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12th – Std

Chemistry Practical book

VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS
And
Organic Qualitative Analysis

St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School


SALEM - 636 009

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 1
Short Procedure:

S.no Content Titration - I Titration - II

1 Burette solution KMnO4 solution KMnO4 solution


(Link solution) (Link solution)

2 Pipette solution 20ml of standard FAS 20 ml of unknown


solution FeSO4 solution

3 Acid to be added 20ml of 2N 20ml of 2N


H2SO4 (approxi) H2SO4 (approxi)

4 Temperature Lab temperature Lab temperature

5 Indicator Self-indicator (KMnO4) Self-indicator (KMnO4)

6 End point Appearance of Appearance of


permanent permanent
pale pink colour pale pink colour

7 Equivalent weight of FeSO4 = 278

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 2
Ex No: 1 Estimation of Ferrous Sulphate (FeSO4)
Date:

Problem:

Estimate the amount of ferrous sulphate dissolved in 750 ml


of the given unknown solution volumetrically. For this you are giv-
en with a standard solution of ferrous ammonium sulphate (FAS) of
normality 0.1102 N and potassium permanganate solution as link
solution.

Step – 1
Normality of standard ferrous Ammonium sulphate solution = 0.1102 N

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 3
Step – 2 Titration – I

(Link KMnO4 Solution) Vs (Standard FAS Solution)


Volume of Burette readings
standard Volume of
S.no FAS KMnO4 Concordant
solution Initial Final solution value
(ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml)

1 20 0

2 20 0

3 20 0

Calculation:

Volume of KMnO4 (link) solution (V1) = ml

Normality KMnO4 (Link) solution (N1) = ? N

Volume of standard FAS solution (V2) = ml

Normality of standard FAS solution (N2) = N

According to normality equation: V1 X N1 = V2 X N2


  
 = 


 =

= N

Normality of KMnO4 (Link) solution = N


RBR, MAL & AV
St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 4
Step – 3 Titration – II

(Link KMnO4 Solution) Vs (Unknown FeSO4 Solution)


Volume of Burette readings
unknown Volume of
S.no FeSO4 KMnO4 Concordant
solution Initial Final solution value
(ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml)

1 20 0

2 20 0

3 20 0

Calculation:

Volume of (unknown) FeSO4 solution (V1) = ml

Normality (unknown) FeSO4 solution (N1) = ? N

Volume of KMnO4 (link) solution (V2) = ml

Normality KMnO4 (Link) solution (N2) = N

According to normality equation: V1 X N1 = V2 X N2


  
 =



 =
= N

The normality of unknown FeSO4 solution = N

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 5
Step - 4

Weight Calculation:

The amount of FeSO4 dissolved


in 1 lit of the Solution = (Normality) X (equivalent weight)

The amount of FeSO4 dissolved



        
In 750ml of the Solution = 

   
=


   
=


= g

The amount of FeSO4 dissolved


In 750 ml of the solution = g

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 6
Report :

The normality of KMnO4 (Link) solution = N


The normality of (unknown) FeSO4 solution = N
The amount of FeSO4 dissolved in 750 ml
of the solution = g

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 7
Short Procedure:

S.no Content Titration - I Titration - II

1 Burette solution KMnO4 solution KMnO4 solution


(Link solution) (Link solution)

2 Pipette solution 20ml of standard 20 ml of unknown


FeSO4 solution FAS solution

3 Acid to be added 20ml of 2N 20ml of 2N


H2SO4 (approxi) H2SO4 (approxi)

4 Temperature Lab temperature Lab temperature

5 Indicator Self-indicator (KMnO4) Self-indicator (KMnO4)

6 End point Appearance of Appearance of


permanent permanent
pale pink colour pale pink colour

7 Equivalent weight of FAS = 392

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 8
Ex No: 2 Estimation of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate (FAS)
Date:

Problem:

Estimate the amount of ferrous ammonium sulphate (FAS)


dissolved in 1500 ml of the given unknown solution volumetrically.
For this you are given with a standard solution of ferrous sulphate
(FeSO4)of normality 0.1024N and potassium permanganate solution
as link solution.

Step – 1
Normality of standard ferrous sulphate solution = 0.1024 N

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 9
Step – 2 Titration – I

(Link KMnO4 Solution) Vs (Standard FeSO4 Solution)


Volume of Burette readings
standard Volume of
S.No FeSO4 KMnO4 Concordant
Solution Initial Final solution value
(ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml)

1 20 0

2 20 0

3 20 0

Calculation:

Volume of KMnO4 (link) solution (V1) = ml

Normality KMnO4 (Link) solution (N1) = ? N

Volume of standard FeSO4 solution (V2) = ml

Normality of standard FeSO4 solution (N2) = N

According to normality equation: V1 X N1 = V2 X N2


  
 =



 =

= N

Normality of KMnO4 (Link) solution = N


RBR, MAL & AV
St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 10
Step – 3 Titration – II

(Link KMnO4 Solution) Vs (Unknown FAS Solution)


Volume of Burette readings
S.No unknown Volume of
FAS Initial Final KMnO4 Concordant
Solution (ml) (ml) solution value
(ml) (ml) (ml)

1 20 0

2 20 0

3 20 0

Calculation:

Volume of Unknown FAS solution (V1) = ml

Normality Unknown FAS solution (N1) = ? N

Volume of KMnO4 (link) solution (V2) = ml

Normality KMnO4 (link) solution (N2) = N

According to normality equation: V1 X N1 = V2 X N2


  
 = 


 =
= N

The normality of unknown FAS solution = N

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 11
Step - 4

Weight Calculation:

The amount of FAS dissolved


in 1 lit of the Solution = (Normality) X (equivalent weight)

The amount of FAS dissolved



        
In 1500ml of the Solution = 
=

   
= 

   
= 

= g

The amount of FAS dissolved


In 1500 ml of the solution = g

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 12
Report :

The normality of KMnO4 Link solution = N


The normality of unknown FAS solution = N
The amount of FAS dissolved in 1500 ml
of the solution = g

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 13
Short Procedure:

S.no Content Titration - I Titration - II

1 Burette solution KMnO4 solution KMnO4 solution


(Link solution) (Link solution)

2 Pipette solution 20ml of standard FAS 20 ml of unknown


solution oxalic acid
solution

3 Acid to be added 20ml of 2N 20ml of 2N


H2SO4 (approxi) H2SO4 (approxi)

4 Temperature Lab temperature 60 – 700C

5 Indicator Self-indicator (KMnO4) Self-indicator


(KMnO4)

6 End point Appearance of Appearance of


permanent permanent
pale pink colour pale pink colour

7 Equivalent weight of oxalic acid = 63

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 14
Ex No: 3 Estimation of oxalic acid
Date:

Problem:

Estimate the amount of oxalic acid dissolved in 500 ml of the


given solution volumetrically. For this you are given with a standard
solution of ferrous ammonium sulphate (FAS) of normality 0.1 N
and potassium permanganate solution as link solution.

