosion products. The com¬
ing slot on lathe sockets. Yes, I know mandrel nose. This is always fitted piped to serve either the lathe or the monly suggested expedient of using a
that the 'drive' should be taken by the whenever the thread will be exposed milling machine. For more difficult sub¬ higher proportion of oil (and hence, less
taper, and so it is; but the presence of a in service, to avoid risk of damage. You jects I use soluble oil. Soluble would, of water) is the wrong thing to do - all you
tang does prevent rotation should the will see that it is painted white; this course, serve for all, but as there can be are doing is providing more 'fuel' for
grip on the taper be lost. However, it is reflects light onto the work when the long intervals when the workshop is the bacteria! The recommended mix of

102 103
20/1 to 30/1 is quite rich enough. are very cheap and it pays to have
spares available.) pint can to which a 20 swg tinplate
This causes little trouble on industrial
bracket is soldered, the bracket having a
machines, as they are in continuous use
piece of brass tube between the folded-
and are regularly and thoroughly Cutting oil feed
As mentioned earlier, my normal sup¬ over ends. The upright is ’ inch diameter
cleaned down. But it can cause prob¬
ply is from a pressure pump mounted steel, with, as you can see, a nut and soft
lems for those of us who are able to get
in a 2-gallon tank, which is arranged spring washer at the top; just tight
into the workshop only for odd hours at
with a 2-way cock to feed either the enough so that it stays put but is easily
a time.
lathe or the miller, each with a drain moved. The base arm is l x § inch steel,
There is not much risk with the lathe
pipe back to the tank. The drip tray of held by a tee-bolt to the cross-slide.
slides, as only a small amount of fluid is
each is arranged with a 'fall' of about The outlet is an old swivel gas tap,
trapped, and little air can get in. If the
1/60 towards the drain, with a strainer but a normal petrol cock with the now
oil-gun is applied after each campaign
to keep out swarf. That on the lathe can well-known Locline tube system would,
on the machine this should drive out CHUCK SPLASHGUARD
be plugged when using soluble oil. I'm sure, be more useful. An important
what soluble oil has got there. How¬
Alternatively if a long campaign on this point is that the end of the tube must
ever, it has to be accepted that when felt
fluid is expected, a separate drain pipe either be cut at a fine angle, or a nozzle
wipers are fitted these do provide a
and receiver can be fitted. used, so that the flow can be concen¬
truly gourmet restaurant for bacteria!
Soluble oil is dispensed from the can trated, even when a mere drip. This
My own drill is to remove these al¬
shown in Fig. 3.51. This was rigged up simple device served me well for many
together when using emulsion, and
nearly 50 years ago now (following an years, and can be commended to those
replace them (after cleaning and drying)
article by the great Edgar Westbury if who cannot afford - or do not have the
when changing back to straight oil.
room for - a pump and tank system.
Whenever a long period of cast iron my memory serves me correctly) and
machining is expected I take off the oily can be swapped for the pump-supplied
Splash guards
felts and replace with dry. (These felts standard in a few seconds. It is simply a
As soon as any form of drip or flow feed
is used the waste thrown off the rotat¬
ing chuck must be confined, for obvious
reasons! Even with the drip can in Fig.
3.51 this can be a nuisance - as I found
when I built my 'new' workshop back in
1972. The nicely painted wall behind the
machine soon suffered. The solution is
shown in Figs 3.52 and 3.53 which are, I
believe, self-explanatory. The guard is
attached to the headstock using the
bolt-hole provided for this purpose on
the machine. It can be swivelled up and
down at will. I would recommend,
however, that the 3-inch dimension be Fig. 3.53 Rear splash guard for the chuck.
made slightly longer to clear the rear of
the cross-slide when working close to (chiefly brass) off the shelf behind the
the chuck. The bracket is | x ^ inch steel machine on which I keep chucks, cen¬
and the sheet 18 swg aluminium, tres etc. - a foolish arrangement really.
painted to match the lathe. But it was there, built into the general
An extension to the drip tray was set-up round the machine, and this
made later, shown in Fig. 3.54. This was guard served well enough. Later, when
Fig. 3.51 The drip can used when cutting oil other than that in the pump system is needed.
needed initially to keep fast-flying swarf I fitted the pump system and was able

release and swing down the front guard Holes are made to pass the vice h/d
to use the chuck key. bolts, the vice register gluts, with two
further holes to line up with one of the
Milling machine vice tray tee-slots at the front of the table. In
Like most pedestal machines, the Myford addition, a short stub of ^ inch brass
VMC has a coolant drain to the table, tube is soldered into the rear corner,
another on the base of the column and from which a hose runs to the sub-base
a third to the sub-base collecting tray tray, terminating adjacent to the drain.
into which the others drain. The great There is a small loose cover over the
advantage of pump feed is, of course, entry to the stub to prevent swarf from
that the oil flow can be jetted to remove falling into the tube directly.
to use a full flood of coolant to the the guard itself was l inch perspex, chips as well as to lubricate the cutting This device reduces splash problems
tools, it became even more useful. easily bent if gently warmed, the idea edges; very important when slotting, to negligible proportions, though it is
being that I could see through it. In the especially with small cutters. necessary to clear the tray of swarf
Extended chuck guard event, after about ten years, it has now Unfortunately, despite the compre¬ fairly frequently, as this can impede free
This became essential when the pump relapsed into translucency, and alumi¬ hensive collecting and drainage sys¬ drainage.
system was fitted. It is shown in Figs nium would have done just as well. The tem, much fluid falls to the floor simply
3.55 and 3.56. The base has four little top end is secured with a spring because the machine vice projects well Recovery
magnets (available very cheaply nowa¬ (bulldog) paperclip, bolted to the top outside the sides of the table. To cope A considerable amount of fluid is lost
days from surplus stores) which secure of the rear guard. It is a simple matter to with this I made up the vice tray seen in when disposing of swarf. This is hardly
it to the drip tray. The material used for Fig. 3.57. This is simply a cook's shallow worth bothering about with soluble oil,
baking tray, about 10 x 12 x ^ inch deep but neat oil is relatively costly. Try this.
- as used for making fudge in this Make a fairly large number of small
household! holes in the bottom of a tin; I use the

Fig. 3.55 Detachable front chuck guard. The

hinged section is secured by a bulldog paper¬ Fig. 3.56 The guard open to give access to
clip attached to the top of the rear guard. the chuck key.

106 107
suggest. It is so arranged that when the
large Nescafe tins used by bulk con¬ Leadscrew guard
saddle is at its extreme left-hand posi¬
sumers (of which I am one!). It needs to For some obscure reason the designers
tion the little guard attached to the
be at least 6 inches in diameter and 8 of lathes always provide a leadscrew
saddle passes over it without fouling.
inches or more deep. A wall-paint can with a thread extended well beyond the
You will note that it is packed away
would serve just as well. Shovel the oily reach of the leadscrew half-nuts - at
from the lathe bed so that any coolant
swarf into this, and stand it on top of a both ends. I don't know why! The last
running down can get away without
similar (but 'unholy') tin. Leave for few inches at the headstock end are
being trapped.
several days after which almost all the redundant, but they lie just where the
oil will have filtered through. This can swarf falls onto the screw. Yes, I know
My reminder
then be tipped back into the main tank. there is a little guard on the saddle, but
Guarding against dirt is one thing, but
it doesn't cover the screw except when
human error is a more serious matter,
close to the headstock. Now, it might be
like engaging the leadscrew half-nut for
argued that dirt on a bit of screw that is
a feed of 6 thou/rev only to find that you
never going to be used does not matter.
are about to cut an 18 tpi thread
But apart from looking bad there is a
instead. This can be quite an experience Fig. 3.61 Fine feed and reverse indicators.
chance of such dirt being carried back
at 1800 rpm with the saddle belting
under the saddle apron. Indeed, the
along at l| inches/second! So I made the two settings. This is rather more
maker's little guard does just that when
the device shown in Figs. 3.60 and 3.61 important than usual in my case as I do
any bits of long curly swarf get onto the
just to remind me where things were a fair bit of work on the Lorch screwcut¬
set. The little label has 'Fine Feed' ting lathe and on this the reverse lever
Hence Fig. 3.59. It is made of 26 swg
painted on one side and 'Screwcut' on works the opposite way to that on the
sheet aluminium, and held by two 5 BA
the other. There is a further label under Myford (with the normal screwcutting
(or 3 Whit.) screws and washers. Note
this one, seldom used, which reads train on the banjo).*
that it goes behind the leadscrew, not
'Special' which is for use when I have Naturally, I have to remember to alter
Fig. 3.58 in front as the sketch (Fig. 3.58) may
the auxiliary quadrant set up for metric the labels! In fact, they remind me to,
or other special threads (my lathe has a for when the gearguard is opened they
screwcutting gearbox). You will notice rattle a bit against each other!
on the sketch a couple of arrows
painted on the casting alongside the Protecting the taper sockets of
tumbler reverse lever. This indicates the lathe
the direction of travel of the saddle at The biggest enemy of taper sockets is
dirt, for the presence of even a tiny
5BA screw with particle can cause the centre to run
locknut inside
badly out. Worse, any such in the
tailstock while using a drill chuck can
cause the arbor to spin and this in turn
will groove the socket, raise a burr and
cause endless trouble in the future.
There are many ways of cleaning - a
piece of rag on a wire can be used as a
'pull-through' in the headstock - but
many tailstocks these days have no
FINE FEED & REVERSE INDICATORS through hole (more's the pity) and this

