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History—When, Where, and How


Textbook Reference Page: 1–10 Number of Periods: 7

 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Define the term history • Evaluate the importance of history in understanding
today’s world • Create a timeline of the major periods in world history
• Understand the methods that help us construct history

 Methodology
The methodology of teaching will be designed to develop life-skills in the
students, and keep them abreast with different aspects of the subject taught
in the classroom. It will encapsulate activities through which the ability and
aptitude of the students to grasp the topics under study will be tested. The
features will broadly include class discussions, different forms of audio-visual
presentations, study trips and hands-on activities, followed by questions based
on the students’ extrapolative understanding, instructional inputs and examples
besides general queries posed as ‘Check for Understanding’. This pattern will be
followed throughout the course of teaching the subject.

 Lesson Development

TOPIC: WHAT IS HISTORY?

 Resources: • Jawaharlal Nehru’s The Discovery of India, EH Carr’s


What is History?, Marc Bloch’s The Historian’s Craft, etc. •
Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• The teacher will define history and summarise its importance.


• The teacher can ask students to write a short history of their family
and make a classroom exhibition out of it.
• The teacher can read excerpts from biographies and autobiographies
of famous people from the period under study, and ask students to
write what they have learnt from it.

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TOPIC: WHY DO WE STUDY THE PAST?

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Weblinks • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

The teacher can ask students to read the topic in their textbook and write down three facts that they
enjoyed knowing about the most and why.

 Weblink:
http://www.indhistory.com/ancient-india.html
http://www.facts-about-india.com/sources-of-ancient-indian-history.html
http://www.whereincity.com/india/ancient-india.php
TOPIC: DATES IN HISTORY

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • 4–8 chart papers and markers • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Ask the students to read the topic and answer these questions.
 What do bce and ce mean?
 How important are dates in understanding our past?
• Ask the students to make a timeline showing some events that took place before and after the
birth of Christ.

 Weblink: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YFu-zMjGJJA
TOPIC: PERIOD AND PERIODISATION

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Ask the students to read the topic and answer these questions.
 What are the two broad periods of the past?
 What do these periods signify?
 What are the three periods into which history is subdivided?

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 Weblink: http://www.revolutionarydemocracy.org/rdv11n1/periodisation.htm

TOPIC: HOW DO WE STUDY THE PAST?

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Weblinks

 Time: 30 minutes
 Activity

• Ask the students to read the topic and answer these questions.
 How do people from different disciplines help us to develop a proper understanding of the past?
 What is archaeology?
 What does an archaeologist do?

 Weblinks: http://archaeology.mrdonn.org/archaeologists.
html http://archaeology.mrdonn.org fossilsandartifacts.html

TOPIC: SOURCES OF HISTORY

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • 4–8 chart papers and markers • Video from the weblink

 Time: 30 minutes + day visit


 Activity

• Ask the students to read the topic and


 Discuss the two main sources though which we can know about the past.
 List the literary sources mentioned and think of other such sources.
 Discuss the difference between chronicle, inscription and manuscript.
 Discuss how monuments, coins and artefacts tell us about history.
• Ask the students to make a time capsule of their own in groups of eight and share the artefacts.
They need to give reasons as to why they chose the objects for their time capsule.
• Organise a visit to the nearest museum and ask the students to collect information on the
manuscripts available and the script they were written in.
• Encourage the class to start a stamp or coin collection of their own.
• Organise a visit to a nearby historic monument.

 Weblinks: http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/lesson_plans/lesson1_artefacts.pdf
http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/guerre/pdf/4-a-1-all_e.pdf

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TOPIC: GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • A physical map of India • Weblinks

 Time: 30 minutes
 Activity

• Ask the students to read the topic and answer the following questions.
 What role does geography play in shaping the history of a country like ours?
 What are the broad geographical divisions of the Indian subcontinent?
 On the physical map of India, locate some of the places which were important in ancient
period.

 Weblinks: http://archaeology.mrdonn.org/archaeologists.html
http://archaeology.mrdonn.org/fossilsandartifacts.html

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. 1. a. i b. iii c. iii d. i e. iii


2. a. historian b. archaeology c. monuments d. Rajatarangini e. numismatics
3. a. true b. false c. false d. false e. false
4. a. Prehistory is the long period of human development before the invention of writing. History is the
period of the past that comes after the invention of writing.
b. Historians and archaeologists are scholars who study and write about our past using various sources
and methods. Archaeologists excavate sites of ancient and medieval civilisations and examine the
remains of buildings, tools, and other objects.
c. They tell us names of kings and dates of their rule, the extent of their empires and important events
during their reign. They also provide information on society as well as the religious and
cultural practices of people.
d. Manuscripts are texts written by hand on paper, palm leaf or parchment. Inscriptions, on the other
hand, are writings engraved on rocks, pillars, cave walls, walls of forts, palaces and temples, and on
clay and copper tablets.
e. Chronicles are official records or accounts of a dynasty or dynasties in a particular region.
5. a. Through the past, we understand how and why our ancestors lived as they did and in what manner
they overcame the difficulties that came in their way. The story of our past tells us how agriculture,
irrigation, and animal husbandry began and how it led to a more secure and settled life. Through
the study of history, we come to know about many great kings/queens, leaders as well as ordinary
people who have who contributed to our culture and civilisation. History is also necessary to know
how writing developed, and how the languages that we speak today came into existence.
d. Literary sources include all kinds of literature—long and short, written and oral. Handwritten
records are known as manuscripts, which were written on rock, parchments, palm leaves, bark of

