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Specifically ___________________________________________________________________
Contains ___________________________________________________________
Research byP. OGAMA
Variables, Not
More 12 words _____________________________________________________

Present the problem
from international to
local with references –
Choosing and deciding on something have consequences. The results of what you have chosen can
at least 5 paragraphs. either help you, or it will hinder you in the future. It is also the same with the strand that you've chosen. In
(Fill up the colored box choosing a strand, there are a lot of factors that student considered. According to Boyer, "in taking something,
in the background). one of the life's major decisions is being made. A lot of time, money, and effort will be involved. The shape
You can also follow this and excellence of the student's life may rest on the result." In choosing a senior high school strand, a student
simple pattern should take a risk. F. Yates, Veinotte, & Patalano define a decision as "…a commitment to a course of action
1st Paragraph: -
that is intended to produce a satisfying state of affairs." A student chooses a strand which he/she will be
Definition and studying throughout his/her senior high school year, and decision-making should take part and should not take
description of the for granted.
general problem,
research topic/subject Making decision implies that there are choices to be considered, and in such case, we want only to
(Ex. acad. identify as many of the alternatives as possible but to choose the one that best fits with our goals, objectives,
competencies, behavior,
etc.). Present
desires, values and so on. Decision-making is the best way to get one's satisfaction and considered as the best
researchable evidences required thing to do to have a successful and a very satisfying life. One decent decision that a person will do
from local and foreign can make a huge impact in his or her life. Decision-making happens in people, and some are for their future.
studies Choosing a strand requires mature and severe discussion since their choice will decide what their future will
2nd Paragraph: be. Choosing a strand consist of different factors that influenced their decision.
Clearly present the local
situation of the problem
with observations,
Methodologically speaking, choosing a strand is not all fun and games, some deal with people, others
evidences and statistics deal with future careers. Grade 10 students face one of the most crucial decisions in their lives, and that is
from the locale and future career decision. These students face the fact that this certain adjudication will decide their future.
chosen context. Deciding on what strand to take is not a "gut reaction". It requires mature and serious discussion, and may not,
3rd Paragraph: Describe
despite the long run, lead to initial choice. However, during this stage in each student's life, there are some
and define other factors in which results to confusion, and further lead to a mistake.
variables such as the
intervention, policy or
program. Justify how On the other hand, the Accountancy and Business Management is one of the strand offered in Senior
can it address the High. It is designed for students who wants to develop their understanding of accounting and management in
problem. a business context and develop skills that enhance their employability and help them achieve the following:
4th Paragraph: develop an appreciation of the role of accounting within the overall function of management, acquire technical
Legal bases of the study. accounting skills and integrate theoretical and conceptual considerations with practice, evaluate the principles
Presidential decrees, and theories that underpin accounting and management, critically reflect on the role of the main stakeholder
letters of instruction,
and the influence of regulatory frameworks on accounting and management, and develop analytical and
memoranda, bulletins, problem solving abilities and apply them in making management decisions (Brunel University, 2016).
the Philippine
Constitution or others The researchers conducted this study in order to know the factors influencing the selected Grade-10
which are to be used as student in choosing Accountancy and Business Management as field of specialization in Senior High. For this
the bases of the study persistence, the existing study employed a case study to understand students' choice.
should be presented.
The relationship of the
legal basis/es should be
clearly discussed.

5th Paragraph:
Sum-up the claims and
emphatically justify the
need for the study

Statement of the This study aims to determine the different factors influencing the selected Grade 10 student in choosing
Problem: Accountancy and Business Management as field of specialization in Senior High during the School Year 2019-
1st Paragraph: 2020.
Begin with a general
objective as based on
Specifically, it seeks to answer the following question:
the approved title
1.What are the factors influence the selected Grade-10 students in choosing Accountancy and Business
Enumerate the specific Management as field of specialization in senior high school in terms of:
or sub-problems stated 1.1 self-interest;
in question form (What, 1.2 friends/ peer influence; and
How, To what
1.3 family factor?