Fig. 3.60 *My Super-7 has a gearbox.

Fig. 3.59 The leadscrew swarf guard fitted.

0.7" dia.
my tailstock barrel when I am not using
3° included angle it. It keeps out dirt and saves catching
the back of the hand on a centre or
chuck while using the lathe. SECTION 4
The same device is, of course, used
to clean out the headstock socket, but
here there is another problem. There is
Beech or similar
risk of swarf getting right down the
Fig. 3.62 Centre cleaning tool. Also serves
as a stopper when no centre is in use.
hollow mandrel, particularly when dril¬
ling. I use a liner, as shown in Fig. 3.63.
The taper head is first bored and then
turned to No. 2 MT, the bore to fit any
cannot be used. Fig. 3.62 shows the convenient size of tube you have avail¬
gadget I made, turned up out of hard¬ able. The length of the wooden taper
wood. I used boxwood but any close- need be no more than an inch or so. My
grained wood will serve. The length own tube will pass up to ,-6in. diameter These are bits and pieces which could a further pulley can be added above
should be longer than the length of the so that it can remain in place for a great not be classified in any of the other that on the motor the problem can be
taper otherwise when fitted with a number of machining operations. The groups. The section could have been solved - see Fig. 4.2. This belt just
square of cloth it will not reach the wooden ring at the back end is to very much longer as most of the home¬ embraces the jockey which acts as a
bottom end. I use 'four-by-two' flannel¬ prevent the tube from rattling about, made devices in my workshop seem to vibration damper.
ette familiar to many for using to clean and the tube is made of sufficient fall into this category. However, as The motor pulley boss is longer than
out rifle barrels and obtainable from length to project outside the change- there is a limit to the size of any book the length of the motor shaft, so that it
gunsmiths. A piece is threaded into the wheel cover, but not so long as to I have selected just a few which have, is possible to fit a stub shaft within,
slot and the whole given a couple of prevent the cover from being opened. in the past, been considered worthy of having an extension to fit the new
twists in the socket. Repeat if the first Any swarf which does pass through will publication. pulley (see Fig. 4.3). The keyway is
application brings out a lot of dirt. The not then land amongst the headstock made to suit the existing 3-step pulley.
plug, without the cleaning cloth, sits in gearing. Milling machine spindle speeds (Note that the dimensions here will
The popular mid-range VMC-type mill¬ depend on the motor used.)
ing machines offer a reasonable range The new pulley may have to be
13'overall of speeds (160 to 2540 rpm) but the belt machined on the face of the boss to
system (Fig. 4.1) is such that there is a ensure that the head of the new (longer)
wood or hardwood No.2 gap in the middle of this range. The retaining bolt clears the gear cover. Fig.
morse taper \
brass collar speeds available are shown in the table, 4.4 shows the assembly.
0590*0.0. to together with the nearest cutter dia¬
pass through
A tube This alteration provides a speed of
•/ fix with Araldite.
bore. meter appropriate to mild steel (for about 780 rpm, virtually in the middle of
high performance cutters). the gap shown in the table. The time
Unfortunately it is not possible to set taken was only the odd hour or so - fol¬
a belt directly between the motor and lowed by some days awaiting delivery
the existing spindle pulleys as the jockey of a new A55 belt (the exact size will
pulley arm gets in the way. However, if depend on the pulley used) to replace

Belt Set D-1 C-1 D-2 A-1 — B-2 C-3 A-2 B-3 A-3
Speed, rpm 160 260 390 560 — 1090 1190 1350 2080 2540
Dia., inch 2\ 1’ 1 | 3 ii 9 3 5
8 32 32 16 32
The very commonly used \ inch cutter f, into the gap indicated.


immi ■

Fig. 4.7 Arrangement of speed pulleys on milling machine.

Fig. 4.3 Extension stub to extra pulley, sized

to fit the motor shaft. Fig. 4.5 A selection of filing buttons (rollers).

Fig. 4.6 Filing rollers in use forming a

forked shaft end.

Fig. 4.4 The extra pulley fitted to the motor

shaft. running fit to the pin. Also shown in the
photo is one of a pair of small worn out
Fig. 4.2 Extra pulley and belt arranged to clear jockey pulley arm. line'. The filing button (or roller) is, ballraces which make excellent filing
perhaps, the simplest and (it would buttons when of the right size!
appear) the least known. In use, the two discs are set either
the ancient and much frayed relic found and operators have cut themselves on Fig. 4.5 shows a few from my collec¬ side of the workpiece with a cotter. The
in my stores! sharp corners, and 'design' is as much tion and illustrates the construction well work is set in the vice (Fig. 4.6) and the
the result of experience as of analysis. enough without the need for a draw¬ file applied so that when down to size it
Filing buttons The ways of making such rounded ends ing. A pin or screw is made a good fit to will roll on the discs without cutting.
It is not surprising that many engine or is legion, ranging from setting up the hole in the lever or rod, and carries Initial cuts may be with a very coarse
machine components have rounded complex milling rigs to the scribing of two discs or bushes, o/d to suit the file, finishing being done with a Swiss
ends, for many generations of fitters a circle followed by tedious 'filing to the desired radius, having a hole a close¬ file or even emery.