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birch trees, clay tablets, and later, paper. The other forms of literary sources available to historians are
books, religious texts, accounts of foreign travellers and biographies. Even oral history is considered
as a record. Literary sources are of two types: religious and secular.
b. People in ancient times chose to live near rivers. The reason was that the river provided water for
people’s needs and the land near it was fertile for irrigation. Besides, it also served as a means of
means of transport. Some of the river valleys in the Indian subcontinent where ancient people lived
were the settled were Indus, Ganga, Narmada, etc.
e. Coins are important as they help in fixing the dates of several dynasties and also tell us about
the religious and cultural practices of the people who issued them. For example, coins issued by
Samudragupta tell us that he was a devotee of Vishnu and that he was fond of music. The metal or
metal or alloy used to make these coins tells us about the scientific advancement made during the
period. Coins were made of gold, silver, copper and other materials, too.
c. We learn about our past from two groups of sources—archaeological and literary. Archaeological
sources include artefacts, monuments, coins and inscriptions. Literary sources include religious and
Include religious and secular texts, chronicles, travelogues, biographies, autobiographies, etc.
6. Students can look at the cave painting on page 3 and try to describe their day through such paintings.

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2
The Earliest Societies
Textbook Reference Page: 11–20 Number of Periods: 6–7

 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Learn about our early ancestors • Learn to distinguish among the three stone
ages • Understand the lifestyle and discoveries of human beings in the Paleolithic
and Mesolithic age • Learn about what was happening in India during that time

Lesson Development
TOPIC: UNDERSTANDING PREHISTORY

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook • Chart papers


showing people with different lifestyles

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• The teacher may briefly explain the evolution of early humans and the
period to which they belonged.
• The teacher can highlight the features of nomadic lifestyle and explain
how it suited prehistoric hunter-gatherers.
• The teacher can talk about some of the aboriginal tribes living in
different parts of the world today, and ask the students to draw a
comparison between them and prehistoric hunter-gatherers.
• The teacher may ask students to discuss the difficulties that may have
been faced by the hunter- gatherers.

 Weblink: http://www.slideshare.net/dk120/hunters-and-
gatherers-powerpoint presentation

TOPIC: THE STONE AGE

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard • Chart of early


stone tools • Photographs of cave paintings, especially
Bhimbetka and Adamgarh • Atlas • Physical maps of India
for map work • Weblinks

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 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• The teacher can ask students to read page 12 and discuss how the physical evolution of early humans
helped them to adjust to their environment.
• The teacher will explain the terms ‘Paleolithic’, ‘Mesolithic’ and ‘Neolithic’, and discuss the three
Stone Ages with their respective periods.
• The teacher may ask students to make a timeline on the blackboard, highlighting the key features of
each sub-period.
• Watch the video Stone Age and guess which sub-period it belongs to.
• Watch the movie stories from the Stone Age (3 episodes of 20 minutes each – Daily Bread, Urban
Dreams and Waves of Change).

Sub-topic: Paleolithic Age


• The teacher can ask students to read the section ‘Paleolithic People and Need for Tools’ on page 13
and discuss with them the need for tools, names of the tools and how these tools where made by early
humans. She/He may then ask students to draw these tools in their notebooks and write the name
and use of each tool.
• The teacher can ask students to read the section ‘Bands and Division of Labour’ on pages 13–14.
She/He may divide the class into bands of 8 and ask students to do a role-play of family life in the
Stone Age.
• Students can be asked to read the section ‘Discovery of Fire’ on page 14-15. The teacher may then
discuss with the class what would happen if humans had not discovered the use of fire.
• The teacher can ask students to mark any five Paleolithic sites on a physical map of India, looking at
the map on page 15 of the textbook.
Sub-topic: Mesolithic Age
• The teacher can discuss the important features of microliths and ask students to compare these with
the Paleolithic tools about which they have studied earlier.
• She/He may then discuss some of the important Mesolithic sites in India and ask students to show
two of them on an outline map of India, looking at the map on page 15 of the textbook.

Sub-topic: Neolithic Age


• The teacher can talk about the changes that took place during the Neolithic Age.
• She/He can then explain some of the important inventions of this age.

Topic: Art of Our Early Ancestors


• Students may be asked to discuss why early human beings made cave paintings.

Examples/Modelling
• Write a diary entry of a child living in the Paleolithic age.
• Make a timeline showing the evolution of man from Homo habilis to Homo sapiens sapiens and
the achievement of each ancestor.

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  Weblink: http://www.kidspast.com/world-history/0008-tools-and-the-stone-age.php
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F2Zj53Hm9Yo http://www.youtube.com/watc
h?v=HFepU9X5HpE&feature=related

TOPIC: CASE STUDY: NEVASA AND KURNOOL

 Resources: Physical map of India

 Time: 30 minutes

  Activity

Students can be asked to point out Nevasa and Kurnool on a map.

  Weblink: http://www.indianetzone.com/43/palaeolithic sites india.htm

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. iii b. i c. iii d. i e. ii

2. a. dwellers b. old; stone c. Old Stone Age, Middle Stone Age, New Stone Age
d. walls e. Robert Bruce Foote

3. a. false b. true c. false d. false e. false

4. a. Stone tools used during the prehistoric times were of three types—core tools, flake tools and blade
tools.

b. Hand axe was used for cutting certain objects or for smashing things.

c. In Mesolithic Age, people used small and efficient tools called microliths. These tools were smaller,
sharper and more efficient than Palaeolithic tools.

d. Fire was used in the following ways:

• It could keep people warm and light up dark caves.

