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Environmental Ethics
Business Ethics
3. Social Media Ethics
Albert M. Lagliva, PhD. Cand.
Ateneo de Manila University 4. Others
ACETT-W (May 22 – 24, 2017)

IMPORTANT CONCERNS Environmental Ethics

“Environmental ethics is the discipline
1. Questions in philosophy that studies the moral
2. Concepts or Issues relationship of human beings to, and also
3. Sources the value and moral status of, the
environment and its non-human
contents.” (https://plato.stanford.edu)
Questions Questions
What duties do humans have 1. Aristotle (Politics, Bk1, Ch8)
“nature has made all things specifically for the sake
with respect to the environment of man”
and why? 2. Genesis 1: 27 – 28
“…replenish the earth, and subdue it and have
dominion… over every living thing that move upon
the earth.”

Questions Ethical dimension

Anthropocentric? • Value – worth, halaga
3. St. Thomas Aquinas • Telos – oriented towards “something good, bad”
(Summa Contra Gentiles, Bk3, Pt2, Ch112) • Action – initiator not just a reaction
non-human animals are “ordered to man’s use” • Obligation – ought to do…generosity
• Universality – act of self is justified by any man
• Freedom – choices and decisions are not
Concepts Issues
1. The challenge of Environmental ethics to the
anthropocentrism embedded in traditional
1. Instrumental Value vs. Intrinsic Value
western ethical thinking
2. Ecofeminism – logic of dominance
2. The attempt to apply traditional ethical theories
3. Biodiversity – variety of life to support contemporary environmental
4. Deep Ecology – feeling of oneness with nature concerns
3. The preservation of biodiversity as an ethical

Sources Ethical theories

1. Callicott, J. Baird • Virtue ethics
2. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • Natural Law
3. Martin Heidegger “The Question
Concerning Technology” (1954) • Deontology
• Utilitarianism
A Model for Ethical Decision
1. Gather the facts
1. Gather the facts • Gather and clarify the facts of the case in
2. Who are the stakeholders
3. Articulate the values involved
4. List the alternatives • Do not rush judgments: “alam ko na,”
5. Compare the alternatives with the principles “nadaanan ko na,” “magandang kutob”
6. Weigh the consequences
7. Make a decision • What do we know and need to know

2. Who are the stakeholders? 3. Articulate the moral values 

• What are the positions being taken by
every stakeholder regarding the situation? • Why am I bothered / concerned?

• How are they affected? • What are the principles and moral values
that are not apparent but are central to
• What are the stakes for them? What are the stakeholders?
their interests?
• Listing down the values to see a hierarchy
4. List the alternatives 5. Compare alternatives 

with values
• Brainstorm and be realistic
• Identify alternatives that are reflective of
• Think creatively the values that are important to you

• Make a matrix: • Being aware of your development as a

alternative--values--consequences person

6. Weigh the consequences 7. Make a decision

• Identify positive and negative • Deliberation cannot go on forever
consequences (beneficial vs.
• There are no easy solutions
• Decision should reflect one’s values
Conclusion Activity

• Form five (5) groups of six (6) members

• Analyze cases using the seven steps
We are what we repeatedly do
• Assign group reporter

Groups 1 – 3: Due Process Due Process

Malou recently joined EAP Valdez Digital, a production Stuck at the center of the envelope is a post-it with the
house, as a Recruitment Manager with the HRMD. As a following message scribbled in the handwriting of her
Recruitment Manager, Malou is in charge of preparing direct superior, Mike Mariano:
the shortlist of candidates for the final interview stage. “Malou, Please have her hiring papers ready
All applicants must pass through Malou before the final by the end of next week. Thanks. M. Mariano”
decision for hiring is made by the applicant’s
prospective immediate superior. One afternoon, upon Malou opens the envelope and finds a resumé for a
returning to her desk after lunch break, Malou finds a candidate named Jessa M. Palacios, a fresh graduate
long brown envelope on her table, identical to the who appears to not have taken school seriously-- the
envelopes that their company requires applicants to kind of candidate that she would outright reject. What
submit their resumés in. should Malou do?
Groups 4 – 5: Time Management Time Management
Hannah works for Quick Lane Philippines, a company
that provides consultation services for SAP Products, as Finding out about the overtime pay and the very
a Systems Specialist. She notices that one of her newly- positive, hardworking image that her colleagues
hired colleagues, Miguel, spends most of his afternoons have about Miguel irritates Hannah. When she had
studying for the CISCO Certification Test, a certification
her certification test, she studied after working
hours. She thinks to herself: why is Miguel being
that is necessary to advance in their career, during
rewarded for studying on company time? Why
office hours. She doesn’t mind this at first but then is
should Miguel get credit for what’s actually bad
alarmed when she finds out from their colleagues that time management skills?
Miguel incurs quite a lot of overtime pay because he is Should Hannah report Miguel to her superiors or
“very dedicated, finishing up projects until late in the should she just get over her irritation and allow this
office.” to slide?

Thank you!