112 113

For one-off jobs it is scarcely neces¬ simple stop, or just the indexes on the please - but that shown (3° included the jig for what it is, so that you can use
sary to harden the discs, but as they tailstock poppet, will look after the angle) is very nearly a Morse angle so it again if need be in the future. While
may come in useful again it is always length of the stub, and provided they that we can be sure it will grip well you are at it, if you are likely to use
worth doing so. There is no need to are not overloaded by too fast a feed enough. rosebits in any other machine which
temper. I tend to use casehardened mild the finish is good. So, although I have The first step is to make the taper has a different Morse taper, make an
steel as it is cheaper than silver steel. some for my Lorch lathe - all far too hole in the arbor (and one in a fixture to arbor for that also - one with a parallel
small for model work - I decided to be mentioned later) of such a diameter shank is useful, as it can be held in any
Making hollow mills or rosebits make a set to suit the Myford and to that the cutter fits without going in too chuck.
There are occasions when a quantity of cover the normal BA sizes I use. far or not far enough. We must first Now for the cutters. The procedure is
workpieces need the ends bringing Fig. 4.7 shows the general dimen¬ make a test gauge. Chuck a piece of the same for all. Chuck the silver steel
down to BA (or other) sizes and it can sions. All save the largest are of ^ in. i^in. stuff (steel or brass) in the three- with about Jin. protruding, centre deep
be a tedious job turning them, even if silver steel, that for 2 BA being made jaw, using paper if need be to get it true enough to accept the end of a drill of
the machine is fitted with saddle and |in. o/d. The socket for the tailstock was (if badly out you may have to use the the appropriate size (see later), draw
cross-slide stops. Watchmakers use made from a drill-chuck arbor; it could four-jaw, but this is tedious, and an the work out until 1 in. protrudes, drill
rosebits to machine the pivots on the have been made from scratch, but this error of J to ij thou won't matter much). to size about J|in. deep. Turn the taper
end of their spindles, and there is no one was to hand and they are made of a Set over the topslide by lj° inwards with the slide-rest, and finally part off to
reason why larger ones should not be very easy machining steel; besides towards the chuck, and turn a taper on length. In the drilling, it is vital that the
used in model engineering. In fact, they which the taper hole in the end need the stock. Part off so that this taper is drill be kept free of chips so that it runs
are available commercially, but at a not prevent it being used for a drill Jin. long, reverse in the chuck and put a true. For the 2 BA chap, turn down the
formidable price! They are very handy chuck if ever the need arose. The taper slight bevel on the small end. Remove length behind the head to in. dia
indeed, as a single cut reduces the work on the end of the cutters is quite the chuck and set the arbor in the before making the taper. The cutters are
to the exact dimension required; a arbitrary - you can make it what you headstock making sure all is clean. then held in the chuck by the head taper
Measure the small end of the little taper outwards, and a slight bevel put on.
plug and centre and drill the arbor with The hole is then opened out with a drill
Flats for key a drill a few thou larger - I used gjin. Go about 10 thou larger than the one
3° included angle
about Jin. deep and keep the drill clear previously used, to the depth shown
Cutting edge and the feed steady to avoid wander¬ in the drawing (Fig. 4.7). Mark each
ing. Now set up a tiny boring tool and blank with its BA size.

w- bore the taper with the top-slide until

the test plug taper sticks out only about
g^in. Lightly bevel the edge of the hole
The drill sizes to be used must be
chosen with some care; nearly all will
drill larger than the nominal diameter
Important 3? and machine a recess about 10 thou and only one hole (that for 5 BA) suits a
remove ony burr 8 deep as well, to protect the edge of the standard reamer. In most cases I put
at junction here GENERAL DATA ON CUTTER
taper hole from damage, as shown in through two drills, as listed below, but
Fig. 4.7. please note that yours may be different.
Remove the arbor and set up the The trick is to drill a series of experi¬
four-jaw, to make the jig we shall need mental holes, and check these against a
to mill the teeth. This is simply a square well-made screw of the size it is sup¬
Recess & To suit tailstock arbor which can be held in the vice on posed to suit. It is better to be a couple
the vertical slide. Cut off a piece of \ in. of thou small than even 1 thou large,
square steel about a couple of inches especially if your dies are a bit tired.
long, clean up the exterior, and set it Here are the sizes I used, in mm.
true to the faces in the chuck. Face the
end, centre and drill in. (or as 2 BA No. 4.6 followed by No. 4.7
required) as before, and again machine 3 BA No. 4.0 followed by 4.1
Fig. 4.7 the taper to suit the plug gauge. Mark 4 BA No. 3.5 followed by No. 3.6

114 115
5 BA No. 3.0 followed by gin. reamer until you reach the stop. Allow the will be at the back of the cross-slide and
6 BA No. 2.7 followed by No. 2.8 cutter to dwell for a few revs when the centreline of the blank will be below
you reach the stop. Carry on like this, the centreline of the endmill. If, there¬
If using metric drills choose those until all four teeth are cut. The cutter fore, you use a milling machine instead
which are nearest below these sizes. can then be removed - you will need a of the vertical slide set-up, the same
After all the holes are drilled, the drift to knock it out of the arbor - and geometry must be observed. If other¬
arbor is substituted for the chuck, and should be examined under a glass for wise then (a) the blank may well jump
each cutter blank in turn is mounted any imperfections. If all is in order, you out of the arbor and (b) you will get a
therein and the end faced to a fine may now deal with all the other blanks nasty feather edge on the business end
finish. The edge of the hole must be one after the other, except any which of the cutter.
dead razor sharp, with no burr and no Fig. 4.8 Milling the teeth. See also Fig. 4.9. has a larger diameter head. For this one While the rig is set up, you should
bevel, so hone the tool to razor sharp¬ you will have to traverse the cross-slide consider the means you intend to adopt
ness, and take light cuts. Take off any to get it running true, if the chuck is at a bit further back and experiment with to remove the finished cutters from the
burr at the junction of the two bores in all old. One of the blanks (the smallest the first tooth as you did before. You tailstock arbor. There are three common
the cutter blank. hole) is fitted to the square arbor and will probably have to adjust the vertical ways: (1) drill a hole right down the
The teeth may now be milled. I have tapped in with a soft hammer, and the slide as well (Fig. 4.9). arbor and drive the cutter out with a
given no detail dimensions, as these arbor mounted in the vertical slide vice Before leaving this part, there is one drift, (2) drill a hole across the arbor,
will depend on the diameter of the so that the end is just flush with the side important point to observe. You must just about where the tail of the cutter
endmill or slot drill available; choose of the vice jaws. A stop will be needed arrange the position of the slide relative will be, and use a taper drift to eject the
the sharpest you have, so long as it is of to limit the saddle travel, and I used a to the cutter so that the latter is tending cutter, in the same way that drills are
reasonable size. The object of the exer¬ toolmaker's clamp on one of the lathe to drive the blank into the arbor, and so shifted from the larger drilling machine
cise is to get the flat face as nearly as shears. Set this first by eye so that the that the teeth of the endmill walk into and (3) machine a couple of flats on the
possible on the centreline of the cutter, face of the endmill will be on the centre¬ the flat end face of the blank. This cutter, for use in the same way that
and the sloping face (formed by the line of the cutter in the vice. Note that means, in effect, that the vertical slide centres were removed on older pattern
diameter of the cutter) meeting the flat all cutting must be done with the face of
end of the blank at about 60 degrees. the endmill, feeding in with the lead-
This last is not critical, but should not screw handwheel, and not by traversing
be less than 45 degrees. The next re¬ the cross-slide; once the correct setting
quirement is to get the teeth about 634in. is found, the latter should be locked.
wide, measured on the flat face. Again, Similarly the vertical slide, using a
this is not critical - between 40 and 50 clamp if need be.
thou will serve. Finally, it is essential Adjust the vertical and cross-slides
that when making the flat face of the and make a trial cut; run the cutter at
tooth, the cutter should break into the about 40 ft/min. surface speed, and use
central hole. This will present no pro¬ oil to get a good finish. Adjust the cross
blems down to 6 BA, but smaller than and vertical-slides as necessary to ap¬
that may need the tooth thickness to be proach the conditions listed above.
reduced. Once you are satisfied that all is in
Fig. 4.8 shows the required position order, lock up the slides and the saddle
of the endmill - I used one | in. stop. Take a last cut in case anything
diameter. The vertical slide should be has shifted, after which retract the
set up facing the chuck, and checked saddle, release the vice, rotate the
that the fixed jaw is parallel with the square arbor one flat, taking care that
machine bed. The endmill is, of course, the end face of the arbor is again flush
held in the three-jaw and again it will with the side of the vice, tighten up, and
pay to use cigarette paper (etc.) packing feed in with the leadscrew handwheel fig- 4.9 Cutting the teeth with the blank held in the square arbor.