• It helped humans to roast and cook food.

• It was used to scare away wild animals and help early humans in their battle for survival.

e. Remains of early human beings belonging to the Lower Palaeolithic period have been found at
Nevasa in Maharashtra and Kurnool in Andhra Pradesh.

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5. a. The Early Palaeolithic Age corresponds to the time when the first stone tools appeared. The tools
used were hand axes and chopping tools. At that time, the climate was extremely cold and many
parts of the Earth were covered in ice. This is why this age is also known as the Ice Age. In India,
Lower Palaeolithic sites have been found on the banks of the river Soan in Punjab (now in Pakistan)
and river Narmada.

b. The most important feature of the Palaeolithic Age and the first major discovery of early humans
was the discovery of fire. It was a turning point for humankind. Early humans used fire to keep
themselves warm. It also protected them from wild animals.

c. It was important for humans to live in groups for the sake of self-protection. Such small groups were
called bands. Bands had 60–80 members. These members worked on the basis of division of labour.
These groups had to tackle a hostile environment. They hunted big and small animals, gathered a
variety of plant food, constructed shelters for themselves, made and used tools and painted. It is
possible that some tasks were done by men, such as hunting and some by women, such as taking care
of children.

d. Microliths were small and efficient tools, usually geometric in shape. These tools were smaller also.
Besides, these were sharper and more efficient than Palaeolithic tools. Such tools have been found in
large numbers at different Mesolithic sites across the Indian subcontinent.

e. The early humans had no knowledge of letters. So, they used art forms such as cave paintings
to articulate their real life experiences based on the various activities they performed. Moreover,
paintings also served as a means of illustrating their religious practices.

6 Student may collect stones that are sharp and can be used as tools from a nearby garden under adult
supervision. They can discuss whether these stone tools can be used in today’s life. The teacher may
explain how our lives have changed since prehistoric times and tell the students that human beings
now use tools made of iron, steel and other such metals.

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3
The First Farmers and Herders

Textbook Reference Page: 21–29 Number of Periods: 5–6

 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Define and describe the Neolithic period in world history • Distinguish between
humans as hunter-gatherers and humans as food producers and domesticators
of animals • Identify important social customs and inventions of this period
• Locate key Neolithic sites in the world • Recognise the transition into the
Chalcolithic Age

Lesson Development
TOPIC: THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook


 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• The teacher may discuss why historians have called this Age a revolution.
• She/He can ask students to read the sub-topic from the text.
• The challenges faced by our ancestors while trying to domesticate plants
and animals can be discussed.
• The teacher can discuss the reason why certain animals were domesticated
and others were not.
Sub-topic: Distinctive Features: Domestication of Plants and Animals
• The teacher can describe the first animals and plants that were
domesticated.
• Students may be asked to grow a plant in a pot and write a journal based
on its growth, till it gives fruits and seeds, which can be saved, to be
replanted.
• The teacher may discuss the pros and cons of settled life vs nomadic life.
• She/He cantalk about the circumstances that were created so that the
early humans could lead a settled life.
• The teacher can divide the class into two groups and assign one group
as nomads and the other as settlers. Let the class debate which lifestyle is
better.
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 Weblink: http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/change/index.cfm

TOPIC: LEADING A SETTLED LIFE

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

Sub-topic: Houses
• The teacher can discuss how the beginning of agricultural practice affected the lives of early humans.
• She/He may talk about how the first villages came into existence.
• She/He maydescribe the materials used to build the earliest human settlements.
Sub-topic: Invention of the Wheel
• Students may be asked to read the sub-topic.
• The teacher may discuss how the wheel changed the world. A discussion can follow on different
objects in the world today, which use the mechanism of the wheel to function.
• Students can be asked to write a few lines on the importance of wheels today.
Sub-topic: Pottery
• The teacher may discuss what pottery is and how it made the lives of Neolithic humans better.
• She/He can organize a visit to the local potter where the class can see how pots and pans are made
even today.
• If the school offers pottery classes, students can try their hands on it.
Sub-topic: Tools
• The teacher can ask the students to read the sub-topic.
• She/He may ask the students to find out about the tools the Neolithic humans might have needed
for farming, hunting, shelter/clothing, and protection.
• Students may be asked to compare Neolithic tools with Palaeolithic and Mesolithic ones.

 Weblinks: http://www.greek-thesaurus.gr/neolithic-settlements-organization.html
http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/archae/tdwkpott.htm
http://angelaharris.hubpages.com/hub/Invention-of-the-Wheel

TOPIC: SOCIAL PRACTICES AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook


 Time: 30 minutes
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 Activity

Sub-topic: Tribal Ways


• Students may be asked to read the sub-topic.
• The teacher may discuss what a tribe is and how it is different from a modern-day family.
• She/He may discuss what rituals and practices were practiced by the Neolithic tribes.

 Weblink: http://www.pelasgians.org/website1/02_01.htm

TOPIC: CASE STUDY: THE NORTH-WEST AND NORTH-EAST

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes + 30 minutes + 30 minutes

 Activity

Sub-topic: North-West: Mehrgarh, 7,000–3,200 bce


• The teacher may ask the students to locate on a map of India, four major Neolithic sites of the Indian
subcontinent.
• Students may be asked to imagine themselves as farmers living in Mehrgarh 10,000 years ago and
answer the following questions. What are they going to grow? Where will they live?

