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# SURVEYING REVIEWER objects, Highways, railroads, pipelines, canals,

## transmission lines and other linear projects.

SURVEYING - It is the art and science of determining
 Topographic surveys - Shape of the ground,
angular and linear measurements to establish the form,
Location and elevation of artificial and natural
extent and relative position of points, lines, and areas on
features.
or near the surface of the earth or on other extraterrestrial
bodies through applied mathematics and the use of Surveying Measurements
specialized equipment and techniques.
- Extent, size or dimensions of a particular quantity in
CLASSIFICATIONS OF SURVEYING: comparison to a given standard
 Plane Surveying - Surveys of limited extent, - Imperfections of the instruments used
We consider the earth to be a flat surface. - Are never exact and they will always be imperfect no
 Geodetic Surveying - Surveys of wider extent,
“No exact or true measurement is ever possible”
Take into account the spheroidal shape of the earth.
Types of Measurements:
TYPES OF SURVEYING:
Direct Measurements - Comparison of the measured
 Cadastral Surveys - Surveys undertaken at rural
quantity to a standard measuring unit.
and urban areas to determine property lines and
boundaries. Indirect Measurements - Not possible to apply a
 City Surveys - Surveys of the areas in and near measuring instrument directly, Observed value is
a city for expansions, improvements and locating determined by its relationship to other known values.
property lines.
Rounding off numbers:
 Construction Survey - Provide data regarding
grades, reference lines, dimensions, ground Digit less than 5
configurations and the location and elevation of
structures. -The number is written without the digit
 Forestry Surveys - Forest management, -24.244 to nearest hundredth is 24.24
Production and conservation of forest lands.
 Hydrographic Surveys - Surveys of bodies of Digit is equal to 5
water, For mapping of shore lines, chart the -The nearest even number is used
shape of areas underlying water surfaces,
Measure the flow of stream, Important in -26.175 to nearest hundredth is 26.18
navigation, development of water supply, flood -156.285 would be 156.28
control, irrigation and subaqueous constructions.
 Industrial Surveys - Also known as optical Digit is greater than 5
tooling, Ship building, and construction and - The number is written with the preceding digit increased
assembly of aircrafts, Lay-out and installation of by 1
heavy machinery, Accurate dimensional lay-outs.
 Mine Surveys - Positions of underground - 226.276 to nearest hundredth is 226.28
excavations and surface mine structures, Fix
- 226.28 to the nearest tenths is 226.3
boundaries of mining claims.
 Photogrammetric Surveys - Survey using Surveying Field Notes:
-Only reliable and permanent record of actual work done
maps, drones.
in the field.
 Route Surveys - Alignment, grades, earthwork
quantities, location of natural and artificial -Official record of the survey.
-Clear, complete and systematic.
“There is no phase in a surveyor’s work which is of 8. Rear Tape man - assist thd head tapeman
greater importance, or which requires more careful 9. Flagman - hold the flagpole
attention than the keeping of the field notes” 10. Rodman-holds the stad
11. Pacer
Types of Notes
12. Axe man/Lineman - remove obstruction
 Sketches - Rarely exact scale, but approximately 13. Aid man - gamot gamot lang
scaled. 14. Utility men - driver,camp out
 Tabulation - Prevents mistakes, easy checking, - other form
saves time, calculations legible to others,
Errors - Difference between the true value and the
simplifies work.
measured value of a quantity, Inherent in all
 Explanatory Notes - Written description of what
measurements, cannot be avoided.
has been done on the field.
 Computations - are made algebraically using Mistakes - Inaccuracies in measurements, Surveyors
simple arithmetic and trigonometric functions. carelessness, inattention, poor judgment and improper
 Combination of the above - Used in most execution.
extensive surveys.
Information Found in Field Notebooks
Types of Errors
 Title of the Field Work / Name of Project
Systematic Errors (Cumulative error)
 Time of Day and Date
 Weather Conditions - Errors that will have same sign and magnitude as
 Names of Group Members and Designations long as field conditions remain constant and
 List of Equipment unchanged.
Field Survey Party Accidental Errors
1. Chief of Party - responsible for overall directions - Purely accidental in character, Either positive or
- logistical and technical negative, Caused by factors beyond the control of
requirements the surveyor.
- submitting survey reports and records
2. Assistant Chief of Party Sources of Errors