116 117
centre-lathes. I used the last method, Clean and dry the cutters, and set up is the equivalent of four knife-tools
but either of the others would do. If you the square arbor in the vice. You can do working at once) but don't be tempted
are going to mill flats, then you can do with a little eyeglass for the next job to force the pace or you will get a poor
it now. Set up a ^in. or ^in. endmill in too. This is to stone the cutting edge, at surface finish on the peg. Use plenty of
the chuck, mill one flat right across, (a) (M about 10 to 15 degrees just taking out cutting oil, enough to wash the chips
Stage l before hardening Stoge 2 oftcr tempering
with the endmill just clearing the end of the witness you left before (Fig. 4.10b). away as well as to lubricate and cool
the square arbor, and then rotate the This needs great care and a good light. the tool. Remember it is carbon steel,
arbor two flats and mill another (using Fig. 4.10 Forming cutting edge. It is important to see that the stoned and adjust the cutting speed accord¬
the vertical slide to traverse, of course). part is even, right across the tooth. Do ingly, to suit the outside of the work
Again, identical settings may be used about this, but it is important to heat the this for all teeth on one cutter, using a diameter bearing in mind that the tool
for the cutters of the same diameter, but work up slowly, hold the heat at the fine India stone and oil, and then go is making a relatively wide cut on four
a different one for the largest. Make right temperature for a while, and round all the teeth again, very lightly, faces at once (it is the heat produced by
them fit any convenient BA size span¬ quench business end first. I arranged with an Arkansas stone at the same the cut that does the damage, as much
ner, or make a key to fit. the cutters in a row, one behind the angle. If you haven't such a stone, then as the absolute speed). I work mine at
The rest of the work is going to need other, so that the waste heat from the the finish left by a fine India will do, but 40 ft/min. on soft mild steel, 35 or even
a good light, a fair bit of care, and a very first was pre-heating the others and so the Arkansas gives just that extra bit of 30 on BDMS, which is work-toughened,
fine file - say a No. 4 or 6 cut precision on. Look down the hole to see that you Rolls-Royce finish that pays dividends 30 on free-cutting brass, and about half
Swiss file. If you haven't one of these, are at the right temperature and then on the workpiece. The final step - with that on drawn gunmetals. But the little
use a fine India or aloxite slipstone with hold for at least 60 seconds on these the cutter still in the arbor, but hand¬ fellows supplied with the watchmaker's
thin oil, not one of the blue-grey slip- little chaps before quenching. The cut¬ held this time, is lightly to stone the flat lathes will cut very hard steel if the
stones. The advantage of the Swiss file ters stood on their teeth, on a piece of front face of each tooth. Examine all speed is kept down and plenty of oil
is that it has a safe edge, but the stone insulating brick (Folsain, Fossalsil or under the glass, and retouch any defici¬ used. The one material I don't use these
will cut just as well; you must just take similar) and were gripped by the tapers ency. If you see any slight burrs on the cutters on, ever, is work-hardening
more care. Mount the cutter in the for quenching. Remember to dry the outer edges, lightly stone these too. If stainless steel, but then, I try not to use
square arbor again, and carefully back tongs in the flame before using them by any mischance there is a burr inside this material for anything if I can avoid it.
off the face of each tooth at about 25 again. the hole, and you have no stone small
degrees, leaving a witness just at the To remove scale I use a 4in. soft enough to get inside, chuck a piece of
front edge - Fig. 4.10a. This should be brass wire brush at about 2,000 revs in hardwood (pegwood as used by clock-
about ^ in. wide; the exact width isn't the drilling machine. This put enough makers will serve best of all) and run
critical, but get them all the same by polish to be able to see the tempering this down with the cutter in the tail-
eye. Take great care not to rub the colours or polish with a fine emery, but stock, about ^in. long. Impregnate this
adjacent flat cutting face, and still more remember the cutters are now very run-down length with fine emery-paste,
care not to rub off a corner. If by some brittle. Temper to pale straw. The pukka and try to lap out the bore, but don't let
mischance you do take a corner off, way of doing this is in a sand bath, but I the cutting edges come near the
mount the nearly finished blank in the simply held each cutter in the tongs at shoulder on the wood lap. The great
No. 2 MTarbor in the lathe and skim the the end of the taper where it merges risk with this process is that you may
tops of the teeth again - very little cuts with the head and played a soft flame make the hole taper, so that when in
and a very sharp tool, please! You will on the smaller end. Take care that the service the machined peg will bind in
find you soon get the hang of this job, flame doesn't shoot through the hole or the hole as the cutter advances. But if
and the square arbor simplifies matters, you will overdo it. Incidentally, I find you have been careful in the earlier ——

as you have only to rotate this in your that I tend to over-temper if I do this job stages to remove any burrs after drilling
vice to present each tooth to the.file in in electric light and have either to wait and milling, no trouble should arise
now. Fig. 4.11 The finished article. Top: No. 2 MT
the same attitude as the last. Finally, until daylight, or make allowances.
arbor and cutter. Left: two cutters. Centre: the
very cautiously, stone off all burrs. Alternatively, they may be 'cooked' in In service, the cutter is mounted in square arbor. Centre left: arbor for use in the
The cutters may now be hardened. a deep-fryer for 20 minutes - a very the arbor in the tailstock, and run up to Lorch lathe. Bottom: test piece run down
You will probably have your own ideas effective expedient! the work. It will cut surprisingly fast (it with each cutter in turn.

118 119
There it is, then. You should now such an arbor is all taper and not easy
make a trial cut on a piece of (say) gin. to hold while drilling for a draw bar. So
material to check the diameters of the you don't need a draw bar - you don't \5*
■fe doep(min)
finished jobs (see Fig. 4.11). Mine all use one on your drilling machine? Don't to fit cutt«r

came between 1 and 2 thou small you believe it! When drilling, the thrust
except for the 4 BA cutter, which was 1 will hold the taper into its socket, but porolief
thou over-size. This was the only one, even so it is not unknown when drilling No 3 J T Jocobs toper
I No* 3 3A or 36 chuck size)
too, which showed any tendency to be brass to have the drill take charge and
tight on the work, suggesting a taper pull it out. Even more so when milling, CUTTER HOLDER USE JACOBS ARBOR ALTERNATIVE HOLDER HT 5TEEL

hole, so that it looks as if I need a new for the one inescapable feature of the other dimensions as Jacobs type