The problem should be 2. What are the strategies of selected grade 10 students in choosing Accountancy and Business Management
stated precisely, in senior high in terms of;
accurately and clearly. 2.1 Interest; and
2.2 Research/Advices
This can be defined in
terms of the data that
can be obtained. 3. Based on the result of the study, what activity can be provided by the researcher to respondents?


Aims to present what This chapter provides the review of literature and the studies that are related on the factors
has or has not been influencing the selected Grade 10 student in choosing Accountancy and Business Management as
done on the problem field of Specialization in Senior High.
being investigated.
Establishes the baseline
data about the An American self-help author Steve Pavlina wrote an article about The Challenge of
problem. Choosing the Right Career. According to him, those people who are conscious and deliberate in
Highlights the making decisions tend to choose the wrong career. So if you feel like you made a wrong choice of
importance of the
present study by
strand, it's definitely fine. "Good choices really happen by accident", as Pavlina said. Staying in that
presenting findings of bad decision can also lead your health, relationship, and life in to bad situation.
related studies that
have been conducted. There are two main factors to consider on choosing your Senior High School Strand and strand in
Provides a general
the K-12 program, college plans and availability. Availability because not all tracks are offered by
picture of the research
topic. schools in your area and college plans, is the students planning to go to college after senior high or
Present the literature what course is the student planning to take in college. These two factors could majorly influence a
and studies student in choosing their strand for Senior High School. These factors was based by the student's
thematically following
preference. (Gubalene, 2016)
the key
concepts/variables in
the objectives. One McFadden (2015) stated that parents and peers could also influence the students in choosing
paragraph per theme a career. According to higher education consultant Noel Levitz, although kids tend to deny the fact
with title.
that their parents affect their decision, their parents’ opinion matter.
It may be those
statements published in
books, journals, Gottfredson’s theory says that educational aspirations are a reflection of one’s self-concept.
periodicals or from People seek career that (a) are congruent with their self-image and (b) reflect their knowledge of
electronic sources.
different career. This theory describes that students become
Only research findings
and statements which
BRIEF REVEW OF attracted to certain specialization. According to this theory, self-concept is the key to specialization
RELATED LITERATURE: selection. Students tend to choose jobs that are compatible with their personality. The key
are related in purpose, determinants according to the theory are one’s social class, level of intelligence and experiences
methods or findings to with sex typing. In the study of Siguan Jr., as cited in Sonsona (2012) self-concept was also found
the present study significant on the choice of specialization of students. Another is Holland’s theory of career choice
should be included in
the review.
suggested that people can function and develop best and find jobs satisfaction in work environments
Clarify the that are compatible with their personalities. People tend to choose a career that is reflective of their
interrelationships of personality.
the studies reviewed
and the present study.
Point weaknesses and
In addition, Helibronner (2011) claimed that the greater number of the students manifested
strengths of each study to proceed to ABM course in college. This is brought about with the quality, adequacy of
reviewed. preparations and scholastic experiences of the students.
Conflicting views of
different authors and
researchers should be