Sub-topic: Burzahom
• Students may be asked to make a one-page tourism poster for Burzahom in Neolithic times.
• The teacher can define pit-dwelling and discuss its features with reference to the Neolithic structures
found at Burzahom.
Sub-topic: North-East: Daojali Hading
• The teacher can discuss the kind of agricultural practice prevalent in Daojali Hading during the
Neolithic Age.
• A discussion can follow on the salient features of the Neolithic people from Daojali Hading.

 Weblink: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o7hvw5MrUp0

TOPIC: FROM STONE TO METAL: THE CHALCOLITHIC AGE

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

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 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Students may be asked to read the topic.


• The teacher can write down the definition of the Chalcolithic Age on the blackboard/
whiteboard.
• The importance of metal can be discussed with the class.

 Weblink: http://www.facts-about-india.com/chalcolithic-age.php

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. i b. ii c. iii d. ii e. iii
2. a. Neolithic Age b. Dwelling pits c. Chalcolithic d. Copper e. Navdatoli; Brahmagiri
3. a. false b. true c. true d. false e. false
4. a. The phase of human life in Neolithic Age is known as the Neolithic Revolution because ofthe far-
reaching changes and developments that took place during this period.
b. Climatic changes encouraged the growth of grasslands in the Neolithic Age and led to an increase in
the number of herd animals.
e. An alloy is a substance made up of a mixture of two or more metals. Brass is an alloy of copper and
zinc.
c. The planted crops, which needed water, had to be harvested when ripe. This is why, early humans
had to give up their nomadic life and stay in one place.
d. Stone axes and ploughs were two of the tools used by the Neolithic people. These tools were sharper,
better shaped, and lasted longer than the earlier tools.
5. a. Among animals, the dog was the first to be tamed, followed by the sheep, goat, pig, and cattle. The
duck was domesticated in China and the turkey in America. Domesticated animals provided meat,
milk and dairy products, and their skin could be used to make clothes. Later, domesticated animals
such as bulls, were used for transportation of goods and people.
b. The beginning of agriculture affected human life in many ways. Once people started cultivation,
they settled down in one place as they had to look after the plants. So, they gave up nomadic life and
started staying in one place. Subsequently, they focused on building houses and discover new means
to make themselves more suited to the life of settlers.
c. The wheel made transportation, and carrying people and goods very simple. Soon, animals were
used to draw wheeled carts. The wheel was then put to use for making pottery. Later, the spinning
wheels were used to make cloths.

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d. Lahuradewa in the middle Gangetic Plains, Sarai Khola in west Punjab, Mehrgarh in Pakistan,
Piklihal in Karnataka and Daojali Hading near Brahmaputra River. Piklihal in Karnataka, Daojali
Hading Burzahom is different as archaeologists have found unusual dwelling pits here.
e. The period when metal was first used along with stone is called the Chalcolithic Age, which extended
from about 4,000 bce to 2,000 bce. This is because the first metal to be successfully extracted
was copper. ‘Chalco’ (khalkos in Greek) means copper. Soon, humans learnt how to make alloys
such as bronze, which was made by mixing copper with tin. Alloys were made and used in the
manufacture of tools. Humans progressed from the Stone Age to the Age of Metals. Chalcolithic
sites discovered in India include Navdatoli in Maharashtra and Brahmagiri in Karnataka. The Indus
Valley Civilisation belonged to this period.
6. A trip to the potter’s can be organised and students can make their observations on how the pottery
is being made. Students can make comparisons as per text and image given on page 23.

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4
Civilisation and Cities
Textbook Reference Page: 30–41 Number of Periods: 6–8

 Learning Objectives
The student will be able to
• Describe the historical perspective of the Harappan Civilisation • Identify
the period of its emergence and existence • Identify the social structure of the
Harappan Civilisation • Describe the occupation, trade and economy of the
ancient Harappans • Analyse the factors that have an impact on occupations,
trade, and economy • Identify the pattern and planning of urban development
utilised by society • Analyse the positive and negative effects of the river on the
Civilisation • Locate and identify the major sites of the Harappan
Civilisation on a map

Lesson Development
TOPIC: THE UNVEILING OF HARAPPA

 Resources: • Blackboard/whiteboard • Textbook • Map of India •


Video-projector for screening of short film
 Time: 30–45 minutes

 Activity
• The teacher may ask the students to read the topic and watch the video
given as weblink.
• She/He can discuss with the class what they have learnt from the video
and write the key points on the blackboard.
• A discussion can take place on the meaning of civilisation and what
indicators the students should look out for while studying Harappa as a
civilisation.
• The teacher may ask the students to locate on a blank physical map of
India—Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Lothal, Rakhigarhi and Kalibangan.
• Students can write a short note on why the name Harappan was preferred
over Indus Valley for this civilisation.
Check for Understanding:
• Name four important sites of the Harappan Civilisation.
• Name two prominent archeologists who helped discover Harappan sites
in India.
• What was the total area covered by the civilization?
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 Weblink: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eL7wDzBpOho&feature=related

TOPICS: GETTING TO KNOW THE HARAPPANS; FEATURES OF THE CIVILISATION


Sub-topics: Town Planning; Drains and Drainage; Streets

  Resources: • Blackboard/whiteboard • Textbook

 Time: 60 minutes + A day visit

 Activity

• The teacher may ask the students to read the topic and discuss the sources of information for the
Harappan Civilisation.
• She/He may tell the students to draw, using their imagination, a city in a Harappan Civilisation,
on a chart paper.
• Students can compare the town planning of the city they live in with the town planning of
Harappan cities. What are the similarities and differences that they can see?
• A visit may be planned for students to the Harappan Gallery at the Indian National Museum.
Students can list and draw five items of the Harappan Culture, which interest them or browse the
Internet and find out more about them.
• The teacher may describe the main buildings of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and discuss their
features.
• She/He can tell the students to read the sub-topics and discuss the features.
• A discussion can follow on the structure of Harappan streets, and the materials and techniques
used to construct them.