No. 28 drill! milling operation is the vibration set up

^32 thick brass
in the process.
A holder for throwaway endmills I have had many cases where small
Many model engineers will be familiar endmills have been slowly pulled out of
with the Clarkson range of throwaway plain spring collets, too, for the forces
endmills, but for the benefit of those at the cutting edge of an endmill have a
who are not, I should explain that these downward component in some cases,
are supplied at such a low price that the so a draw bar is essential.
makers claim that 'resharpening is a The procedure* is to turn a parallel
nonsense'. I wouldn't altogether agree part on the arbor, both to hold it and to
with that so far as we are concerned, support it when drilling. Clean out the Fig. 4.12 Details of the milling cutter holder and draw bar. Dimensions are for ’. in. shank
but it is probably true that it would cost taper in the headstock, and that of the Clarkson FC3 cutters.
a commercial firm more to sharpen one arbor, and first machine a parallel
than to buy a new one! Despite their section on the taper that normally fits is fgin. tapping drill. I say "drill deeply" enough to break into the existing hole,
cheapness, however, they are made of the drill chuck. I suggest about Jin. long - you really need a hole right through, and then bore 1 in. deep until the cutter
first quality HSS and I find they have an -just enough to get a grip on it with the but don't take the tapping drill in further is a smooth sliding fit. Note that there
additional advantage in that they are three-jaw. Fit the latter and hold this than to within j| in. of the end in the will be a tolerance on the shanks of the
shorter than the usual endmill and parallel collar in the chuck, supporting chuck - the hole at that end must be cutters; mine all lie between less J and
especially in the smaller sizes have less the free end of the arbor with the bored to suit the cutter. Now tap the less ij thou of J in. dia, so choose the
tendency to wander and so form an tailstock centre, and turn a short parallel hole you have made, about fin. deep or largest. If you only have one cutter then
over-size slot. They are made from Jin. section at the end of the taper, wide so. Make a draw bar if you have not got I suggest you bore to a close slide fit to
to ggin. in the long series, and ^ to J x enough, this time, to suit your fixed one - this is a simple job and lots of 0.250 in. dia. Now, if you have doubts
in. in the short and ball-nosed types, steady. Get a good finish in both cases, chaps just use a length of screwed rod about boring such a relatively deep
with J inch shanks, and 1 mm to 6 mm at and remove any sharp edges at the with a nut and washer at the end. hole in such a size, drill 372 in. as before,
similar intervals (6 mm shanks) in the junction of taper and parallel. However, the sketch shows the one I right into the other hole. Bore as deep
metric range. Now set up your fixed steady and use on the Myford Super-7. I will not as you can until a letter D or 6.2 mm drill
However, there is little point in using the tailstock centre as a guide (or give instructions as it is easy enough to will just enter; put this drill right
having an endmill that will cut true to any other means to your taste) adjust it make. It should screw into the arbor through, feeding gently, and follow
size if it is held in a three-jaw which to hold the arbor true. Withdraw the about Jin. Note the brass washer, which with a Jin. reamer. Put the reamer
runs out even only a thou or so, and it is tailstock, and then part off the tang. protects the end of the lathe mandrel. through using the tailstock drill chuck,
worthwhile making a proper holder for Refit the steady and face the end, centre The arbor can now be mounted in run the lathe at about 300 rpm, use
them. You can, in fact, buy one but the deeply and drill tapping size to suit the the headstock taper (clean first, please) lashings of cutting oil, and 'woodpecker-
cost of this may make a nonsense of the preferred draw bar. Anything over Jin. and held by the draw bar. The centre feed' the reamer, in and out about Jin.
cheapness of the cutters! A No. 2 MT will do, but I use Jin. Whitworth, which already in the end should be true, but if more each cut. This will give a true
drill-chuck arbor is a lot cheaper. Fig. you have doubts turn it out and make a hole, but I would prefer to bore it, as
4.12 shows the holder. The snag is that •See also pp 52 and 75. new one. Drill ^2in. very carefully; deep you really need it slightly under-size to

120 121
get a good fit to the shank of the cutter. does not need to screw on, just make it
range is from 7\in. above the base to 2\
Whichever way you have done it, a tight fit so that it does not want to go
in. below with the long scriber. For
lightly countersink the entrance to the on, and make half-a-dozen sawcuts in it
those using a vertical slide the size
hole. to give a bit of spring. On all precision
shown is about the limit. The material
Remove from the lathe and drill and lathes which are both bored for collets
is bright drawn mild steel. There is no
tap for the setscrew (the cutters have a and screwed to receive chucks such a
point in using ground stock as, apart
flat to suit). I strongly recommend that fitting is supplied as standard with the
from the cost, this confers no advan¬
you turn down the end of this to the machine. I am a bit surprised that
tage unless it can be hardened, and if
shape shown in the sketch; the cutters Myford do not market the thing as an
hardened the construction would re¬
are, of course, hard, and unless you optional extra!
quire a spot-grinding process, for which
have a reasonable size of pip on the end few model engineers have either the
the screw will soon burr over and jam. If A micrometer scribing block
equipment or the skill. The use of BDMS
you use an ordinary steel screw you I have, for more years than I care to
does, however, need some extra machin¬
may find it worth case-hardening the remember, used a little scribing block or
ing to get over its well-known lack of
end. I should have mentioned that surface gauge made by HJORTH which
flatness and tendency to distort when
these cutters are also available in had a number of advantages over the
machined. Manufacture presents few dif¬
metric dimensions. If you decide to go normal adjustable type, but it was
ficulties but does need some care if the
for these, then the bored hole will be rather small - the scribing point would
block square feature is to be retained.
6 mm instead of } in. dia; everything not reach up to lathe centre-height
The decorative recessing of the blade,
else can be the same. except at a steep angle, for example. I
referred to later, is optional and would
If you do not have a Jacobs arbor of had for some time intended to make a Fig. 4.13 be difficult without a swivelling vertical
the right size and cannot get one, then slightly larger one. The photo Fig. 4.13
you may have to make the whole issue. and Fig. 4.14 show the general arrange¬
In that case I suggest you enlarge the ment. It will be seen that the scriber is
head as shown as an alternative. This carried in a slotted 'slider', movement in
gives a bit more projection from the this slot providing coarse adjustment.
mandrel nose and so reduces the over¬ The slider is adjusted in turn by the
hang of the saddle over the gap in the knurled nut working on a 40 tpi screw,
bed. It adds to the overhang of the cutter, the nut being calibrated in 0.001 in.
of course, but the head of the holder is divisions. This provides just over \ in.
pretty stiff. I have given the standard movement. A further facility is provided
taper on the sketch, but it is better to set in the form of a hole in the base; the
up a dial indicator and adjust the top- bent scriber can pass through this, thus
slide either to match the internal taper enabling marking out to be done on a
of the mandrel or that of an arbor. If you vertical face below the instrument.
do the latter, make sure that the tail- Finally, the two sides of the base are
stock is set to turn parallel - really made dead square to the front, and the
parallel - before setting the arbor blade dead square to the base, so that it
between centres. can be used as a block square.
Finally, if you use this holder - or any The dimensions are such that in mid
other device that fits the headstock travel of the micrometer the scriber is
mandrel taper - you ought to have a almost horizontal at 3l inches, Myford
protective cap to go over the screw and centre-height; it could, of course, be
register, just in case anything drops made taller, but this depends both on
onto it and makes a burr. One made of availability of material and the capacity
boxwood or lignum vitae will do. It of the milling equipment. The total

the blade, and this I regret (it should make this circular if you like, and this
have been stress relieved first). The can be done while in the four-jaw. The
distortion was minimal, but the surface object of this recess is to reduce the
finish was far from good enough. amount of fitting needed when making
Taking the blade first, cut off a piece of it truly flat later. You now have the raw
4 in. stock, 2j in. wide by a shade over material for the job flat, and with
3|in. long. Roughly square off the ends reasonable luck, the pieces will remain
and then set in the four-jaw and take off so! Draw-file the edges, keeping them
about pin. Reverse, set back on paral¬ square to the face, and square off the
lels and take off 32 in.; then reverse ends properly, making the 2^ in. length
again and, taking some care to see that of the base about p in. less than the
the plate is hard back on the parallels, corresponding dimension on the blade
bring the thickness down to size. This (Fig. 4.17). Measure the thickness of the
should be a shade over Jin. rather than blade and if one end is more parallel
under. Take care during this operation - than the other, mark this as the bottom
fit soft packing under the jaws to avoid edge. Check the squareness of the two
marking the edges of the plate. ends of the base with one side, and
Carry out the same operation on the mark the most square as the front.
base, starting with material thicker than Similarly, check and mark the blade,
the | in. called for; I had to use Jin. In selecting the side which is most square
this case there is no need to take two to the base as the front.
nibbles at the first side. Now, the draw¬
ing shows a rectangular recess on the Base (Fig. 4.15)
underside, see Fig. 4.16, but you can Set the vertical slide facing the chuck

