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Q: Critically examine the Congress ministry of 1937.

How far it is
correct to say that it paved the way to separate Muslim homeland?


Hindus and Muslims lived together for over a
millennium but never intermixed. These two entities remained very separate
from one and other and kept repelling each other similar to the two like poles of a
magnet. Hindus had always considered the Muslims as foreigners who came as
invaders and ruled over us for over 7 centuries. After the fall of last Muslim
empire, The Mighty Mughals, British took over the reign of power in the sub-
continent and took a hard stance towards the Muslims due to the War of
Independence of 1857. With new aggressive masters and disliked by majority of
Population, Hindus, The Muslims were again treated like foreigners in their own
land. In this period of hard times, a prominent Muslim scholar and educationist Sir
Syed Ahmad Khan emerged as savior for Muslims. With his struggle, not only,
Muslims took western education in the field of English and Science they also came
close to British and won their trust back.

Developments towards Separate Homeland:

a) Hindi-Urdu Controversy:
Due to Sir Syed’s struggle Muslims were back on their feet
but Hindus still had difference with them. In 1969, a controversy emerged
in several cities of the sub-continent to replace Urdu with Hindi language
in courts as well as in other institutes. This incident convinced Sir Syed
Ahmad khan saying that these two nations cannot live together.

Inception of Indian National (INC)

Indian National Congress was established as political party to

represent whole Indian but it took a Hindu stance and started to advocate for
Hindu rights only from its beginning and left Muslims in the wilderness once

b) Controversy over Bengal partition till congress ministiries:

With the inception of Muslim League in 1906, Muslims fought back

for their rights and celebrated the Bengal partition because it had created
a Muslim majority province, with that, INC’s hostility against muslims
came in light when they protested against this decision of British openly.
This incident further deepens the rift between two communities. The
biggest achievement of Muslim league was separate electorate for
Muslims in Minto-Morley reforms which also protested by INC. In 1911,
when British rolled backed their decision and annulled the Bengal again,
Muslim lost their trust in British and changed their policy of being loyal to
the masters and this brought two rivals , Hindu and Muslims, closer. Both
communities enjoyed a honeymoon period for some years, from Lucknow
pact of 1916 till the Khilafat movement 1919. Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad
Ali Jinnah, who was labeled as advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity, tried hard
to keep them together but things didn’t went that way. 1930, was the
year when first time demand for separate homeland came from a Muslim
leader Allama Iqbal in his historical Allahabad address, just 2 years later of
Nehru report where INC demanded to abolish separate electorates for
minorities including Muslims. But Quaid-e-Azam was still in favor of
united India.

Congress Ministries of 1937: The last nail in the coffin:

According to Government of India act 1935, elections

were held in India in which INC emerged as a single major party but it
failed to win from constituencies. They formed government with pro
Hindu agenda like: Hindi became national language, Vande Matram, a
Hindu poem, became national anthem, Congress party’ flag was given the
status of national flag, Cow slaughtering was banned, Basic Hindu culture
was promoted by new educational scheme called Wandra Taleemi in
elementary schools so that the Two nation concept can be wiped from
the minds of Muslim children and doors of government jobs were closed
for Muslims during their rule.
Seeing these atrocities, Quaid e Azam came to know that these nation
cannot live together inside same borders thus Muslims need a separate
homeland where they can freely practice their Religion and culture.

Critical Analysis:
From Hindi-Urdu controversy to Nehru report, all Muslims
wanted was to secure their in rights in united India. The idea about the
separate homeland never crossed the Muslims minds even after the
Iqbal’s Allahabad address, all Muslim league demanded was equal
representation in government for Muslims.
But the Congress ministries of 1937 was an eye opener for Muslims leader
including Qauid e Azam who, before Congress ministries, never said
anything about separate homeland, after witnessing congress atrocities
and harsh policies against Muslims, he, just after 7 months of congress
ministries resignation from power in September, proclaimed that Muslims
wants a separate homeland in historical Pakistan resolution in 1940.
Congress ministries was the only reason that Muslims started their
struggle for separate homeland because it reflected the future of Muslims
under Hindu dominance after the British exit.