Step – 1
Normality of standard ferrous Ammonium sulphate solution = 0.1 N

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 15
Step – 2 Titration – I

(Link KMnO4 Solution) Vs (Standard FAS Solution)


Burette readings
Volume of Volume of
standard FAS KMnO4 Concordant
solution Initial Final solution value
S.No
(ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml)

1 20 0

2 20 0

3 20 0

Calculation:

Volume of KMnO4 (link) solution (V1) = ml

Normality KMnO4 (Link) solution (N1) = ? N

Volume of standard FAS solution (V2) = ml

Normality of standard FAS solution(N2) = N


According to normality equation: V1 X N1 = V2 X N2
  
 =



 =

= N

Normality of KMnO4 (Link) solution = N

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 16
Step – 3 Titration – II

(Link KMnO4 Solution )Vs (Unknown Oxalic acid solution)


Burette readings
Volume of (ml)
Unknown Volume of
oxalic acid KMnO4 Concordant
S.No Initial Final
solution solution value
(ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml)

1 20 0

2 20 0

3 20 0

Calculation:

Volume of (Unknown) oxalic acid solution (V1) = ml

Normality (Unknown) oxalic acid solution (N1) = ? N

Volume of KMnO4 (link) solution (V2) = ml

Normality of KMnO4 (link) solution (N2) = N

According to normality equation: V1 X N1 = V2 X N2


  
 = 


 =

= N

The normality of oxalic acid solution = N

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 17
Step - 4

Weight Calculation:

The amount of oxalic acid dis- =(Normality) x (equivalent weight)


solved in 1 lit of the solution

The amount of oxalic acid dis- 


        
=
solved in 500 ml of the solution 

   
= 

   
= 

= g

The amount of oxalic acid dissolved


In 500 ml of the solution = g

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 18
Report :

The normality of KMnO4 (Link) solution = N


The normality of (unknown) oxalic acid solution= N
The amount of oxalic acid solution dissolved
in 500 ml of the solution = g

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 19
Short Procedure:

S.no Content Titration - I Titration - II

1 Burette solution HCI (Link solution) HCI (Link solution)

2 Pipette solution 20ml of standard 20 ml of unknown


Na2CO3 solution NaOH solution

3 Temperature Lab temperature Lab temperature

4 Indicator Methyl orange Phenolphthalein

5 End point Colour change Disappearance of


from straw yellow pink colour
to pale pink

6 Equivalent weight of NaOH = 40

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 20
Ex No: 4 Estimation of sodium hydroxide
Date:

Problem:

Estimate the amount of sodium hydroxide dissolved in 250 ml


of the given unknown solution volumetrically. For this you are giv-
en with a standard solution of sodium carbonate solution of nor-
mality 0.0948 N and hydrochloric acid solution as link solution.

Step – 1
Normality of standard sodium carbonate solution is = 0.0948 N

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 21
Step – 2 Titration – I

(Link HCl solution) Vs (standard Na2CO3 solution)


Volume of Burette readings
standard Concordant
Volume of HCI
S.No Na2CO3 value
Initial Final solution
Solution (ml)
(ml) (ml) (ml)
(ml)

1 20 0

2 20 0

3 20 0

Calculation:

Volume of HCl (link) solution (V1) = ml


Normality HCl (link) solution (N1) = ? N
Volume of standard Na2CO3 solution (V2) = ml
Normality of standard Na2CO3 solution (N2) = N

According to normality equation: V1 X N1 = V2 X N2


  
 = 


 =

= N

The normality of HCl(link) solution = N

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 22
Step – 3 Titration – II

(Link HCl solution) Vs (Unknown NaOH solution)


Burette readings
Volume of
S.No Volume of HCl Concordant
Unknown Initial Final solution value
NaOH solution (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml)
(ml)

1 20 0

2 20 0

3 20 0

Calculation :
Volume of Unknown NaOH solution (V1) = ml
Normality of Unknown NaOH solution (N1) = ? N
Volume of HCl (link) solution (V2) = ml
Normality HCl (link) solution (N2) = N
According to normality equation: V1 X N1 = V2 X N
  
 =



 =

= N

The normality of unknown NaOH solution = N


RBR, MAL & AV
St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 23
Step - 4

Weight Calculation:

The amount of NaOH dissolved


1 lit of the solution =(Normality) X (equivalent weight)

The amount of NaOH dissolved



        
250 ml lit of the solution =


   
= 

   
=


= g

The amount of NaOH dissolved


In 250 ml of the solution = g

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 24
Report :

The normality of HCl Link solution = N

The normality of unknown NaOH solution = N

The amount of NaOH dissolved in 250 ml


of the solution = g

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 25
Short Procedure:

S.no Content Titration - I Titration - II

1 Burette solution HCI (Standard Oxalic acid


solution) solution

2 Pipette solution 20 ml of NaOH 20 ml of NaOH


link solution link solution

3 Temperature Lab temperature Lab temperature

4 Indicator Phenolphthalein Phenolphthalein

5 End point Disappearance of Disappearance of


pink colour pink colour

6 Equivalent weight of oxalic acid = 63

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 26
Ex No: 5 Estimation of oxalic acid
Date:

Problem:

Estimate the amount of oxalic acid dissolved in 1250 ml of the


given unknown solution volumetrically. For this you are given with
a standard solution of HCl solution of normality 0.1010 N and
sodium hydroxide solution as link solution.

Step – 1
Normality of standard HCl solution = 0.1010 N

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 27
Step – 2 Titration – I

(standard HCl solution)Vs (link NaOH solution)


Burette readings
Volume of Volume of
NaOH solution std HCl Concordant
(ml) Initial Final solution value
S.No (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml)

1 20 0

2 20 0

3 20 0

Calculation :
Volume of NaOH(link) solution (V1) = ml

Normality NaOH(link) solution (N2)= ? N

Volume of standard HCl solution (V2) = ml

Normality of standard HCl solution (N2) = N


According to normality equation: V1 X N1 = V2 X N2
  
 = 


 =

= N

The normality of NaOH (link) solution = N

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 28
Step – 3 Titration – II

(Link NaOH solution)Vs (Unknown oxalic acid solution)


Burette readings
Volume of Volume of Concordant
S.No NaOH link oxalic acid value
solution Initial Final solution (ml)
(ml) (ml) (ml) (ml)

1 20 0

2 20 0

3 20 0

Calculation :
Volume of (Unknown) oxalic acid solution (V1)= ml

Normality of (Unknown) oxalic acid solution (N1) = ? N

Volume of NaOH (Link) solution (V2) = ml

Normality NaOH (Link) solution (N2) = N

According to normality equation: V1 X N1 = V2 X N2


  
 = 


 =

= N

The normality of unknown Oxalic acid solution = N

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 29
Step - 4

Weight Calculation:

The amount of oxalic acid dissolved


1 lit of the solution=(Normality) X (equivalent weight)

The amount of oxalic acid dissolved



        
1250 ml lit of the solution=


   
=


   
=


= g

The amount of Oxalic acid dissolved


In 1250 ml of the solution = g

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 30
Report :

The normality of NaOH Link solution = N


The normality of unknown oxalic acid solution = N

The amount of oxalic acid dissolved in 1250 ml


of the solution = g

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 31
Organic Qualitative Analysis

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Benzaldehyde
Organic Qualitative Analysis
Ex no : 1
Date :

Serial
Experiment Observation Inference
no.

Preliminary test

1 Odour:
Note the Odour of the organic Bitter almond Odour May be benzaldehyde
compound.
2 Test with litmus paper:
Touch the moist litmus paper No colour change is noted Absence of carboxylic ac-
with an organic compound. id,phenol and amine
3 Action with sodium bicarbo-
nate: No brisk effervescence Absence of a carboxylic acid.
Take 2ml of saturated sodium
bi carbonate solution in a test
tube. Add 2 or 3 drops (or a
pinch of solid) of an organic
compound to it.
4 Action with Borsche’s rea-
gent: red precipitate is obtained Presence of an aldehyde or
Take a small amount of an ketone
organic compound in a test
tube. Add 3ml of Borsche’s
reagent, 1ml of conc.Hcl to it.
Then warm the mixture gently
and cool it.
5 Charring test:
Take a small amount of an No charring takes place with Absence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a dry smell of burnt sugar
test tube. Add 2ml of
conc.H2SO4 to it, and heat the
mixture.

Tests for Aliphatic or Aromatic nature

6 Ignition test:
Take small amount of the or- Burns with sooty flame Presence of an aromatic
ganic compound in a Nickel compound.
spatula and burn it in Bunsen
flame.

Tests for an unsaturation

7 Test with bromine water:


Take small amount of the or- No decolourisation takes place Substance is saturated
ganic compound in a test tube
add 2ml of distilled water to
dissolve it. To this solution add
RBR, MAL & AV
St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 33
few drops of bromine water
and shake it well.
8 Test with KMnO4 Solution:
Take small amount of the or- No decolourisation takes place Substance is saturated
ganic compound in a test tube
add 2m of distilled water to
dissolve it. To this solution add
few drops of very dilute alka-
line KMnO4 solution and shake
it well.