Fig. 4.15

slide or a rotary vice if a miller is for base and blade, see Fig. 4.15. This
available. involves machining both faces of the
stock, both to relieve stresses and to get
Preliminary work a flat face. I should say here that my
own instrument was not so treated on Fig. 4.16 Underside of the base showing the recess.
The first step is to prepare the material

the flat surface to blend in with this a ^in. or lin. slot drill first, just up to the
?/32 *401 t radius, but if using clamps you must fit marks, and then chew out almost to the
two more to hold the job and then sloping back line. Set over the swivel on
3-2 m.m.drill-'; ^6 remove the existing ones before milling the slide so that the marked-out line is
SPRING RETAINER : m.s. 1 off
® the face. Finally, take a very light skim -
only a few thou - off the long sides.
either vertical or horizontal - the latter is
more convenient - and run the slot drill
There is no need to go the full thickness along this line, taking care to get a good
of the plate, as the object is to get a blend at the ends. The next step is a
witness to file to later. If you are using a refinement - you can do it or not as you
vice you may be able to do likewise on wish. After machining the sloping side
the front and back faces too, to serve of the recess I took a cut about Jg in.
the same purpose. deep along the outline: this gives a
Remove from the machine and take guide for later sawing and filing.
off all burrs. With a small fine-cut file Further, at each end of this cut I plunged
and some care go round these edges the slot mill right through (taking care
and file truly square both to the front that the packing didn't foul) to aid in the
face and to the underside. Clean out all setting up which follows.
toolmarks on the top surface, and draw- Reverse the piece; if you have made
file the flat faces each side of the slot. the two holes just mentioned you can
Leave the underside as it is for the pres¬ align by offering the slot drill to these
ent - this must be bedded to a surface holes, otherwise you must use care and
plate or piece of plate glass later. Mark normal marking-out procedures. Repeat
out for and drill the holes, but leave that the operation for this side, but do the
for the gin. dowel until after assembly. sloping side first.
You can now saw off the unwanted
Blade (Fig. 4.17) metal and finish the back to suit your
Mark out for the slot and the outline, taste. Draw-filing is best but don't spend
but do not cut the outline to shape just a lot of time at present, as a brazing
yet. Set on the vertical slide with the operation is to follow soon. This is to
long side horizontal, using a dti to unite the top boss to the blade, so make
ensure that the 'front' is true across this boss next. A straight turning job,
the bed. You will need packing behind but it is important that the slot be dead
as the slot drill must go right through. I central. The trick here is to drill No. 10
strongly recommend that you take two while in the chuck - don't tap the hole -
bites at the slot, machining each side of and finish all else. Part off and remove
it separately, as you need a good finish burrs. Set up in the machine vice on the
and take care to get it dead square dead true; otherwise you must take two here. Make the slot a shade less than vertical slide and align until a No. 10
across the lathe bed. Mark out for the bites with a ^in. or 372in. tool. The blade the nominal | in. just enough to allow drill held in the chuck enters freely.
slot, and two lines |in. each side of it. If should be a tight, but not drive, fit. Take you to clean up the finish afterwards Replace with a 5 mm drill and open out
your vice will take the piece, grip in this a depth of cut each time not more than with a fine file. The rounded ends will the hole, then fit your ^in. slot drill and
with about ^ in. projecting; if not, you ^in. and keep the chips cleared. be squared up later. machine the slot. It then can't be other
will have to use clamps and do the job Change to a ball-ended slot drill, say Now, if you are using a swivelling than properly aligned. Take care to tap
in two bites. Set the clamps on the | in. dia (the size isn't critical) and slide you can tackle the recess. It need the g2 in. x 40 tpi hole squarely.
longer sides, and set the job with the machine along the two scribed lines at be no more than g^in. deep. Using the Set the boss on the blade and check
scribed lines horizontal. Machine the the sides of the slots. Get a good finish cross slide and the vertical slide feed¬ that the hole is central to the slot. Flux
slot, using a ^in. slot drill if your chuck is here. If using the vice you can then mill screws go round the 'square' edges with well, and braze together with Easyflo

126 127
No. 2 or to your choice. Don't use too should have ^in. of travel. Recess the
much alloy - just enough to make a nice ends of the slot as shown on the
fillet. You can now clean up the whole drawing. Now spot through the 5 mm
of the blade, and file a little relief along hole at the top and the 3.2 mm at the
the bottom slide of the triangle to within bottom of the slot, to mark the slider.
about | in. of each end, and about Taking care to ensure that the holes are 16 coils
1 h! knurl 0-8 m/m
0.010 in. deep. Before setting aside, true, drill and tap these ^in. x 40 in. tpi
wire. 1"
check the squareness of the front and and then lightly countersink the holes.
bottom edges and if they are not almost I suggest you now make the lower length
exactly right, save time now by filing peg and the adjusting screw (Fig. 4.18)
the bottom side true. Check the fit of the and, with the slider in place, offer these divisions 1
blade to the base, and if necessary very up and make sure that they don't i,"„ < •*
gently ease the slot in the latter. The interfere with the smooth travel. If they
KNOB m.s 1 off @
two parts should fit closely but not be do, enlarge the 3.2 mm hole at the 5 m/m to pass
jam tight. A tap with a (small) plastic bottom a bit at a time until all is free. through
mallet should suffice. Pop through the We may have problems at the top later , /Vg x 40 (G) SPRING steel loff
two csk holes in the base and then drill when the spring is in place, but we will
the blade and tap. I have called for 3 BA deal with that when it arises.
but 4 BA or 2 BA will do. Take great care
that these holes are square to the blade Adjusting knob (Fig. 4.18)
x 40
for if they are 'slantendicular' they will This is a straight turning job, but it is
pull the blade over. Don't assemble per¬ important to see that the tapped hole is
manently just yet, but don't forget to true. Hold the shank of the tap lightly in
pop through and drill the hole 3.2 mm. the tailstock drill chuck and take it
slowly, using plenty of cutting oil.
Slide (Fig. 4.18) Now for the engraving. Purists will set
This again is best filed or milled down up their dividing heads and do it that
from larger section stock, but make the way, but this is quite unnecessary if you
•jin. slightly over-size by just a few thou. have a graduated handwheel on your
Set up in the vertical slide, and here a leadscrew (there is, after all, no point in
precaution is needed. Even if your vice using super-accurate methods of mak¬
■ Yg'x 40
is long enough to accept the full length ing the index when the screw it controls
(E) SCREW m.s. loff
there is a risk of the slot closing in, so is a commercial 40 tpi thread). Set a
grip it between two longer parallels sharp-pointed screwcutting tool first to
with a piece of cigarette paper between make the ring round, then lay it on its _ ; V*40
each parallel and the workpiece, just at side at exact centre-height to form the
each end. Mill out the slot with a ^in. graduations. Set up for 8 tpi, when the
slot drill, taking light cuts to get a good leadscrew and mandrel ratio is 1:1. o0
finish. Remove all burrs and refine the Apply friction to the handwheel and
finish in the slot; the width of this is not rotate the chuck until the index reads —I ’I—I

critical. zero. Make a long mark, about 0.010 in.

® GUIDE PEG m.s loff
Now fit this to the blade. Square off deep. Going the same way round, again
the ends of the slot and then file both or rotate the chuck with friction applied to
(slide fit to blade)
either of the slot and slider until the the handwheel until its index reads '5';
latter is a smooth fit. It must travel make a short mark. Rotate again to '10' (C) SLIDER m.s. loff
freely, but without any shake, and and make another; and so on. If you Fig. 4.78

overshoot, you must go well back and the hole in the blade can go up to
approach the handwheel index mark 5.5 mm if you take care.
always from the same direction. Make a You must now offer up the slider in
slightly longer mark at the 5th division the blade with both the locating peg
(25 on the handwheel) and longer still and the spring, adjusting screw and
at the tenth (50 on the handwheel) and screwed plug all in place and make sure
so on. Remove the burrs, polish, and this that nothing binds. If it does, then you
will fill the engraving with dirt and must adjust with a fine rat-tail file.
make it easy to read (you can use paint
1 off 1 off 1 off 1 off
if you like, but dirt is cheaper). Scriber clamp (Fig. 4.19)
The only problem here is to get the hole
Spring and retainer for the scriber in the centre, and the
The retainer (Fig. 4.17) should present only methods are (a) care and (b) make
no problem, but you will have to ensure and use a cross-drilling jig. I used the 4>2
that the slot shown will fit whichever of
your screwdrivers will enter a ^in. x 40
former as being quicker and more of
interest. The collar and the boss were
tpi hole! The spring (Fig. 4.18) is gripped in the drill vice and a start 1J?
another matter. It must be fairly strong, made with a small drill at the junction. LONG SCRIBER 1 off (m)
and yet be a close fit (but not tight) on This start was enlarged bit by bit, each silver steel harden and
the ^in. dia spindle. In addition, it must time adjusting the position so that the temper points to straw