 Weblinks: http://in.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20101024040529AATGteJ
http://www.harappa.com
TOPIC: HARAPPAN LIFE

 Resources: • Blackboard/whiteboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

Sub-topics: Social Life; Occupation; Harappan Traders; Seals; Harappan Faith and Beliefs

 Activity

• The teacher can ask students to think of differences between city life and urban life. She/He may
write down their inputs on the blackboard/whiteboard.

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• The teacher may divide the class into groups of eight students with the following roles to be
assigned to people in the group—child, woman, man, trader from foreign land, farmer, scribe,
city planner and religious specialist. She/He can ask them to prepare a short skit on the lives of
the people of Harappa and present it in class. They should use as many props as possible to show
a clear depiction of life in the city.
• The teacher can discuss the major occupations of the Harappans and show how we know about
them.
• She/He may highlight the salient aspects of Harappan trade.
• She/He can conclude how trade established a link between the Harappan people and the outside
world.
• Students can read the sub-topic and discuss different purposes for which Harappan seals were
made. The different features of Harappan seals can also be discussed.
• The teacher may discuss the religious beliefs of the Harappans and ask the students to compare
those with the beliefs of people today.

Examples/Modelling:
• Students can imagine that they are Harappan artisan making beads, silver and gold jewellery. They
can draw the designs on a chart paper and write a conversation between them and the buyer.
• Students can make a model of a Harappan seal with plaster of Paris. They should use their own code
language on the seal and ask their friends to decipher it. A clue can be given after some attempts to
help crack the code.

 Weblink: http://archaeology.about.com/od/iterms/qt/indus.htm

TOPIC: LOTHAL: A CLOSER LOOK AT A HARAPPAN CITY

 Resources: • Blackboard/whiteboard • Textbook • Internet

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• The teacher can ask students to read the topic, find out from the Internet at least two new facts
about the city of Lothal, and share these with the class.
• She/He may ask the students to imagine that they are Harappan traders taking goods to Lothal.
They should write a report, highlighting the choices of goods, methods of transportation and
modes of payment.
• Students can find out more about the Mesopotamian Civilisation and write a note on it along
with a depiction of the civilisation on chart paper.

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Check for Understanding:
On a map, show the trading route between Lothal and Mesopotamia. Write two unique features about the
city of Lothal.

 Weblink: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/cultures/mesopotamia_gallery.shtml

TOPIC: CASE STUDY: THE NORTH-WEST

 Resources: • Blackboard/whiteboard • Textbook • Map of India

 Time: 30 minutes

Sub-topic: Bhirrana, Haryana

 Activity

• The teacher can discuss why the Harappan site of Bhirrana is important.
• She/He may explain what the archaeological finds at Bhirrana suggest about the lifestyle of the
people there.

 Weblink: http://asi.nic.in/asi_exca_2007_bhirrana_images.asp

TOPIC: DECLINE OF THE CIVILISATION

 Resources: • Blackboard/whiteboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

The students can be asked to read the sub-topic and discuss what they think led to the decline of the
Harappan Civilisation.

Examples/Modelling: Students can prepare a four page newspaper for the Harappan Civilisation and
present it in class.

 Weblink: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/indus_valley/land_of_the_indus/
teachers_resources.shtml

22
ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. i b. iii c. i d. iii e. i
2. a. 4500 b. cotton; woollen c. grid d. dockyard e. pictographic
3. a. false b. true c. false d. true e. false
4. a. Harappan culture flourished between 2,500 bce and 1,500 bce.
b. The Harappan culture first called the Indus Valley Civilisation because the first cities were on the
banks of river Indus.
c. Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Kalibangan and Lothal are the important sites of the Indus Civilisation
d. Drains were constructed on either side of the roads. Kitchens and bathrooms had drains that were
connected to the street drains. Students can also enlist any other feature that they liked.
e. People wore cotton and woolen clothes and were fond of ornaments. men wore something similar
to dhoti and the women wore a skirt. Both men and women wore shawls on the upper body.
5. a. The Harappan people led a highly civilised life. The cities of this civilisation were well-developed
urban centres with highly developed town planning and buildings made of stone and burnt bricks.
The drainage system of the Harappan cities was one of the best in ancient times. Besides, the
Harappans were expert traders. They had also mastered several crafts.
b. The cities of the Indus Valley were well-planned. Many cities were divided into two parts: upper
town and lower town. Usually, the upper part to the west was smaller and higher. The part to the east
was bigger and lower laid out in a grid pattern with houses, straight roads, and a proper sanitation
system.
c. Some Harappan seals have been found in the cities of ancient Mesopotamia, while Mesopotamian
seals have been found in Harappan cities. This confirms that trade existed between both these
civilisations. Moreover, the remains of a dockyard excavated at Lothal shows that Harappans were
familiar with ships.
d. The Great Bath is a rectangular structure resembling a swimming pool. The inner walls were layered
with bricks and covered with natural tar and bitumen to prevent seepage. People probably used it
for religious purposes. Perhaps, people took a dip in this bath on special occasions.
e. The Harappan people probably worshipped trees and animals. The pipal tree and the bull are
commonly seen on seals. Image worship was prevalent in the Harappan period. The most commonly
found figurine is that of a female deity, who has generally been identified as a Mother Goddess.
6. Students can discuss the given statement and share their views. Everything starts at a small scale.
With combined efforts of the Harappan people, the Harappan cities and civilisation prospered.
Students can read more about the Harappan civilization on the following weblinks.
• https://www.harappa.com/har/indus-saraswati.html
• archaeologyonline.net/artifacts/harappa-mohenjodaro
7. Across: 4. Terracotta 5. Harappa
Down: 1. Meluha 2. Lothal 3. Citadel