There are different factors that affect students’ choice of course in college. One of this is
linked together. family related factors. Studies revealed that Filipino rely heavily on their family’s decision-making.
The researcher should Students cope by following their parents’ advice. They also have to cope with an expectation of
put together findings
that are the same to
financially supporting the family upon completing their education. Studies from other Asian
avoid duplication. countries also show parents’ impact in decision making of students when it comes to students’
Link the review of course preference. For practicality reasons, it is also reported that parents usually encourage careers
related literature and that will not cost much money, but at the same time, are stable sources of income. Careers in nursing,
studies to the
theoretical/conceptual accounting, and engineering are highly popular for Filipino families. These writings discuss that the
framework, hypothesis family decides in what college course students should take is also associated with the financial status
and the possible results of the family. (Saysay, 2011)
of the current study.
Witko, Bernes, Magnuson and Bardick (2010) studies on senior high school students'
Summarize the review
and provide a transition educational aspirations found out that interest, skill, personal meaning, challenges, and parental
from the past studies to support are variables contributory to the educational aspirations of senior high school student. In
the present one. The like manner, with the study of La (2009) on factors influencing the educational and career choices
latter should be shown of senior high school students revealed that parent' supports, and grade point average has
to relate with or evolve
from the reviewed considerable influence on Senior High School students' educational and career choice. In same year,
work. Leonard (2009) study on high school students' course selection decisions in South Carolina found
Acknowledge out that parents and teachers are highly influential in the course selection decision.
researchers and
authors by following
the author-year-page Furthermore, it is reported that parents are deeply involved and influential to their high-
format e.g. (Merle, achieving children’s choices. The report also found open houses, dialogue with friends, alumni,
2014:18) and include and admitted-student programs are extremely influential to students. The report claimed these
them in the list of
sources are not well known, but very powerful to student’s
Use appropriate decision making. The study also found that 26% of sampled students paid a specialist or advisor
transitional devices to during the decision process. The studies presented are important to the present study since the
keep ideas moving in studies explain the importance of taking parents’ advice and permission in choosing a college
orderly from one
paragraph to another. course. (Haerne, 2009)
Use discourse markers
for coherent Respect for family is one of the most influential factors that impact Filipino students’ career
presentation of the
literature and studies.
decision. It is concurred that “Out of respect and loyalty, it may not be appropriate to express
personal desires; rather, one may alter one’s interests to maintain harmony.” As a sign of respect,
(Ex. To conclude, also, Filipino children want to do well for the sake of the family, follow parents’ advice about choosing
further, lastly, on the a job or major in college and lastly, make sacrifices for the family. (Finlayson, 2009)
average, accordingly,
finally, moreover,
therefore, at the same External influences that help to shape an individual’s career choice are also influenced by
time, similarly, significant others through social support from peers. People around contribute a lot in one’s
however, to sum up,
decision-making (Pummel, Harwood and Lavallee ,2008).
still, first, On the other
hand, etc.)
Include only those
published within the last
10 years except those
which are classics.