## -assist the cop Instrumental Errors - Imperfections of the instruments

used.
-takes over the duty of cop
Natural Errors - Variations on the phenomena of nature.
- conducts ground reconnaissance and investigates site
Personal Errors - Limitations of the senses of sight,
-employment of surveying equipment touch and hearing of the human observer.
3. Instrument maman- set up, level, operate Accuracy and Precision:
4. Technician - use and operation of all electronic
instruments Accuracy - Closeness between related measurements.
-establishing 2-way communication Precision - Closeness to one another.
5. Computer - perform computation
6. Recorder - keep the records Most Probable Value (MPV) - Is the arithmetic mean of a
7. Head Tape man - accuracy and speed of all group of repeated measurements.
measurements FORMULA
-marking of stations
- inspect and compares tape Mpv = ƩX/n = (x1 + x2 + x3 + . . . +xn)/n
- taping operations
Residual or Deviation - The difference between any  Moving with measured steps.
measured value of a quantity and its most probable value.  Counting the number of steps or paces.
 Suitable in situations where low precision is
FORMULA
sufficient.
v = x - mpv  Affected by many factors.

Probable Error - A quantity which when added to or Pace - Length of a step-in walking
subtracted from the MPV, defines a range within which
Stride - Two paces or double steps
there is a 50% chance that the true value of the
measured quantity lies inside (or outside) the limits thus Pace Factor - Average length of one’s pace
set.
FORMULA: PF = TD/ MNP
FORMULA
2. Distance by Taping.
PES = ± 0.6745 (Ʃv2/n-1)1/2  Probably the most common method of measuring
or laying out horizontal distances.
 Stretching a calibrated tape between two points
PEM = ± 0.6745 [Ʃv2/n(n-1)]1/2 and reading the distance on the tape.
 Ropes, cords and lines were first used for
Relative Precision - Ratio of the error to the measured centuries.
quantity.  Steel tape came about the beginning of 20th
FORMULA century, now fiber glass tape is used.
3. Distance by Tachymetry. ( TACHEOMETRY)
RP = PE/mpv  Probably the most common method of measuring
Interrelationship of Errors or laying out horizontal distances.
 Stretching a calibrated tape between two points
Summation of Errors and reading the distance on the tape.
2 2 2 2 1/2  Ropes, cords and lines were first used for
PE = ± (PE + PE +PE + … +PE ) centuries.
s 1 2 3 n
 Steel tape came about the beginning of 20th
Product of Errors
century, now fiber glass tape is used.
2 2 1/2.
PE = ± [(Q * PE ) + (Q * PE ) ] Stadia Method
p 1 2 2 1
 Rapid means of determining distances
 Topographic and reconnaissance survey
Measurement of Distance
 Relative Precision of 1/300 to 1/1000
One of the basic operations of Plane Surveying is the
FORMULA: D = Ks + C
accurate determination of the distance between two
points. Subtense Bar Method
This linear measurements means horizontal distances.  Convenient and practical device for quick and
accurate measurement of distances
If the points have different elevation, the distance is the
 Consist of a bar precisely 2m long and a transit
horizontal length between plumb lines.
or theodolite to measure the subtending angle
If incline distance is measured, it will be reduced to its  Relative Precision is 1/3000
equivalent horizontal projection.
FORMULA: D = 1 / Tan(α/2)
Methods of Determining Distance 4. Distance by Graphical and Mathematical
Methods.
1. Distance by Pacing.
 Unknown distances maybe determined through 4. Marking Full Tape Lengths
their relationship with known distances 5. Tallying Taped Measurements
geometrically 6. Measuring Fractional Lengths
 Maps, Plane Table Surveys, Triangulation,
Breaking Tape - Is the procedure of holding the tape
Trilateration
horizontally above ground and to plumb at one or both
5. Distance by Mechanical Devices.
ends when taping on sloping or uneven terrain surfaces.
 Few mechanical devices could also be employed
for the measurement of distances
 Only for low precision surveys
 For quick measurements SEPTEMBER 01, 2019

## Distance by Mechanical Devices

Odometer
 A simple device that can be attached to a wheel
 Only gives surface distance
 Reduce measured distance to equivalent
horizontal distance
 Relative Precision is 1/200
Measuring Wheel
 Similar to odometer, except it is more portable
and self contained.
 It has a built in calibrated recorder that
automatically gives distance.
 Suitable in irregular and curve lines and
boundaries.
Optical Rangefinder
 This device can use to determine distances
approximately simply by focusing.
 Use in field sketching, reconnaissance, and
measurement checking.
 Relative Precision is 1/50.
6. Distance by Photogrammetry.
 Measurement of images in a photograph
 Relative Precision is 1/3000 to 1/5000
Composition of Taping Party