23
5
The Vedic Age
Textbook Reference Pages: 42–51 Number of Periods: 7–8
 Learning Objectives
The students will learn
• The sacred books and the Early and Later Vedic periods • The Aryans, their
land, rituals, social-economic and political systems • The megaliths in the Deccan
region • Locating the Aryan and megalith sites in the Indian subcontinent • The
impact of the people of those times on current society

Lesson Development

TOPIC: THE ARYANS

 Resources: • Blackboard/Whiteboard • Textbook • Map of Asia

 Time: 30–45 minutes

 Activity

• Define the term ‘Arya’ and discuss the original home of the Aryans.
• Ask the students to read the topic and show on a map of Asia, the route the
Aryans might have followed while migrating to the Indian subcontinent.
• Explain the terms ‘Sapta Sindhu’ and ‘Aryavarta’, and their significance for
the Aryans.

 Weblink: http://library.thinkquest.org/11372/data/history1.htm

TOPIC: THE VEDAS

 Resources: • Blackboard/whiteboard • Textbook • Map of India

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss the meaning of ‘Vedas’ and different types of Vedic texts

24
Sub-topic: The Vedas and the Vedic Period

 Activity

• Discuss why the Vedas are called oral compositions.


• Discuss with the students and write down on the board, the content of each Veda and gods
worshipped.
• Discuss with the students the three categories of language spoken in India and make a list of
words in English which has similarities with Sanskrit or Hindi.
• Discuss the way the Aryans worshipped and ask the class if they have heard of the word yajna.
Also, ask them if anyone has witnessed one in their homes or neighborhoods.
• Discuss or revise with the class the sources of history—literary and archeological.
Write them down on the board.
• Ask the students to label on a map of India, the major Early and Later Vedic settlements.
• Watch the video mentioned in the weblink.

Examples/Modelling: Ask the students to make book covers for each of the Vedic books and write a
poem/suktas of not more than four lines for each of the books keeping in mind the content of each book
as discussed in the class. (Homework)

 Weblink: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qPcasmn0cRU

TOPIC: EARLY VEDIC PERIOD

 Resources: • Blackboard/whiteboard • Textbook

 Time: 60 minutes

Sub-topics: Political Life; Economic Life; Social Life; Religion; Recreation

 Activity

• Discuss the literary sources that tell us about the Aryans. Have they heard of these texts before?
What do they know about these texts?
• Discuss the importance of tribal assemblies such as the sabha and the samiti in the Early Vedic
period.
• Discuss the economic life of the people in the Early Vedic period.
• Discuss different aspects of social life during the Early Vedic period.

Examples/Modelling: Imagine that you are a dasa woman living on the banks of the river Indus. Your
group has recently been defeated by another group of people who came on horses and chariots. Write a story
about how you feel about war and conflict.

25
 Weblink: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/175932/Early-Vedic-period

TOPIC: LATER VEDIC PERIOD

 Resources: • Blackboard/whiteboard • Textbook

 Time: 60 minutes

Sub-topics: Political Life; Economic Life; Social Life; Religious Life

 Activity

• Discuss the similarities and dissimilarities between the tribes of the Early Vedic period and
Later Vedic period with regard to chiefs, priests and rituals. Write it down on the blackboard/
whiteboard.
• Discuss if the system of Sabha and Samiti still exist in India, and if so, how and where?
• Discuss the importance of horses for the Aryans. Discuss the controversy regarding iron and the
Aryans.
• Discuss the differences between the Early Vedic and Later Vedic people’s occupational choices.
• Discuss the three main occupational categories in the Later Vedic period. How where these
categories different from the Early Vedic period?
• What are social inequalities? Are there any social inequalities that you see in you city?
• Ask the students to imagine that they are young warrior children in the Later Vedic period, who
want to become potters and painters when they grow up. Ask them to write a letter to the chief
of their tribe, explaining their desire and asking for permission to do so.

Check for Understanding:


• What is meant by varnas?
• What where the main occupations of the Early Vedic people?

Examples/Modelling: Write a conversation between a grandfather and his grandchild in the Later Vedic
Period discussing chiefs, priests and common people.

 Weblink: http://www.indiaandindians.com/india_history/later_vedic_period.php

Sub-topic: Four Ashramas

 Resources: • Blackboard/whiteboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

26
 Activity

• Discuss the four ashramas, different duties assigned to them, and their importance in the Later Vedic period.

 Weblink: http://www.indianetzone.com/6/ashramas_or_stages_life.htm

TOPIC: MEGALITHIC CULTURES IN INDIA

 Resources: • Blackboard/whiteboard • Textbook • Map of India • Outline maps of India and


colour pencils

 Time: 30–45 minutes

Sub-topic: Case Study: Deccan

 Activity

• Show the class pictures of Megalithic wonders of the world like Easter Island and Stonehenge in
England. Ask them which tools would they require to make such structures.
• Ask the students to mark five Megalithic sites on a map of India.
• Discuss in class and write on the board, key characteristics of the Megalithic people that one can
infer from archeological sources. Ask them to write down these key points in their notebooks.
• Discuss the similarities between the Deccan burial system and the Egyptian burial system of the
Pharaohs.
• Read any of the Asterix and Obelix comics and write a story on them in India during the Megalith
period. (Homework)

Check for Understanding:


• What are the megaliths?
• What was the main occupation of the megalithic people?
• Discuss about their burial system.