At the end of this

section, an explanation
of how the reviewed
studies and literature
relate to the present
should be presented.

CONCEPTUAL Conceptual Framework

Discussion is followed by
The major concept of this study will be focused on factors influencing the selected Grade
the IPO paradigm.
Discussion is composed 10 student in choosing Accountancy and Business Management as field of Specialization in
only of concepts – limit Senior High.
to 2 paragraphs. Do not
discuss IPO in the A strand can have a lot to say about the employment prospects of job seekers it is important that
discussion. Cite authors. incoming Senior High School students take some time to evaluate options. A path can make great impact
for your future which plays a great role on what you will become, that is why, as a grade 10 student, it is
The conceptual
framework is a
important to consider various options that will affect your decision in choosing ABM strand.
formulation of the
conceptual scheme for
the researcher’s
problem which is a
tentative ideational
explanation of the
problem he is going to

CONCEPTUAL Conceptual Paradigm

PARADIGM: Discussion
of the Input-Process-
Output (See Figure 1).
Limit to two paragraphs.

Determine the Extent in Analyzing Extent in the Providing a guide book

the Implementation of Implementation of Anti- about ways to prevent
Anti-burning among burning Law among violating the Anti-
Barangay Officials Barangay officials. burning Law.


Figure 1. Modified Input-Process-Output of the study entitled, “FactorsInfluencing the Selected Grade
10 Student in Choosing ABM strand as field of Specialization in Senior High
PARADIGM: Input The input includes the factors influencing the students in choosing ABM strand. In the research process, the
(Focus on SOP, include process includes the analysis of the factors which influenced students in choosing ABM strand in Senior
Related lit and Legal
High by providing and distributing questionnaire. For the output, this study would identify the factors
bases); Process (What
is done to answer SOP influencing the selected Grade 10 student in choosing ABM as field of Specialization in Senior High which
– conduct of test, can be used as basis for a career guidance program of GMTISAT and for certain institutions that would like
validation, to design and implement a Senior High School program.
distribution, data
gathering; Output
(could be theory,
concept, material etc).
Design as you prefer.

This section includes the III. METHODOLOGY
research design, research
locale, research This chapter describes the methodology that followed in carrying out the study. This include research design,
population and sample,
data gathering design
research locale, research population , data gathering procedure and sample and research instrument.
including Research Design
instruments/techniques, This study utilized the descriptive-survey method. This method determines or describes the nature
and statistical treatment of an object. The process of descriptive research goes beyond mere gathering and tabulation of data. It
of data.
Research design which involves the elements of interpretations of the meaning or significance of what is described. This descriptive
may be employed by the research would use quantitative methods to assess the feedback from the respondents.
researcher should be
thoroughly discussed.
Brief description of Research Locale
method employed should Godofredo M. Tan Integrated School of Arts and Trades was in earlier times named San Narciso
be presented in the light Vocational High School, which was later retitled Godofredo M. Tan Memorial School of Arts and Trades.
of the present
The school is presently located along the busy streets of Brgy. Pagkakaisa, making it accessible to any form
of land transportation. Over the years, the school has evolved into various programs and projects to respond
Research locale should effectively to the diverse needs and interests of students. The school serves not only the youth of the
describe the research
municipality of San Narciso but also students who hail from other places. Godofredo M. Tan Integrated
environment and reasons
for choosing the venue. School of Arts and Trades teaches student in Grade 7-12. Dr. Susan B. Luna is in charge of the school, acting
Describe the population as the school's principal.
and the specific samples
to be used with
percentage and or table. Research Instrument
Describe he main The main instrument used in this study was the survey questionnaire. It was designed to determine
instrument to be used and the preference of the participants when it comes to the factors influencing the selected Grade 10 student in
the techniques in
gathering valuable data.
choosing ABM as field of specialization in Senior High. It is composed of 5 items that discussed 5 relevant
Include a description of factors to Senior High School strand decision-making: Self-interest, Educational aspirations/ expectations,
the adoption, Advise or advice of Others, Friends/peer influence, and Family Factor.
construction, validation
and administration of
instruments Population and Sample
Provide an introductory The Grade 10 class we're divided into 6 sections with 40-50 students in every classroom. GMTISAT
statement enumerating
has 383 Grade 10 student. Not all of these students was given the opportunity to take the survey since we
the statistical formulas to
be used. Indicate the only have to get 5 student that will take ABM strand in every classroom.
statistical formulas for
every specific problem.
Data Gathering Procedure
following the order of the
specific problems in the After a meticulous revision, the study was administered to the selected Grade 10 student participants in
“Statement of the GMTISAT during the Academic Year 2019-2020.
Problem”. Prior to the administration of the survey, the researchers first sought permission from the Practical Research
Null hypothesis should be
rejected/ accepted at
ll adviser and Grade 10 teachers. Upon the approval of the request, the researchers personally oriented the
0.05 percent level of participants with regard on how they will answer the survey questionnaire. The participants were given
significance. questionnaire and allotted five minutes to fill out. A one-on-one interview was conducted immediately right
after the filling out the questionnaires in order to further explain their answers. The questionnaires were
retrieved, tallied, tabulated and interpreted.
METHODOLOGY: Statistical Treatment of Data
Weighted average may be
3-point or 4-point scaled.
Data analysis may be The researchers will be used the statistical measures and summarizing, presenting,
quantitative and/ or
analyzing and interpreting the data gathered.