clear the 5 mm hole in the blade. This is drill aimed true - you will find it tends
a tight specification, and I solved it by to wander sideways. The gin. drill was
seeking out a spring which would fit then put through and the collar will gramophone V< V
from my stores. However, I did check almost, but not quite, fit both ways needle, secured ——
whether it could be done and found the round. The face of the collar is then with Loctite 242 >v _^
following to be necessary. The 'man¬ filed down so that the hole will grip the
drel' was of hardened and tempered scriber when all is tight.
(light blue) silver steel, turned down to The nut in my case is a commercial SHORT SCRIBER: ms 1 off (n)
0.105 in. dia first. The spring wire wingnut cleaned up; preferable to a
(0.8 mm dia) was brought to dull red knurled nut as it can be screwed up
and cooled slowly. The mandrel had to tighter.
be supported by a female centre, and
the spring wound close coiled. It was Scribers (Fig. 4.19) ■6.3
then pulled out (after cutting off 16 coils The drawing shows two; one is simply 5 BA hex.
and grinding the ends flat) to 1 in. free a piece of gin. silver steel with an old- 5/32
length. After heating to red and quench¬ fashioned gramophone needle fixed in TYPICAL DIAL INDICATOR ARM (?)
ing in oil it was tempered by heating the end with Loctite. The end should, of Fig. 4.19
inside a copper tube until the quench¬ course, be made dead sharp on an
ing oil flashed off, keeping the tube oilstone, as such needles are formed hardened and tempered to straw. The Assembly and adjustment
rotating all the time. The spring was not to a very small radius to suit the old 78 points were then formed on the fine The base should be made dead flat by
quite as stiff as the one actually used, rpm records. I use this for all precise wheel of the grinder and finished off scraping to a surface plate (or sheet of
but was quite adequate. However, there work, as it is very sharp and stiff (a with an oilstone. The third attachment plate glass) with marking blue. If it is
is an alternative and that is to alter the sewing needle might do, but I haven't is to carry a dial indicator. The one very much out you may have to start
hole in the boss and the thread to suit tried that one). The other is a 'bent' one. shown is to suit my Last Word indicator, proceedings with a file. I made mine flat
the spring; there is no reason why the The silver steel is first rough turned to and you would have to alter yours to to a dark blue (that is, with thick
thread should not be ^in. x 40 tpi, and shape at the ends, then bent (cold) and suit your instrument. marking blue) before assembly, and
finished to light blue afterwards. As¬ but which can also be used to check
semble the blade to the base, screws squareness in three dimensions (on
tight, but without the slider etc. Check stretchers in locomotive frames, for
that the blade front stands square to the example). It will not be to toolroom
base. It should project just a trifle at the accuracy, of course, but it is a great deal
front, and if you are not going to use it better than trying to hold two squares
as a block square, this is well enough. to a job at the same time - with no
The back end will also project; this hands free to do anything else! For
should be filed flush with the base normal marking out the device has the
and finished off nicely. Having checked great merit of stiffness, and the pointer
that you can see no daylight between doesn't move back and forth when
your square blade and the blade of the adjusted up and down. Within its limit
instrument, check that it is straight with it serves as a vernier height gauge when
marking blue on the surface plate and marking out from a centreline (like the
correct the scraper. As you do this, keep slot in the base, for example) and
referring also to the square, in case you though a 40 tpi die can't be expected
take it out of true. Once satisfied, that is to make a precision leadscrew the
that so far as use as a surface gauge is graduations are sufficiently accurate
concerned. Drill and fit the dowel peg, for their purpose. The bent end of the
and apply paint to your taste. scriber can be used to check the height
However, if you want to use the of work by feel (which can be surpris¬
instrument as a block square you must ingly sensitive) and any error can be
go further. Apply the tests as above, but measured (Fig. 4.20). The facility for
don't scrape the front blade - instead, marking out 'downstairs' with the
very carefully file it until it is flush with scriber passed through the hole in the
the base. Every few strokes with the file base may not be needed very often, but
check the squareness and it will pay is invaluable when the situation does
also to check on the surface plate, too. arise.
Once you find blue in traces right along In conclusion, I must make two
the blade and along the front of the things clear. First, I make no claim for
base, revert to the scraper and bed in originality of design; that was due to
until you get about 70% marking. Check the company called HJORTH many
with the square all the time. years ago. But I have, I think, made a
Now, from the front face, make one few improvements, quite apart from the
side square to this, again filing at first increased height. The original had a
and then scraping. (By now your fin¬ very limited micrometer adjustment,
gers will be fully impregnated with and the knob was so small that one-
marking blue - one of the prices of hand use was difficult. Second, I have in
accuracy!) Once this is true, repeat the this case departed a little from my
operation on the second side of the principle of describing only processes
base. Thereafter proceed as before with I have done myself. My own instrument
paint as desired. was made using a vertical milling
You now have an instrument which machine with a graduated rotatable
will not only serve as a scribing block, machine vice. However, I have checked
and which will avoid the need for that the work can be done on a swivel¬
setting up the dti for many applications, ling vertical slide on the lathe provided

12 holes - the latter by setting the level
first on jaws at the front and then on
jaws at the back of the lathe.
The level seen has a slot in the base,
so that it can be set on an angle-square
if necessary e.g. 45° in conjunction
with a four-jaw chuck to provide 8

Straightening copper tube

The copper tube division of the Tubal
Cain stores' - the top of a 6ft steel
shelving unit - had got into a mess,
with all sorts and sizes mixed up. True,
the copper was all dabbed with yellow
paint and the brass with red, but it was
a mess and a couple of hours was spent
in sorting it out, at the end of which
time there was left on the bench a
mixture of bent and contorted tube
which had been used for all sorts of
purposes over the years. But for the Fig. 4.23 Setting out holes in a pitch circle using a level on the chuck jaws.
price of copper these days, fit only for
scrap. So, to straighten it.
First, the nipples were removed, and
Fig. 4.22 The short scriber fitted. any solder coated ends sawn off - the
slightest trace of this would be fatal to
that sufficient care is taken in setting up any subsequent brazed joint. A few of
and that depths of cut are kept down in the less badly bent pieces were straight¬
proportion to the lack of stiffness in the ened with the fingers and put to store.
set-up. Those who have milling machines Of the rest, quite a lot was straight but
can, of course, translate the operations I not bent if you follow me - it had a few
have described to their machine. bends in it but no kinks and the bends
were regular. These were first annealed
Dividing from the chuck by heating to red. No need to quench -
The centre-height device shown on this does no good other than saving
page 58 or that just described can be time on copper. After getting as straight
used very simply for spacing out simple as possible by hand the device seen in
equal division - as may be needed, for Fig. 4.25 was used. This is a 'gag-press'
example, for cylinder cover bolt-holes though in this case the press part is
(see Fig. 4.23). A small spirit level is simply my 4^in. bench vice. The grooves
held on each chuck jaw in turn and a are made to fit various sizes of tube -
line scribed right across. This photo the drawing shows only three and, in
shows a four-jaw self-centring chuck, fact, it is best (and easier to make) if
giving 4 holes. With a three-jaw (Fig. those for small tubes, which need not
4.24) divisions can be made for 3, 6 or be so long, are on one piece of wood Fig. 4.24 As Fig. 4.23 but in the three-jaw chuck.