 Weblink: http://s6.zetaboards.com/man/topic/528625/1/

27
ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. ii b. ii c. iii d. iii e. i
2. a. north-west b. Rig Veda c. rajan d. sabha, samiti e. Megaliths
3. a. true b. false c. true d. false e. false
4. a. The four Vedas are the Rig Veda, the Sama Veda, the Yajur Veda, and the Atharva Veda. They are
the most important sources of information for the Early and Later Vedic periods.
b. People in the Early Vedic society practised agriculture and cattle rearing. Some people were also
potters, weavers, carpenters, tanners, different types of smiths, chariot-makers, and jewellers.
c. The Painted Grey Ware pottery was associated with the Later Vedic culture. Hastinapura, Kausambi
and Atranjikhera in Uttar Pradesh are some of the excavated sites associated with this culture.
d. Through worship, recitation and sacrifices, people asked for praja (children), pashu (cattle), food,
wealth and health. Thus, the demands and desires of the composers of hymns appear to have been
rather basic in nature and not particularly spiritual.
e. Four megalithic sites are Naikund in Vidarbha, Nagarjunakonda in Andhra Pradesh, Sarur in
Tamil Nadu and Porkalam in Kerala.
5. a. The Aryans were a group of nomadic people who spoke Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit.
They originally lived in the steppes, stretching from southern Russia to Central Asia. From here,
they migrated to north-west India. This is why they are also known as Indo-Aryans.
b. According to religious texts, life was divided into four stages or ashramas. Different duties were
assigned to each of these. The four ashramas were Brahmacharya or student life, Grihastha or life of
a householder, Vanaprastha or life as a hermit and finally, Sanyasa or renunciation of the worldly
life.
c. The rajan was the ruler of a tribe. He was known for his bravery and ability to lead his tribe in war
and raids. He was free to take decisions on behalf of his tribe. A dasa, on the other hand, was a slave
or servant. He was not free even to take any decision regarding his own life.
d. The Early Vedic society consisted of many different tribes called janas. Each tribe had its own ruler
known as rajan. He was usually elected as rajan because of his bravery and ability to lead his tribe
in war and raids. Sons did not automatically become rajans after the death of their fathers. So,
the position of the rajan was not hereditary. Rig Vedic rajans did not collect taxes. They managed
with voluntary contributions (bali) made by members of the tribe. The rajan took decisions in
consultation with the sabha and samiti which were tribal assemblies. Women could also attend the
sabha. In addition to the rajans, priests or purohitas were regarded more important than the rest of
the tribe or jana. They helped the rajan and the common people of the tribe in all ritual matters.
The senani helped the rajan in his military campaigns and wars.
e. In the Later Vedic period, many changes took place in the religious practices. Prajapati, the Creator,
Vishnu, the Preserver, and Rudra or Shiva the Destroyer emerged as all-powerful deities.
Though prayers continued to be recited, they became less important, and sacrifices and rituals
became more expensive and complex. Some of the important public sacrifices were the Ashvamedha
and the Rajasuya sacrifices.
6. Students can refer to the following websites to answer why Aryans left Central Asia to settle down
in the Land of Seven Rivers.
• http://www.ancient.eu/Aryan/
• http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Indo-Aryan_migration

28
6
Early Empires
Textbook Reference Page: 52–60 Number of Periods: 7–8
 Learning Objectives
The student will learn about
•  The growth of Indian polity from smaller states to empires •The sixteen
mahajanapadas and locate them on a map • The material and social factors (e.g.,
growth of agriculture and new social classes) which became the basis for the rise
of a mahajanapada • The evolution of kings and kingdoms in the 6th century
BCE • The rise of Magadha and its rulers • The economic and social structure of
the mahajanpadas

  Lesson Development

TOPIC: JANAPADAS AND MAHAJANAPADAS

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook • Projector

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Narrate the story of the Ashwamedha yajna from the Ramayana or watch
the video given in the weblink of the story.
• Ask the students to read the topic and discuss how greater kings dominated
lesser kings in this era.

Examples/Modelling: Ask the students to imagine that they are journalists


covering the Ashwamedha yajna and write a skit on it. Areas they should focus
on are:
• The organiser of the yajna
• Reactions from other kingdoms
• Reactions of queens

 Weblink: http://www.egyankosh.ac.in/
bitstream/123456789/26270/1/Unit-14.pdf

29
TOPIC: TYPES OF GOVERNMENT

Sub-topics: Monarchies; Republics: Ganasanghas

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook • Outline maps of India and pencils for each student

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss the two types of mahajanapadas.


• Ask the class to locate the 16 mahajanpadas on a map of India.
• Ask the students to find out more about any one of the 16 mahajanpadas.

Check for Understanding:


• Name any four mahajanapadas of the sixth century BCE.
• How were ganasanghas different from monarchies?

 Weblink: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YuCeq9Hc6ig

TOPIC: AGRICULTURE

Sub-topics: Use of Iron; Paddy Transplantation; Taxation

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Ask the class to think of a farmer. What would the farmer need to grow crops? List out all the
equipment and inputs on the blackboard/whiteboard?
• Ask the class to read topic ‘Agriculture’ and discuss what led to an increase in production in
agriculture.
• Ask the class to read the sub-topic ‘taxation’ and have a discussion based on the following
questions.
 What is taxation?
 How did people pay taxes to the king?
 What did the king use the taxes for?
 Does our government collect taxes today? What are they used for?