TEST FOR SELECTED ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

Test For Phenol

9 Neutral Fecl3 test:


Take 1ml of neutral ferric No characteristic colouration Absence of Phenol,
chloride solution is taken in a α - naphthol and
dry clean test tube. Add 2 or 3 β - naphthol
drops (or a pinch of solid) of
organic compound to it. It no
colouration occurs add 3 or 4
drops of alcohol.

Test For Carboxylic Acids

10 Esterification reaction:
Take 1ml (or a pinch of solid) No pleasant fruity odour is Absence of carboxylic acid.
of an organic compound in a noted
clean test tube. Add 1ml of
ethyl alcohol and 4 to 5 drops
of conc. Sulphuric acid to it.
Heat the reaction mixture
strongly for about 5 minutes.
Then pour the mixture into a
beaker containing dil.sodium
carbonate solution and note
the small.

Test for aldehydes

11 Tollen’s reagent test:


Take 2ml of Tollens reagent in Shining silver mirror is formed Presence of an aldehyde
a clean dry test tube. Add 3-4
drops of an organic compound
(or 0.2g of solid) to it and
warm the mixture on a water
bath for about 5 minutes.
12 Fehling’s test:
Take 1ml each of Fehling’s Red precipitate is formed Presence of an aldehyde
solution A and B are taken in a
test tube Add 4-5 drops of an
organic compound (or 0.2g of
solid) to it and warm the mix-
ture on a water bath for about
5 minutes.

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 34
Test for ketones

13 Legal’s test:
A small amount of the sub- No Red colouration is formed Absence of ketone
stance is taken in a test tube.
1ml sodiumnitro prusside so-
lution is added. Then sodium
hydroxide solution is added
dropwise.

Test for an amine

14 Dye test:
Take a small amount of an No Scarlet red dye is obtained Absence of an aromatic pri-
organic substance in a clean mary amine
test tube, add 2ml of Hcl to
dissolve it. Add few crystals of
NaNO2, and cool the mixture
in ice bath. Then add 2ml of
ice cold solution of β – naph-
tholinNaOH.

Test for diamide

15 Biuret test:
Take a small amount of an No violet colour is appeared Absence of a diamide
organic compound in a test
tube. Heat strongly and then
allow to cool. Dissolve the re-
sidue with 2ml of water. To
this solution Add 1ml of dilute
copper sulpnate solution and
few drops of 10% NaOH
Solution drop by drop.

Test for carbohydrates

16 Molisch’s test:
Take a small amount of an No violet or purple ring is Absence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a test formed at the junction of the
tube. It is dissolved in 2ml of two liquids
water. Add 3-4 drops of alpha
naphthol to it. Then add
conc.H2SO4 through the sides
of test tube carefully
17 Osazone test:
Take a small amount of an No yellow crystals are obtained Absence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a test
tube. Add 1ml of phenyl hy-
drazine solution and heat the
mixture for about 5 minutes
on a boiling water bath.

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 35
Report:

The given organic compound is

(i) Aromatic

(ii) Saturated

(iii) Aldehyde

Hence the given organic compound is Benzaldehyde

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Cinnamaldehyde
Organic Qualitative Analysis
Ex no : 2
Date :

Serial
Experiment Observation Inference
no.

Preliminary test

1 Odour:
Note the Odour of the organic No characteristic Odour Absence of amine, benzal-
compound. dehyde phenol and ester.
2 Test with litmus paper:
Touch the moist litmus paper No colour change is noted Absence of carboxylic acid,
with an organic compound. phenol and amine
3 Action with sodium bicarbo-
nate:
Take 2ml of saturated sodium bi No brisk effervescence Absence of a carboxylic acid.
carbonate solution in a test
tube. Add 2 or 3 drops (or a
pinch of solid) of an organic
compound to it.
4 Action with Borsche’s reagent:
Take a small amount of an or-
ganic compound in a test tube. Red precipitate is obtained Presence of an aldehyde or
Add 3ml of Borsche’s reagent, ketone
1ml of conc.Hcl to it. Then warm
the mixture gently and cool it.
5 Charring test:
Take a small amount of an No charring takes place with Absence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a dry test smell of burnt sugar
tube. Add 2ml of conc.H2SO4 to
it, and heat the mixture.

Tests for Aliphatic or Aromatic nature:

6 Ignition test:
Take small amount of the organ- Burns with sooty flame Presence of an aromatic
ic compound in a Nickel spatula compound.
and burn it in Bunsen flame.

Tests for an unsaturation:

7 Test with bromine water:


Take small amount of the
organic compound in a test tube orange – yellow colour of bro- Substance is unsaturated
add 2ml of distilled water to dis- mine water is decolourised
solve it. To this solution add few
drops of bromine water and
shake it well.
8 Test with KMnO4 Solution:
Take small amount of the organ-

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 37
ic compound in a test tube add pink colour of KMnO4 Solution is Substance is unsaturated
2m of distilled water to dissolve decolourised
it. To this solution add few drops
of very dilute alkaline KMnO4
solution and shake it well.

TEST FOR SELECTED ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

Test For Phenol

9 Neutral Fecl3 test:


Take 1ml of neutral ferric chlo- No characteristic colouration is Absence of Phenol, α -
ride solution is taken in a dry seen naphthol and β - naphthol
clean test tube. Add 2 or 3 drops
(or a pinch of solid) of organic
compound to it. If
nocolouration occurs add 3 or 4
drops of alcohol.

Test For Carboxylic Acids

10 Esterification reaction:
Take 1ml (or a pinch of solid) of No pleasant fruity odour is noted Absence of carboxylic group.
an organic compound in a clean
test tube. Add 1ml of ethyl alco-
hol and 4 to 5 drops of conc.
Sulphuric acid to it. Heat the
reaction mixture strongly for
about 5 minutes. Then pour the
mixture into a beaker containing
dil.sodium carbonate solution
and note the small.

Test for aldehydes

11 Tollen’s reagent test:


Take 2ml of Tollens reagent in a Shining silver mirror is formed Presence of an aldehyde
clean dry test tube. Add 3-4
drops of an organic compound
(or 0.2g of solid) to it and warm
the mixture on a water bath for
about 5 minutes.
12 Fehling’s test:
Take 1ml each of Fehling’s solu- Red precipitate is formed Presence of an aldehyde
tion A and B are taken in a test
tube Add 4-5 drops of an organ-
ic compound (or 0.2g of solid) to
it and warm the mixture on a
water bath for about 5 minutes.

Test for ketones

13 Legal’s test:
A small amount of the substance No Red colouration is obtained Absence of a ketone
is taken in a test tube. 1ml so-
diumnitro prusside solution is
added. Then sodium hydroxide
solution is added dropwise.
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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 38
Test for an amine

14 Dye test:
Take a small amount of an or- No Scarlet red dye is obtained Absence of an aromatic
ganic substance in a clean test primary amine
tube, add 2ml of Hcl to dissolve
it. Add few crystals of NaNO2,
and cool the mixture in ice bath.
Then add 2ml of ice cold
solution of β – naphtholin-
NaOH.

Test for diamide

15 Biuret test:
Take a small amount of an or- No violet colour is appeared Absence of a diamide
ganic compound in a test tube.
Heat strongly and then allow to
cool. Dissolve the residue with
2ml of water. To this solution
Add 1ml of dilute copper sulp-
nate solution and few drops of
10% NaOH solution drop by
drop.

Test for carbohydrates

16 Molisch’s test:
Take a small amount of an or- No violet or purple ring is formed Absence of carbohydrate
ganic compound in a test tube. at the junction of the two liquids
It is dissolved in 2ml of water. It
U 3-4 drops of alpha naphthol to
it. Then add conc.H2SO4 through
the sides of test tube carefully
17 Osazone test:
Take a small amount of an or- No yellow crystals are formed Absence of carbohydrate
ganic compound in a test tube.
Add 1ml of phenyl hydrazine
solution and heat the mixture
for about 5 minutes on a boiling
water bath.

Report:

The given organic compound is

(i) Aromatic

(ii) unsaturated

(iii) Aldehyde

Hence the given organic compound is Cinnamaldehyde.

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 39
Acetophenone

Organic Qualitative Analysis


Ex no : 3
Date :

Serial
Experiment Observation Inference
no.