134 135
o/d - it works wonders. With pieces that arrangement shown in Fig. 4.27 will be
are too long it may be necessary to found helpful. This has been used
straighten as best you can by hand and mainly for screwcutting operations,
thread it through the hollow mandrel but is also invaluable when turning up
or even cut it in two. But with prices collars brazed onto the pipe end when
the way they are, two straight bits 15 the tube is usually very soft. The
inches long are better than a two-foot pressure exerted by the back centre
corkscrew. should be as light as possible, and the
mandrel is long enough to take the
Cutting and threading copper tube pressure from the chuck jaws. In one
The cutting forces operating on the tool particularly difficult job - turning down
point are now fully appreciated by most Fig. 4.26 Support mandrel used in threading the end of a ,56in. x 30g tube to 0.005 in.
model engineers, and many take full thinwall tube. thick - the mandrel was made a very
advantage of modern techniques as good fit in the bore, and subsequently
applied to tool shape and support in screwed plus about 1.5D. B is immaterial, removed by heating. This led to the
the lathe. What is not so fully under¬ but is conveniently about 2C. Even with experiment of fitting a tube to a man¬
Fig. 4.25 Gag jaws for use when straighten¬ stood is the fact that these forces act on the thinnest material this device will drel by shrinking so that it could be
ing copper tube in the vice. the workpiece as well - 'if the horse prevent collapse of the tube, and has turned between centres. This is effec¬
pulls the cart, the cart pulls the horse', the added advantage that the die is tive on tubes of reasonably short
and the others on another. The holes a graphic restatement of the law that partially guided to give a reasonably lengths, but leads to difficulties if the
are drilled in the solid piece of wood, action and reaction are equal and true thread. Removal of the mandrel is length is more than about 8 diameters.
any sort will do, and then split with a opposite! facilitated by the use of castor oil or The material of all mandrels should
tenon saw. These forces are seldom of much grease on the plug. be steel and should be highly polished
This will deal with most problems consequence, but when working on Similar devices will be found useful where it is in contact with the tube. My
but I should imagine that most of you copper tube the radial and tangential in the lathe. A mandrel ought always to standard die-screwing mandrels are
will find that you are left with a couple components of the cutting force are be inserted in the length of tube grip¬ made of silver steel, hardened, and
of revolting pieces of knitting so bent usually sufficient to distort the material. ped in the chuck; well oiled and pref¬ tempered to 300°C - dark blue. They
that they look hopeless. Not so. Had This is especially the case when cutting erably with a screw thread on the back are marked on the end with the tube
they been copper wire I should just a thread on thin-walled tube. Indeed, end to enable it to be started when outside diameter and thickness.
have got hold of one end in the vice and close observation of the behaviour of withdrawing from the tube. Parting off
the other with a mole wrench and given the material under the influence of a is quite straightforward if the mandrel Awkward nuts
a good heave. This isn't possible with three-lobed die gives a very clear pic¬ extends under the tool, and the use of Nuts which are quite accessible on the
any but the thinnest copper, as I haven't ture of the nature and direction of the the tailstock die-holder will present no full-sized prototype often present acute
enough pull! So, try this way. If there is forces concerned. Under the influence difficulties. For other operations, the difficulties on a model simply because
a nipple brazed on one end, leave it of a single-point tool in the lathe the
there; otherwise, braze or solder on a effects are often catastrophic.
block with a hole in it. Slip a washer To overcome these difficulties, use
over the tube and grip the other end in may be made of a supporting mandrel.
the three-jaw of the lathe. Pass the tube Fig. 4.26 shows such a device applied to Chuck Mandrel
through the aperture of the toolpost screwcutting with a die. The diameter D
-— ‘ -■-‘■ • ■ •-' ' ■ - ^ i
with the washer against the tailstock is made to be a good, but not tight, fit in
side, engage the half-nut and rotate the
leadscrew handwheel to pull on the
the bore of the tube, while C is a sliding
fit in the die (in this connection, do not -E
tube. You may find it necessary to
resoften after the first pull, but even
overlook the fact that a split die is .1. \ Fig. 4.27 A mandrel to
adjustable). The length A should be Tube support tube in the lathe.
Shoul der
with quite large diameters - up to ^in. equal to the length intended to be

we have not got scale fingers! And at the natural frequency of the bar, the away from the machine, or a rough coats, and the final one Hhould bo
the scale of my last model my 10 BA grain size of the metal in the casting sketch of the workpiece, a reminder that rubbed down gently with wot-nnd-dry
tube spanner is 4 feet long by 5 inches and factors like depth of cut and cutting the tailstock is set over and a host of finishing paper, used wot, about grodo
diameter. Try it this way. Put a very speed. (There can be other causes, like other things which must not be forgot¬ 360 or 400. This should loavo a satin-
slight lead on the first thread of the the shape of the cutting tool point, too.) ten. Many visitors have remarked "Oh - smooth surface which will toko chalk
studs and run the die over. Very slightly It is not always convenient to alter cut I use a piece of paper" and, within days, well.
countersink the nut - just show it to a or speed, but the natural frequency of ring up to say that they have made a It may seem a lot of work for so silly
60° centre-bit and put the tap through vibration of the boring bar can some¬ similar board and found an immediate a thing, but even if you use the propor
to take off any burr. Offer the nut to the times be shifted enough to cure the benefit. blackboard paint you will have to go
stud with tweezers and then set the chatter if a lump of plasticine or even It seems easy to make, but like all through the same procedure if the chalk
point of a scriber through the nut on to Blutack is plastered on the bar towards easy jobs there are tricks of the trade. isn't to slip on the surface instead of
top of the stud. You can then 'persuade' the end. Lead strip can be embedded to Special blackboard paint can be obtain¬ writing. My blackboard, in use for 25
the nut to make a turn or so with the add mass. It must be clear of the cutting ed, but it's hardly worth it for so small a years (Fig, 4.29) has never needed
points of the tweezers, after which it will point, if course, and it will be necessary job. The secret is in the preparation. recoating - just an occasional wipe over
stay put while you tighten up properly to clear the chips from it fairly often, but Damp the plywood and rub down well, with a damp rag. If you live in Wales
with a spanner. it is quite effective. See Fig. 4.28. after it has dried, with medium glass or you already have the ideal blackboard
Unfortunately many BA hexagons garnet paper, to get a smooth surface. It material - slate. Ordinary roofing slate
are now metric, and may be a slack fit My blackboard won't stay smooth, but the initial treat¬ will do and only needs smoothing with
in the end of the box spanner, so that This seems so simple, silly almost, but ment saves work later. Apply a priming wet-and-dry using progressively finer
when you try to pick up a nut and carry it may well be the most important aid to coat and, when well dry, rub down and grades (used wet) to bring it up to a
it in the spanner to the stud (assuming production (and accuracy) in the shop. then re-prime. Rub down again and superb chalking surface which will last
that you can get the spanner into the Not very large, just a piece of plywood apply whatever undercoat you have - a lifetime. Drill the holes with a rawldrill
space) the nut falls out. The usual about 4 inch x 16 inch, fixed to the shelf any paint let down with a little white and fix it with screws, although a real
remedy suggested is to magnetise the above the lathe, the chalk living just spirit will do, but put on several coats slater would give just four taps with his
spanner, but quite apart from the fact above, on the shelf. On it I can note and rub down well between each and piercing hammer!
that some nuts are brass I find that the down the last cut when I am called after the final coat. Obviously if you
magnetism often draws the nut so far have a matt black paint available this is Tailpiece
up the cavity that it won't reach the easier than gloss for the final coats, but No - not an afterthought because I did
stud. A spot of plasticine (or even as you have to rub down anyway it isn't not think of it at all! Just a device for
grease) will often do the trick. all that important. You will need several meeting that ever-present job of centring

Catching rings and washers

Some time ago I had a dozen or so little
washers to make, about ^ in. o/d and J
in. thick. At the beginning I lost about
one in three in the swarf tray. Bring up
the tailstock drill chuck, set a piece of
stiff wire in it and feed it through the
already drilled stock. The washers will
just walk along the wire to be collected
quite safely.

Chatter on boring bars

Occasionally one experiences chronic
chatter when boring. It is usually due to Fig. 4.28 Plasticine damper applied to a
an unfortunate coincidence between boring bar (see also Fig. 2.26, p 40}.

editor of Model Engineer) set up a
work to a 'pop' when using the four-jaw
device of his own. One look at it and I
chuck-and so very simple. When asked
went into shock reflecting on all the
for a photograph to adorn the front cover
time I had wasted over the last 60 years!
of this book, Mike Chrisp (technical