Quantitative analysis uses Wx= €(wx)

statistics and a
description of the
statistical methods of Where:
Wx = weighted mean
testing the null hypothesis
€(WX)= Sum of the products of frequencies and weight
like experimental designs.
n= total numbers of respondents per item
However, qualitative OrWx=4×+3×+2×+×
analysis uses qualitative n
methods of analysis such Where:
as generation of patterns Wx= weighted mean X= number of respondents N= total of respondents
and conceptual/
theoretical works.

the sequence in your
objectives/SOPs. Use
Table 1
the example as a Factors Influencing the Selected Grade 10 Student in Choosing ABM Strand as Field of Specialization in
guide. Senior High in terms of Self-Interest, Peer-Influence and Family factor
Charts & Screenshots No. Context WM DE Rank
can be used as figures
in place of tables for
discussion. 1 Consider my dream job in the future 3.53 SA 1
Extend the Results
and Discussions only 2 Know other's advice are worthy. 3.03 A 2
up to page 11. 3 Know my family will give me support on what I have chosen. 3.53 SA 1
Maximize the space.
AWM 3.36 SA
3.26-4.00 = strongly Agree(SA)
In this phase, the Legend: 2.51-3.25 = Agree(A)
researcher presents DE: Descriptive Equivalent 1.76-2.50 = Disagree(D)
the summary tables of WM: Weighted Mean 1.00-1.75 = Strongly Disagree(SD)
results and the
description of each. In
AWM: Average Weighted mean
addition, a clear
correlation must be Table I. Revealed an Average Weighted Arithmetic mean of 3.36 which verbally described as Strongly
presented between Agree in the factors influencing the selected Grade 10 student in choosing ABM strand as field of
the tables and the sub-
specialization in Senior High in terms of Self-Interest, peer influence and family factor. With the
statement of Alexander et al (2011), after previewing various research, concluding that “liking
Discussion must of the subject has chief significance when looking at the factors contributing in professional
include a textual
presentation, analysis,
direction adopted by students.” Saysay (2011) revealed that Filipino immigrants and non-
and interpretation of immigrants rely heavily on their family’s decision-making. Students cope by following their
statistical data. parents advice.
Findings must be
Table II. Strategies of selected Grade 10 student in choosing Accountancy and Business Management
supported by the
researcher’s readings
as field of Specialization in Senior High in terms of Interest and Research/Advices
which are found in the No. Context WM DE Rank
“Review of Related I...
Studies and 1 Consider my skills and interest in choosing this strand. 3.53 SA 1
Literature”. 2 Gather advices with my family and friends. 3.29 SA 2
AWM 3.41 SA
Legend: 3.26-4.00= Strongly Agree (SA)
DE: Descriptive Equivalent 2.51-3.25= Agree (A)
1.76-2.50= Disagree (D)
WM: Weighted Mean 1.00-1.75= Strongly Disagree (SD)
AWM: Average Weighted Mean
Table 2 revealed an Average Weighted Mean of 3.41 which verbally described as Strongly
Agree in strategies used by Grade 10 student in choosing ABM strand as field of Specialization
REFERENCES: Limit this in Senior High in terms of Interest and Research/Advices. Their investigation disclosed that an
to two pages though the individuals proclivity towards a particular field or subject, match between his personality and
more references, the selected profession is an important factor contributing in career path. Connected with the study
better. (Get only
references 10 years of Ramirez and Dizon (2014), students “sometimes consider the people and the information
back). Follow APA they received from their environment.” They said and found out that peoples’ advice
format. influenced students in the academic track choice process.