Preliminary test

1 Odour:
Note the Odour of the organic No characteristic Odour Absence of amine, benzalde-
compound. hyde, phenol and ester.
2 Test with litmus paper:
Touch the moist litmus paper No colour change is noted Absence ofcarboxylic acid,
with an organic compound. phenol and amine
3 Action with sodium
bicarbonate:
Take 2ml of saturated sodium No brisk effervescence Absence of a carboxylic acid.
bi carbonate solution in a test
tube. Add 2 or 3 drops (or a
pinch of solid) of an organic
compound to it.
4 Action with Borsche’s
reagent:
Take a small amount of an red precipitate is obtained Presence of aldehyde or ke-
organic compound in a test tone.
tube. Add 3ml of Borsche’s
reagent, 1ml of conc.Hcl to it.
Then warm the mixture gently
and cool it.
5 Charring test:
Take a small amount of an No charring takes place with Absence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a dry smell of burnt sugar
test tube. Add 2ml of
conc.H2SO4 to it, and heat the
mixture.

Tests for Aliphatic or Aromatic nature:

6 Ignition test:
Take small amount of the or- Burns with sooty flame Presence of an aromatic com-
ganic compound in a Nickel pound.
spatula and burn it in Bunsen
flame.

Tests for an unsaturation:

7 Test with bromine water:


Take small amount of the or-
ganic compound in a test tube No decolourisation takes place Substance is saturated
add 2ml of distilled water to
dissolve it. To this solution add
RBR, MAL & AV
St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 40
few drops of bromine water to
dissolve it. To this solution add
few drops of bromine water
and shake it well.
8 Test with KMnO4 Solution:
Take small amount of the or-
ganic compound in a test tube No decolourisation takes place Substance is saturated
add 2ml of distilled water to
dissolve it. To this solution add
few drops of very dilute alka-
line KMnO4solution and shake
it well.

TEST FOR SELECTED ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

Test For Phenol

9 Neutral Fecl3 test:


Take 1ml of neutral ferric No characteristic colouration Absence of Phenol, α - naph-
chloride solution is taken in a thol and β - naphthol
dry clean test tube. Add 2 or 3
drops (or a pinch of solid) of
organic compound to it. It no
colouration occurs add 3 or 4
drops of alcohol.

Test For Carboxylic Acids

10 Esterification reaction:
Take 1ml (or a pinch of solid) No pleasant fruity odour is Absence of carboxylic acid.
of an organic compound in a noted
clean test tube. Add 1ml of
ethyl alcohol and 4 to 5 drops
of conc. Sulphuric acid to it.
Heat the reaction mixture
strongly for about 5 minutes.
Then pour the mixture into a
beaker containing dil.sodium
carbonate solution and note
the small.

Test for aldehydes

11 Tollen’s reagent test:


Take 2ml of Tollens reagent in No shining silver mirror is Absence of an aldehyde
a clean dry test tube. Add 3-4 formed
drops of an organic compound
(or 0.2g of solid) to it and
warm the mixture on a water
bath for about 5 minutes.
12 Fehling’s test:
Take 1ml each of Fehling’s No Red precipitate is formed Absence of an aldehyde
solution A and B are taken in a
test tube Add 4-5 drops of an
organic compound (or 0.2g of
solid) to it and
warm the mixture on a water
bath for about 5 minutes.
RBR, MAL & AV
St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 41
Test for ketones

13 Legal’s test:
A small amount of the sub- Red colouration is obtained Presence of a ketone
stance is taken in a test tube.
1ml sodiumnitro prusside so-
lution is added. Then sodium
hydroxide solution is added
dropwise.

Test for an amine

14 Dye test:
Take a small amount of an No Scarlet red dye is obtained Absence of an aromatic prima-
organic substance in a clean ry amine
test tube, add 2ml of Hcl to
dissolve it. Add few crystals of
NaNO2, and cool the mixture
in ice bath. Then add 2ml of
ice cold solution of β – naph-
tholinNaOH.

Test for diamide

15 Biuret test:
Take a small amount of an No violet colour is appeared Absence of a diamide
organic compound in a test
tube. Heat strongly and then
allow to cool. Dissolve the re-
sidue with 2ml of water. To
this solution Add 1ml of dilute
copper sulphate solution and
few drops of 10% NaOH
Solution drop by drop.

Test for carbohydrates

16 Molisch’s test:
Take a small amount of an No violet or purple ring is Absence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a test formed at the junction of the
tube. It is dissolved in 2ml of two liquids
water. Add 3-4 drops of alpha
naphthol to it. Then add
conc.H2SO4 through the sides
of test tube carefully
17 Osazone test:
Take a small amount of an No yellow crystals are obtained Absence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a test
tube. Add 1ml of phenyl hy-
drazine solution and heat the
mixture for about 5 minutes
on a boiling water bath.

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 42
Report:

The given organic compound is

(i) Aromatic

(ii) Saturated

(iii) Ketone

Hencethe given organic compound is Acetophenone.

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 43
Benzophenone

Organic Qualitative Analysis


Ex no : 4
Date :

Serial
Experiment Observation Inference
no.

Preliminary test

1 Odour:
Note the Odour of the organic No characteristic Odour Absence of amine benzalde-
compound. hyde, phenol and ester.
2 Test with litmus paper:
Touch the moist litmus paper No colour change is noted Absence of carboxylic acid, phe-
with an organic compound. nol and amine
3 Action with sodium
bicarbonate:
Take 2ml of saturated sodium bi No brisk effervescence Absence of carboxylic acid.
carbonate solution in a test
tube. Add 2 or 3 drops (or a
pinch of solid) of an organic
compound to it.
4 Action with Borsche’s reagent:
Take a small amount of an or-
ganic compound in a test tube. Red precipitate is obtained Presence of aldehyde or ketone.
Add 3ml of Borsche’s reagent,
1ml of conc.Hcl to it. Then warm
the mixture gently and cool it.
5 Charring test:
Take a small amount of an No charring takes place with Absence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a dry test smell of burnt sugar
tube. Add 2ml of conc.H2SO4 to
it, and heat the mixture.

Tests for Aliphatic or Aromatic nature:

6 Ignition test:
Take small amount of the organ- Burns with sooty flame Presence of an aromatic com-
ic compound in a Nickel spatula pound.
and burn it in Bunsen flame.

Tests for an unsaturation:

7 Test with bromine water:


Take small amount of the
organic compound in a test tube No Decolourisation takes place Substance is saturated
add 2ml of distilled water to dis-
solve it. To this solution add few
drops of bromine water and
shake it well.

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 44
8 Test with KMnO4 Solution:
Take small amount of the organ-
ic compound in a test tube add No Decolourisation takes place Substance is saturated
2m of distilled water to dissolve
it. To this solution add few drops
of very dilute alkaline
KMnO4solution and shake it
well.

TEST FOR SELECTED ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

Test For Phenol

9 Neutral Fecl3 test:


Take 1ml of neutral ferric chlo- No characteristic colouration is Absence of Phenol,
ride solution is taken in a dry seen α - naphthol and
clean test tube. Add 2 or 3 drops β - naphthol
(or a pinch of solid) of organic
compound to it. It no coloura-
tion occurs add 3 or 4 drops of
alcohol.

Test For Carboxylic Acids

10 Esterification reaction:
Take 1ml (or a pinch of solid) of No pleasant fruity odour is Absence of carboxylic acid
an organic compound in a clean noted
test tube. Add 1ml of ethyl alco-
hol and 4 to 5 drops of conc.
Sulphuric acid to it. Heat the
reaction mixture strongly for
about 5 minutes. Then pour the
mixture into a beaker containing
dil.sodium carbonate solution
and note the small.

Test for aldehydes

11 Tollen’s reagent test:


Take 2ml of Tollens reagent in a No shining silver mirror is Absence of an aldehyde
clean dry test tube. Add 3-4 formed
drops of an organic compound
(or 0.2g of solid) to it and warm
the mixture on a water bath for
about 5 minutes.

12 Fehling’s test:
Take 1ml each of Fehling’s solu- No Red precipitate is formed Absence of an aldehyde
tion A and B are taken in a test
tube Add 4-5 drops of an organ-
ic compound (or 0.2g of solid) to
it and warm the mixture on a
water bath for about 5 minutes.

Test for ketones

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 45
13 Legal’s test:
A small amount of the substance Red colouration is obtained Presence of a ketone
is taken in a test tube. 1ml so-
diumnitro prusside solution is
added. Then sodium hydroxide
solution is added dropwise.

Test for an amine

14 Dye test:
Take a small amount of an or- No Scarlet red dye is obtained Absence of an aromatic primary
ganic substance in a clean test amine
tube, add 2ml of Hcl to dissolve
it. Add few crystals of NaNO2,
and cool the mixture in ice bath.
Then add 2ml of ice cold solu-
tion of β – naphtholin NaOH.

Test for diamide

15 Biuret test:
Take a small amount of an or- No violet colour is appeared Absence of a diamide
ganic compound in a test tube.
Heat strongly and then allow to
cool. Dissolve the residue with
2ml of water. To this solution
Add 1ml of dilute copper sulp-
nate solution and few drops of
10% NaOH solutiondrop by
drop.

Test for carbohydrates

16 Molisch’s test:
Take a small amount of an or- No violet or purple ring is Absence of carbohydrate
ganic compound in a test tube. formed at the junction of the
It is dissolved in 2ml of water. two liquds
Add 3-4 drops of alpha naphthol
to it. Then add conc.H2SO4
through the sides of test tube
carefully
17 Osazone test:
Take a small amount of an or- No yellow crystals are obtained Absence of carbohydrate
ganic compound in a test tube.
Add 1ml of phenyl hydrazine
solution and heat the mixture
for about 5 minutes on a boiling
water bath.
Report:

The given organic compound is

(i) Aromatic

(ii) Saturated

(iii) Ketone

Hence the given organic compound is Benzophenone.


RBR, MAL & AV
St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 46
Benzoic acid

Organic Qualitative Analysis


Ex no : 5
Date :

Serial
Experiment Observation Inference
no.

Preliminary test

1 Odour:
Note the Odour of the organic No characteristic Odour Absence of amine, Benzaldehyde,
compound. phenol and ester.
2 Test with litmus paper:
Touch the moist litmus paper Blue litmus turns red May be a carboxylic acid or phe-
with an organic compound. nol.
3 Action with sodium bicarbo-
nate:
Take 2ml of saturated sodium Brisk effervescence Presence of a carboxylic acid.
bi carbonate solution in a test
tube. Add 2 or 3 drops (or a
pinch of solid) of an organic
compound to it.
4 Action with Borsche’s reagent:
Take a small amount of an or-
ganic compound in a test tube. No characteristic coloured pre- Absence of an aldehyde or ke-
Add 3ml of Borsche’s reagent, cipitate tone.
1ml of conc.Hcl to it. Then
warm the mixture gently and
cool it.
5 Charring test:
Take a small amount of an No charring takes place with Absence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a dry test smell of burnt sugar
tube. Add 2ml of conc.H2SO4 to
it, and heat the mixture.

Tests for Aliphatic or Aromatic nature:

6 Ignition test:
Take small amount of the or- Burns with sooty flame Presence of an aromatic com-
ganic compound in a Nickel pound.
spatula and burn it in Bunsen
flame.

Tests for an unsaturation:

7 Test with bromine water:


Take small amount of the
organic compound in a test No decolourisation Substance is saturated
tube add 2ml of distilled water takes place
to dissolve it. To this solution

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 47
add few drops of bromine wa-
ter and shake it well.
8 Test with KMnO4 Solution:
Take small amount of the or-
ganic compound in a test tube No decolourisation Substance is saturated
add 2m of distilled water to takes place
dissolve it. To this solution add
few drops of very dilute alka-
line KMnO4solution and shake
it well.

TEST FOR SELECTED ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

Test For Phenol

9 Neutral Fecl3 test:


Take 1ml of neutral ferric chlo- No characteristic colour change Absence of Phenol, α - naphthol
ride solution is taken in a dry and β - naphthol
clean test tube. Add 2 or 3
drops (or a pinch of solid) of
organic compound to it. If no-
colouration occurs add 3 or 4
drops of alcohol.

Test For Carboxylic Acids

10 Esterification reaction:
Take 1ml (or a pinch of solid) of A pleasant fruity odour is noted Presence of carboxylic acid.
an organic compound in a clean
test tube. Add 1ml of ethyl al-
cohol and 4 to 5 drops of conc.
Sulphuric acid to it. Heat the
reaction mixture strongly for
about 5 minutes. Then pour the
mixture into a beaker contain-
ing dil.sodium carbonate solu-
tion and note the small.

Test for aldehydes

11 Tollen’s reagent test:


Take 2ml of Tollens reagent in a No shining silver mirror is Absence of an aldehyde
clean dry test tube. Add 3-4 formed
drops of an organic compound
(or 0.2g of solid) to it and warm
the mixture on a water bath for
about 5 minutes.

12 Fehling’s test:
Take 1ml each of Fehling’s so- No Red precipitate is formed Absence of an aldehyde
lution A and B are taken in a
test tube Add 4-5 drops of an
organic compound (or 0.2g of
solid) to it and warm the mix-
ture on a water bath for about
5 minutes.

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 48
Test for ketones

13 Legal’s test:
A small amount of the sub- No Red colouration Absence of a ketone
stance is taken in a test tube.
1ml sodiumnitro prusside solu-
tion is added. Then sodium hy-
droxide solution is added
dropwise.

Test for an amine

14 Dye test:
Take a small amount of an or- No Scarlet red dye is obtained Absence of an aromatic primary
ganic substance in a clean test amine
tube, add 2ml of Hcl to dissolve
it. Add few crystals of NaNO2,
and cool the mixture in ice
bath. Then add 2ml of ice cold
solution of β – naphtholin-
NaOH.

Test for diamide

15 Biuret test:
Take a small amount of an or- No violet colour is appeared Absence of a diamide
ganic compound in a test tube.
Heat strongly and then allow to
cool. Dissolve the residue with
2ml of water. To this solution
Add 1ml of dilute copper sulp-
nate solution and few drops of
10% NaOH solutiondrop by
drop.

Test for carbohydrates

16 Molisch’s test:
Take a small amount of an or- No violet or purple ring is Absence of carbohydrate
ganic compound in a test tube. formed at the junction of the
It is dissolved in 2ml of water. two liquids
Add 3-4 drops of alpha naph-
thol to it. Then add conc.H2SO4
through the sides of test tube
carefully
17 Osazone test:
Take a small amount of an or- No yellow crystals are obtained Absence of carbohydrate
ganic compound in a test tube.
Add 1ml of phenyl hydrazine
solution and heat the mixture
for about 5 minutes on a boil-
ing water bath.

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 49
Report:

The given organic compound contains is

(i) Aromatic

(ii) Saturated

(iii) Carboxylic Acid

Hence the given organic compound is Benzoic acid.

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 50
Cinnammic Acid

Organic Qualitative Analysis


Ex no : 6
Date :

Serial
Experiment Observation Inference
no.

Preliminary test

1 Odour:
Note the Odour of the organic No characteristic Odour Absence of amine, benzalde-
compound. hyde, phenol and ester.
2 Test with litmus paper:
Touch the moist litmus paper Blue litmus turns red May be a carboxylic acid or
with an organic compound. phenol.
3 Action with sodium bicarbo-
nate:
Take 2ml of saturated sodium Brisk effervescence Presence of a carboxylic acid.
bi carbonate solution in a test is observed
tube. Add 2 or 3 drops (or a
pinch of solid) of an organic
compound to it.
4 Action with Borsche’s reagent:
Take a small amount of an or-
ganic compound in a test tube. No characteristic coloured Absence of an aldehyde or ke-
Add 3ml of Borsche’s reagent, precipitate tone.
1ml of conc.Hcl to it. Then
warm the mixture gently and
cool it.
5 Charring test:
Take a small amount of an or- No charring takes place with Absence of carbohydrate
ganic compound in a dry test smell of burnt
tube. Add 2ml of conc.H2SO4 to sugar
it, and heat the mixture.