RECOMMENDATIONS: Based on the gathered data and findings of the study, the researcher arrived at the following
Conclusions and
recommendations have conclusions:
separated paragraph. Avoid 1. On Part l indicators, the factors influencing the selected Grade 10 students in choosing Accountancy and
opinions or explanations / Business Management as Field of Specialization in Senior High in terms of Self-interest and Family Factors
had a Verbal Interpretation of Agree. The Peer Influence had a descriptive equivalent of Disagree. This shows
Conclusion clearly that the influence of parents and their interests play a big role to arrive at their decision to choose ABM
summarizes the thoughts strand. While the influence of friends and peers didn't much influenced their decision. Among the indicators,
and ideas what findings are,
and what these findings
the greatest is the self-interest. This is then followed by family factors. Lastly, the lowest is the peer
mean specifically answering influence.
the presented statement of 2. On Part II indicators, the strategies used by the selected Grade 10 student in choosing ABM strand in
the problems as brief as terms of interest and research/advices all had a Verbal Interpretation of Agree. This shows that the
respondents based their decision on their interest and that they gather advices from others. Among the two
Recommendations are indicators, interest has the greatest influence while research/advices is the lowest.
treaties, appeals and entities 3. The factors influencing the selected Grade 10 student in choosing Accountancy and Business Management
which can solve the problem
and help establish the new
as field of Specialization in Senior High can be used as basis for a career guidance program, aiming at the
systems to ease out present student's self-awareness of their personality, interest, strengths and weaknesses, among others.
problems and make better
existing situations.
Based on the findings derived from the study and conclusion made, the following recommendations
were thus provided.

The choice of track should be considered by many other factors, not just those from the study.
When choosing a track in Senior High School, student should also consider the relationship of this track and
the career they want in life.
The career plan for students must be made in a continuous manner and should start from an earlier grade
level. This is an order to help students to thoroughly identify the track suited for them.

Parents should also be included in the career program development of students so that they themselves could
understand and help the students choose the best track suited for their child.
Parents should be very understanding and considerate to be able to give proper guidance to their children
when the time comes for them to choose their track.

The educators should provide a quality education that will prepare the students to face adequately the
challenges as they grow and take the mantle of leadership in the future.

Future Researchers
Undertake a study particularly on the factors influencing the selected Grade 10 student in choosing
Accountancy and Business Managements as field of specialization in Senior High. Further, another study
may be done regarding this research.

Factors that affect a students’ decision in choosing their College Course.
Retrieved from (2017, January). On
What Factors Influence College Choice for Today’s Students. Retrieved from (2017,
January). On https://www.upandup.agency/digital-marketing/reasons-students-
How to Choose K to 12 Senior High School Track and Strand. Retrieved from (2017,
January).On http://www.danielgubalane.com/2016/01/k-to-12-senior-high-tracks-
The Challenge of Choosing the Right Career.
Retrieved from (2017, January). On
right- career/

Factors Affecting Career Track and Strand Choices of Grade 9 Students in the
Division of Antipolo and Rizal, Philippines. Retrieved from (2017, January).On
Holland’s Theory of Career Choice.
Retrieved from (2017, January). On
Theories of Career Choice.
Retrieved from (2017, January). On
Angerman, A. (2009, October). Family Influence on Careers.
Retrieved March 1, 2015, from
Child-Parent Choice of the High-School Track
Retrieved September 2013, from http://k12philippines.com/philippines-k12-
Abstract: Limit the ABSTRACT
contents to 250 words This study aims to determine the factors influencing the selected Grade 10 student in
considering all the
choosing Accountancy and Business Management as field of Specialization in Senior High.
Keywords – Provide 3 This study utilizes descriptive method of research to determine the factors. It would see if
to 5 key words. dependent variables relating to self-interest, peer influence and family factor were significant
factors influencing the choice of the students. The descriptive research used quantitative
methods to assess the feedback from the respondents.
Scale/questionnaire is given to the respondents to conduct the study personally and is
collected after to gather all the results. Most of the literature gathered talks about the factors
that influenced Grade 10 students in choosing ABM strand, namely self-interest, peer
influence and family factors, and the strategies they've used while choosing a strand in terms
of interest and research/advices, which would specialized in Senior High School of the K-12