Tests for Aliphatic or Aromatic nature:

6 Ignition test:
Take small amount of the or- Burns with sooty flame Presence of an aromatic com-
ganic compound in a Nickel pound.
spatula and burn it in Bunsen
flame.

Tests for an unsaturation:

7 Test with bromine water:


Take small amount of the
organic compound in a test orange – yellow colour of Substance is unsaturated
tube add 2ml of distilled water bromine water is decolourised
to dissolve it. To this solution
add few drops of
RBR, MAL & AV
St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 51
bromine water and shake it
well.
8 Test with KMnO4 Solution:
Take small amount of the or-
ganic compound in a test tube pink colour of KMnO4 Solu- Substance is unsaturated
add 2m of distilled water to tion is decolourised
dissolve it. To this solution add
few drops of very dilute alka-
line KMnO4solution and shake
it well.

TEST FOR SELECTED ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

Test For Phenol

9 Neutral Fecl3 test:


Take 1ml of neutral ferric chlo- No characteristic colour Absence of Phenol,
ride solution is taken in a dry change α - naphthol and
clean test tube. Add 2 or 3 β - naphthol
drops (or a pinch of solid) of it.
It no colouration occurs add 3
or 4 drops of alcohol.

Test For Carboxylic Acids

10 Esterification reaction:
Take 1ml (or a pinch of solid) of A pleasant fruity odour is Presence of carboxylic acid.
an organic compound in a clean noted
test tube. Add 1ml of ethyl al-
cohol and 4 to 5 drops of conc.
Sulphuric acid to it. Heat the
reaction mixture strongly for
about 5 minutes. Then pour the
mixture into a beaker contain-
ing dil.sodium carbonate solu-
tion and note the small.

Test for aldehydes

11 Tollen’s reagent test:


Take 2ml of Tollens reagent in a No shining silver mirror is ob- Absence of an aldehyde
clean dry test tube. Add 3-4 tained
drops of an organic compound
(or 0.2g of solid) to it and warm
the mixture on a water bath for
about 5 minutes.
12 Fehling’s test:
Take 1ml each of Fehling’s so- No Red precipitate is formed Absence of an aldehyde
lution A and B are taken in a
test tube Add 4-5 drops of an
organic compound
(or 0.2g of solid) to it and warm
the mixture on a water bath for
about 5 minutes.

Test for ketones

13 Legal’s test:
RBR, MAL & AV
St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 52
A small amount of the sub- No Red colouration is ob- Absence of a ketone
stance is taken in a test tube. served
1ml sodiumnitro prusside solu-
tion is added. Then sodium hy-
droxide solution is added
dropwise.

Test for an amine

14 Dye test:
Take a small amount of an or- No Scarlet red dye is observed Absence of an aromatic prima-
ganic substance in a clean test ry amine
tube, add 2ml of Hcl to dissolve
it. Add few crystals of NaNO2,
and cool the mixture in ice
bath. Then add 2ml of ice cold
solution of β – naphtholin
NaOH.

Test for diamide

15 Biuret test:
Take a small amount of an or- No violet colour is appeared Absence of a diamide
ganic compound in a test tube.
Heat strongly and then allow
tocool. Dissolve the residue
with 2ml of water. To this solu-
tion Add 1ml of dilute copper
sulpnate solution and few
drops of 10% NaOH solution-
drop by drop.

Test for carbohydrates

16 Molisch’s test:
Take a small amount of an or- No violet or purple ring is Absence of carbohydrate
ganic compound in a test tube. formed
It is dissolved in 2ml of water.
Add 3-4 drops of alpha naph-
thol to it. Then add conc.H2SO4
through the sides of test tube
carefully
17 Osazone test:
Take a small amount of an or- No yellow crystals are formed Absence of carbohydrate
ganic compound in a test tube.
Add 1ml of phenyl hydrazine
solution and heat the mixture
for about 5 minutes on a boil-
ing water bath.

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 53
Report:

The given organic compound is

(i) Aromatic

(ii) Unsaturated

(iii) Carboxylic Acid

Hence the given organic compound is Cinnammic Acid

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 54
Urea
Organic Qualitative Analysis
Ex no : 7
Date :

Serial
Experiment Observation Inference
no.

Preliminary test

1 Odour:
Note the Odour of the organic No characteristic Odour Absence of amine, phenol, ben-
compound. zaldehyde and ester.
2 Test with litmus paper:
Touch the moist litmus paper No colour change is noted Absence of carboxylic acid, phe-
with an organic compound. nol and amine
3 Action with sodium bicarbo-
nate:
Take 2ml of saturated sodium No brisk effervescence Absence of a carboxylic acid.
bi carbonate solution in a test
tube. Add 2 or 3 drops (or a
pinch of solid) of an organic
compound to it.
4 Action with Borsche’s rea-
gent:
Take a small amount of an No characteristic coloured pre- Absence of an aldehyde or ke-
organic compound in a test cipitate tone.
tube. Add 3ml of Borsche’s
reagent, 1ml of conc.Hcl to it.
Then warm the mixture gently
and cool it.
5 Charring test:
Take a small amount of an No charring takes place with Absence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a dry smell of burnt sugar
test tube. Add 2ml of
conc.H2SO4 to it, and heat the
mixture.

Tests for Aliphatic or Aromatic nature:

6 Ignition test:
Take small amount of the or- Burns with non sooty flame Presence of an aliphatic com-
ganic compound in a Nickel pound.
spatula and burn it in Bunsen
flame.

Tests for an unsaturation:

7 Test with bromine water:


Take small amount of the
organic compound in a test No decolourisation takes place Substance is saturated
tube add 2ml of distilled water
to dissolve it. To this solution

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 55
add few drops of bromine wa-
ter and shake it well.
8 Test with KMnO4 Solution:
Take small amount of the or-
ganic compound in a test tube No decolourisation takes place Substance is saturated
add 2m of distilled water to
dissolve it. To this solution add
few drops of very dilute alka-
line KMnO4solution and shake
it well.

TEST FOR SELECTED ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

Test For Phenol

9 Neutral Fecl3 test:


Take 1ml of neutral ferric No characteristic colouration Absence of Phenol,
chloride solution is taken in a α - naphthol and
dry clean test tube. Add 2 or 3 β - naphthol
drops (or a pinch of solid) of
organic compound to it. If no
colouration occurs add 3 or 4
drops of alcohol.

Test For Carboxylic Acids

10 Esterification reaction:
Take 1ml (or a pinch of solid) No pleasant fruity odour is Absence of carboxylic group
of an organic compound in a noted
clean test tube. Add 1ml of
ethyl alcohol and 4 to 5 drops
of conc. Sulphuric acid to it.
Heat the reaction mixture
strongly for about 5 minutes.
Then pour the mixture into a
beaker containing dil.sodium
carbonate solution and note
the small.

Test for aldehydes

11 Tollen’s reagent test:


Take 2ml of Tollens reagent in No shining silver mirror is Absence of an aldehyde
a clean dry test tube. Add 3-4 formed
drops of an organic compound
(or 0.2g of solid) to it and
warm the mixture on a water
bath for about 5 minutes.
12 Fehling’s test:
Take 1ml each of Fehling’s No Red precipitate is formed Absence of an aldehyde
solution A and B are taken in a
test tube Add 4-5 drops of an
organic compound (or 0.2g of
solid) to it and warm the mix-
ture on a water bath for about
5 minutes.

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 56
Test for ketones

13 Legal’s test:
A small amount of the sub- No Red colouration Absence of a ketone
stance is taken in a test tube.
1ml sodiumnitro prusside so-
lution is added. Then sodium
hydroxide solution is added
dropwise.

Test for an amine

14 Dye test:
Take a small amount of an No Scarlet red dye is obtained Absence of an aromatic primary
organic substance in a clean amine
test tube, add 2ml of Hcl to
dissolve it. Add few crystals of
NaNO2, and cool the mixture
in ice bath. Then add 2ml of
ice cold solution of
β – naphtholinNaOH.

Test for diamide

15 Biuret test:
Take a small amount of an Violet colour is appeared Presence of a diamide
organic compound in a test
tube. Heat strongly and then
allow to cool. Dissolve the re-
sidue with 2ml of water. To
this solution Add 1ml of dilute
copper sulpnate solution and
few drops of 10% NaOH solu-
tiondrop by drop.

Test for carbohydrates

16 Molisch’s test:
Take a small amount of an No violet or purple ring is Absence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a test formed at the junction of the
tube. It is dissolved in 2ml of two liquids
water. Add 3-4 drops of alpha
naphthol to it. Then add
conc.H2SO4 through the sides
of test tube carefully
17 Osazone test:
Take a small amount of an No yellow crystals are obtained Absence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a test
tube. Add 1ml of phenyl hy-
drazine solution and heat the
mixture for about 5 minutes
on a boiling water bath.

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 57
Report:

The given organic compound is

(i) Aliphatic

(ii) Saturated

(iii) Diamide

Hence the given organic compound is Urea

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 58
Glucose

Organic Qualitative Analysis


Ex no : 8
Date :

Serial
Experiment Observation Inference
no.

Preliminary test

1 Odour:
Note the Colour of the organic No characteristic Odour Absence of amine, benzalde-
compound. hyde, phenol and ester.
2 Test with litmus paper:
Touch the moist litmus paper No colour change is noted Absence of carboxylic acid,
with an organic compound. phenol and amine.
3 Action with sodium
bicarbonate:
Take 2ml of saturated sodium No brisk effervescence Absence of a carboxylic acid.
bi carbonate solution in a test
tube. Add 2 or 3 drops (or a
pinch of solid) of an organic
compound to it.
4 Action with Borsche’s
reagent:
Take a small amount of an Yellow or orange precipitate is Presence of an aldehyde or ke-
organic compound in a test obtained tone.
tube. Add 3ml of Borsche’s
reagent, 1ml of conc.Hcl to it.
Then warm the mixture gently
and cool it.
5 Charring test:
Take a small amount of an Charring takes place with smell Presence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a dry of burnt sugar
test tube. Add 2ml of
conc.H2SO4 to it, and heat the
mixture.

Tests for Aliphatic or Aromatic nature:

6 Ignition test:
Take small amount of the or- Burns with non sooty flame Presence of an aliphatic com-
ganic compound in a Nickel pound.
spatula and burn it in Bunsen
flame.

Tests for an unsaturation:

7 Test with bromine water:


Take small amount of the or-
ganic compound in a test tube No decolourisation takes place Substance is saturated
add 2ml of distilled water to
RBR, MAL & AV
St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 59
dissolve it. To this solution add
few drops of bromine water
and shake it well.
8 Test with KMnO4 Solution:
Take small amount of the or-
ganic compound in a test tube No decolourisation take place Substance is saturated
add 2ml of distilled water to
dissolve it. To this solution add
few drops of very dilute alka-
line KMnO4solution and shake
it well.

TEST FOR SELECTED ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

Test For Phenol

9 Neutral Fecl3 test:


Take 1ml of neutral ferric No characteristic colour change Absence of Phenol,
chloride solution is taken in a α - naphthol and
dry clean test tube. Add 2 or 3 β - naphthol
drops (or a pinch of solid) of
organic compound add 3 or 4
drops of alcohol.

Test For Carboxylic Acids

10 Esterification reaction:
Take 1ml (or a pinch of solid) No pleasant fruity odour is Absence of carboxylic acid.
of an organic compound in a noted
clean test tube. Add 1ml of
ethyl alcohol and 4 to 5 drops
of conc. Sulphuric acid to it.
Heat the reaction mixture
strongly for about 5 minutes.
Then pour the mixture into a
beaker containing dil.sodium
carbonate solution and note
the small.

Test for aldehydes

11 Tollen’s reagent test:


Take 2ml of Tollens reagent in Shining silver mirror is formed Presence of an aldehyde
a clean dry test tube. Add 3-4
drops of an organic compound
(or 0.2g of solid) to it and
warm the mixture on a water
bath for about 5 minutes.
12 Fehling’s test:
Take 1ml each of Fehling’s Red precipitate is formed Presence of an aldehyde
solution A and B are taken in a
test tube Add 4-5 drops of an
organic compound (or 0.2g of
solid) to it and warm the mix-
ture on a water bath for about
5 minutes.

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 60
Test for ketones

13 Legal’s test:
A small amount of the sub- No Red colouration is seen Absence of a ketone
stance is taken in a test tube.
1ml sodiumnitro prusside so-
lution is added. Then sodium
hydroxide solution is added
dropwise.

Test for an amine

14 Dye test:
Take a small amount of an No Scarlet red dye is obtained Absence of an aromatic prima-
organic substance in a clean ry amine
test tube, add 2ml of Hcl to
dissolve it. Add few crystals of
NaNO2, and cool the mixture
in ice bath. Then add 2ml of
ice cold solution of β – naph-
tholin NaOH.

Test for diamide

15 Biuret test:
Take a small amount of an No violet colour is appeared Absence of a diamide
organic compound in a test
tube. Heat strongly and then
allow to cool. Dissolve the re-
sidue with 2ml of water. To
this solution Add 1ml of dilute
copper sulpnate solution and
few drops of 10% NaOH solu-
tiondrop by drop.

Test for carbohydrates

16 Molisch’s test:
Take a small amount of an Violet or purple ring is formed at Presence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a test the junction of the two liquids
tube. It is dissolved in 2ml of
water. Add 3-4 drops of alpha
naphthol to it. Then add
conc.H2SO4 through the sides
of test tube carefully
17 Osazone test:
Take a small amount of an yellow crystals are Obtained Presence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a test
tube. Add 1ml of phenyl hy-
drazine solution and heat the
mixture for about 5 minutes
on a boiling water bath.

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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 61
Report:

The given organic compound is

(i) Aliphatic

(ii) Saturated

(iii) Carbohydrate with aldehyde functional group

Hence the given organic compound is Glucose

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 62
Aniline

Organic Qualitative Analysis


Ex no : 9
Date :

Serial
Experiment Observation Inference
no.

Preliminary test

1 Odour:
Note the Odour of the organic Fish Odour May be an amine
compound.
2 Test with litmus paper:
Touch the moist litmus paper Red litmus turns blue May be an amine
with an organic compound.
3 Action with sodium bicarbonate:
Take 2ml of saturated sodium bi
carbonate solution in a test tube. No brisk effervescence Absence of a carboxylic acid.
Add 2 or 3 drops (or a pinch of
solid) of an organic compound to
it.
4 Action with Borsche’s reagent:
Take a small amount of an organ-
ic compound in a test tube. Add No characteristic coloured Absence of an aldehyde or
3ml of Borsche’s reagent, 1ml of precipitate ketone.
conc.Hcl to it. Then warm the
mixture gently and cool it.
5 Charring test:
Take a small amount of an organ- No charring takes place with Absence of carbohydrate
ic compound in a dry test tube. smell of burnt sugar
Add 2ml of conc.H2SO4 to it, and
heat the mixture.

Tests for Aliphatic or Aromatic nature:

6 Ignition test:
Take small amount of the organic Burns with sooty flame Presence of an aromatic com-
compound in a Nickel spatula and pound.
burn it in Bunsen flame.

Tests for an unsaturation:

7 Test with bromine water:


Take small amount of the organic
compound in a test tube add 2ml Decolourisation with forma- Presence of an aromatic
of distilled water to dissolve it. To tion of white precipitate amine
this solution add few drops of
bromine water and shake it well.
8 Test with KMnO4
Solution:
Take small amount of the organic No decolourisation takes Substance is saturated
compound in a test tube add 2m place
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St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 63
of distilled water to dissolve it. To
this solution add few drops of
very dilute alkaline
KMnO4solution and shake it well.

TEST FOR SELECTED ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

Test For Phenol

9 Neutral Fecl3 test:


Take 1ml of neutral ferric chlo- No characteristic colouration Absence of Phenol,
ride solution is taken in a dry is seen α - naphthol and
clean test tube. Add 2 or 3 drops β - naphthol
(or a pinch of solid) of organic
compound to it. If no
colouration occurs add 3 or 4
drops of alcohol.

Test For Carboxylic Acids

10 Esterification reaction:
Take 1ml (or a pinch of solid) of No pleasant fruity odour is Absence of carboxylic acid.
an organic compound in a clean noted
test tube. Add 1ml of ethyl alco-
hol and 4 to 5 drops of conc. Sul-
phuric acid to it. Heat the reac-
tion mixture strongly for about 5
minutes. Then pour the mixture
into a beaker containing
dil.sodium carbonate solution
and note the small.

Test for aldehydes

11 Tollen’s reagent test:


Take 2ml of Tollens reagent in a No shining silver mirror is Absence of an aldehyde
clean dry test tube. Add 3-4 formed
drops of an organic compound
(or 0.2g of solid) to it and warm
the mixture on a water bath for
about 5 minutes.
12 Fehling’s test:
Take 1ml each of Fehling’s solu- No Red precipitate is formed Absence of an aldehyde
tion A and B are taken in a test
tube Add 4-5 drops of an organic
compound (or 0.2g of solid) to it
and warm the mixture on a water
bath for about 5 minutes.

Test for ketones

13 Legal’s test:
A small amount of the substance No Red colouration Absence of a ketone
is taken in a test tube. 1ml so-
diumnitro prusside solution is
added. Then sodium hydroxide
solution is added dropwise.

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 64
Test for an amine

14 Dye test:
Take a small amount of an organ- Scarlet red dye is obtained Presence of an aromatic pri-
ic substance in a clean test tube, mary amine
add 2ml of Hcl to dissolve it. Add
few crystals of NaNO2, and cool
the mixture in ice bath. Then add
2ml of ice cold solution of
β – naphtholin NaOH.

Test for diamide

15 Biuret test:
Take a small amount of an organ- No violet colour is appeared Absence of a diamide
ic compound in a test tube. Heat
strongly and then allow to cool.
Dissolve the residue with 2ml of
water. To this solution Add 1ml
of dilute copper sulpnate solution
and few drops of 10% NaOH solu-
tiondrop by drop.

Test for carbohydrates

16 Molisch’s test:
Take a small amount of an organ- No violet or purple ring is Absence of carbohydrate
ic compound in a test tube. It is formed at the junction of the
dissolved in 2ml of water. Add 3- two liquids
4 drops of alpha naphthol to it.
Then add conc.H2SO4 through the
sides of test tube carefully
17 Osazone test:
Take a small amount of an organ- No yellow crystals are ob- Absence of carbohydrate
ic compound in a test tube. Add tained
1ml of phenyl hydrazine solution
and heat the mixture for about 5
minutes on a boiling water bath.

Report:

The given organic compound contains is

(i) Aromatic

(ii) Saturated

(iii) Amine

Hence the organic compound is aniline.

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 65
Salicylic Acid

Organic Qualitative Analysis


Ex no : 10
Date :

Serial
Experiment Observation Inference
no.

Preliminary test

1 Odour: May be a phenolic


Note the Odour of the organic Phenolic Odour compound
compound.
2 Test with litmus paper:
Touch the moist litmus paper Blue litmus turns red May be a carboxylic acid or
with an organic compound. phenol
3 Action with sodium bicarbo-
nate:
Take 2ml of saturated sodium bi Brisk effervescence is ob- Presence of a carboxylic acid.
carbonate solution in a test served
tube. Add 2 or 3 drops (or a
pinch of solid) of an organic
compound to it.
4 Action with Borsche’s reagent:
Take a small amount of an or-
ganic compound in a test tube. No characteristic coloured Absence of an aldehyde or ke-
Add 3ml of Borsche’s reagent, precipitate tone.
1ml of conc.Hcl to it. Then warm
the mixture gently and cool it.
5 Charring test:
Take a small amount of an No charring takes place with Absence of carbohydrate
organic compound in a dry test smell of burnt sugar
tube. Add 2ml of conc.H2SO4 to
it, and heat the mixture.

Tests for Aliphatic or Aromatic nature:

6 Ignition test:
Take small amount of the organ- Burns with sooty flame Presence of an aromatic com-
ic compound in a pound.
Nickel spatula and burn it in
Bunsen flame.

Tests for an unsaturation:

7 Test with bromine water:


Take small amount of the or-
ganic compound in a test tube Decolourisation with the for- Presence of phenolic com-
add 2ml of distilled water to dis- mation of white precipitate pound
solve it. To this solution add few
drops of bromine water and
shake it well.
8 Test with KMnO4 Solution:
Take small amount of the organ-
ic compound in a test tube add No Decolourisation takes Substance is saturated
RBR, MAL & AV
St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 66
2ml of distilled water to dissolve place
it. To this solution add few drops
of very dilute alkaline
KMnO4solution and shake it
well.

TEST FOR SELECTED ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

Test For Phenol

9 Neutral Fecl3 test:


Take 1ml of neutral ferric chlo- Violet colouration is seen Presence of phenolic com-
ride solution is taken in a dry pound
clean test tube. Add 2 or 3 drops
(or a pinch of solid) of organic
compound to it. If no
colouration occurs add 3 or 4
drops of alcohol.

Test For Carboxylic Acids

10 Esterification reaction:
Take 1ml (or a pinch of solid) of A pleasant fruity odour is Presence of carboxylic acid.
an organic compound in a clean noted
test tube. Add 1ml of ethyl alco-
hol and 4 to 5 drops of conc.
Sulphuric acid to it. Heat the
reaction mixture strongly for
about 5 minutes. Then pour the
mixture into a beaker containing
dil.sodium carbonate solution
and note the small.

Test for aldehydes

11 Tollen’s reagent test:


Take 2ml of Tollens reagent in a No shining silver mirror is Absence of an aldehyde
clean dry test tube. Add 3-4 formed
drops of an organic compound
(or 0.2g of solid) to it, and warm
the mixture on a water bath for
about 5 minutes.
12 Fehling’s test:
Take 1ml each of Fehling’s solu- No Red precipitate is formed Absence of an aldehyde
tion A and B are taken in a test
tube Add 4-5 drops of an organ-
ic compound (or 0.2g of solid) to
it, and warm the mixture on a
water bath for about 5 minutes.

Test for ketones

13 Legal’s test:
A small amount of the substance No Red colouration Absence of a ketone
is taken in a test tube. 1ml so-
diumnitro prusside solution is
added. Then sodium hydroxide
solution is added dropwise.
RBR, MAL & AV
St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 67
Test for an amine

14 Dye test:
Take a small amount of an or- No Scarlet red dye is obtained Absence of an aromatic prima-
ganic substance in a clean test ry amine
tube, add 2ml of Hcl to dissolve
it. Add few crystals of NaNO2,
and cool the mixture in ice bath.
Then add 2ml of ice cold solu-
tion of β – naphtholin NaOH.

Test for diamide

15 Biuret test:
Take a small amount of an or- No violet colour is appeared Absence of a diamide
ganic compound in a test tube.
Heat strongly and then allow to
cool. Dissolve the residue with
2ml of water. To this solution
Add 1ml of dilute copper sulp-
nate solution and few drops of
10% NaOH solutiondrop by
drop.

Test for carbohydrates

16 Molisch’s test:
Take a small amount of an or- No violet or purple ring is Absence of carbohydrate
ganic compound in a test tube. formed at the junction of the
It is dissolved in 2ml of water. two liquids
Add 3-4 drops of alpha naphthol
to it. Then add conc. H2SO4
through the sides of test tube
carefully
17 Osazone test:
Take a small amount of an or- No yellow crystals are ob- Absence of carbohydrate
ganic compound in a test tube. tained
Add 1ml of phenyl hydrazine
solution and heat the mixture
for about 5 minutes on a boiling
water bath.

Report:

The given organic compound is

(i) Aromatic

(ii) Saturated

(iii) Phenolic acid

Hence the given organic compound is Salicylic Acid.

RBR, MAL & AV


St. Mary's Girls Higher Secondary School, SALEM - 636 009 68