30
 Weblink: http://www.egyankosh.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/26270/1/Unit-14.pdf

TOPIC: TRADE AND URBANISATION

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Ask the class to read the topic and discuss the reasons for development of trade.
• Ask the students to describe the structure and types of guild. How did it help merchants and
craftspeople?

Examples/Modelling: Imagine you are a trader on your route to trade. Write a journal/diary of your experience.

Check for Understanding:


• Why did trade develop in the 6th century?
• What is a shreni?

TOPIC: SOCIETY

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook • A copy of the Constitution of India

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Ask the students to read out the Preamble of India and discuss the rights and values expressed in
the Preamble, in class.
• Ask the students to read the topic and write on the blackboard/whiteboard, the four major varnas
and their roles.
• Discuss the meaning of equality and how the varna system affected this value. Does the class feel
that the caste system still exists? How can we work towards creating an equal society?

Examples/Modelling: Ask the students to write an essay comparing the Preamble of India and society in
ancient India.

Check for Understanding:


• What was the structure of society in the 6th Century BCE.
• Why did people oppose the caste system?
31
TOPIC: RELIGION

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Explain why the period between 600 bce and 300 bce has been called a period of religious
turmoil and change.
• Briefly discuss the people’s response to the dominance of brahmanas in society.

TOPIC: CASE STUDY: MAGADHA AND VAJJIS


Sub-topics: The Kingdom of Magadha; The Vajji Kingdom

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss what is required to become a king and create a kingdom. Where did the money to
support and run the kingdom come from?
• On the map of India, spot Magadha and discuss with students the geographical features of this
land mass.
• Divide the class into groups of four and ask them to read the sub-topic ‘The Kingdom of
Magadha’. Now ask them to prepare a three minute TV promotional tourism video for Magadha,
highlighting its beauty, prosperity and uniqueness.
• Ask the students to read about the kings of Magadha. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of
Bimbisara and Ajatashatru.
• Ask the students to write an essay on the factors that helped Magadha emerge as the strongest
janapada.
• Ask the students to read the sub-topic ‘The Vajji Kingdom’ and discuss the difference between a
rajya and ganasangha. Write the differences on the whiteboard/blackboard.
• Discuss the similarities between the ancient republican system of governance and governance
today.

Examples/Modelling: Imagine you are a part of the council of ministers at the Lichchhavi assembly. Write
a letter to Ajatashatru, explaining your system of governance and why war should end between the two
nations.

32
Check for Understanding:
• Name three rulers of Magadha and their contribution to its glory.
• What factors helped Magadha become one of the most powerful janapadas?

 Weblinks: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Bimbisara,_King http://www.


amarchitrakatha.com/ajatshatru-660 http://www.hoparoundindia.com/bihar/
rajgir-attractions-history-of/ajatshatru-fort.aspx

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. i b. ii c. iii d. iii e. iii


2. a. horse b. monarchies c. one-sixth d.Rajagriha e. 16
3. a. true b. false c. false d. false e. false
4. a. The monarchical mahajanapadas were ruled by individual kings. The republics, on the other hand,
were ruled over by a group of people.
b. Pataliputra, Rajagriha, Vaishali, Taxila, Bhrigukachha, Sopara, etc., are some of the important
mahajanapadas.
c. The rulers of mahajanapadas introduced taxation to meet the expenses of their kingdom.
e. Ajatashatru sent his minister Vassakara, to secretly weaken the Lichchhavis by sowing seeds of
dissension among them.
d. Bimbisara made Magadha a powerful kingdom by various methods—he married princesses of other
kingdoms, conquered hostile kingdoms, encouraged trade and improved the means of transport. He
used iron for making weapons.
5. a. The kings who performed big sacrifices, gradually came to be recognised as kings of janapadas, rather
than janas. Janapadas were literally the ‘foothold of the janas’, i.e., the territory where the janas or
tribes settled down and resided. As janas or tribes became identified with particular territories, rajans
of the janas became kings with kingdoms or janapadas.
b. While a large part of the agricultural produce was collected as taxes, some of it was also traded in the
form of commodities. Thus, there was an increase in trading activities, which continued till about
the 6th century . The goods produced by craftspeople were carried over long distances by merchants.
They travelled either by carts or sailed down rivers, as some cities were located on riverbanks. They
may have used the punch-marked coins as the medium of exchange.
c. The varna system that classified people into brahmanas, kshatriyas, vaishyas and shudras continued
and came to be firmly established in society. However, it was no longer skill-based; it became
hereditary. Thus, the son of a merchant could only become a merchant. Not everyone accepted the
varna system as developed by the brahmana priests. Some warrior kings felt that they were superior
to the priests. Others objected to birth in a certain community being the decisive factor for the
allotment of varna.

33
d. The period between 600 bce and 300 bce was one of religious turmoil and change. In this age,
the brahmanas had begun to dominate the religious practices. They encouraged complex rituals,
elaborate sacrifices, expensive ceremonies, and the varna system, and emphasised the sanctity of
the Vedas. People gradually became dissatisfied and sought different religious options. Two new
religions, Jainism and Buddhism, which did not conform to brahmanical principles, became
popular.
e. Located at the confluence of the rivers Ganga and Son, water was available for drinking, cultivation,
and transport in Magadha. Magadha also had large deposits of iron ore, used for making agricultural
implements and weapons of war. Forests provided wood as well as elephants that proved to be
invaluable during Magadha’s expansion. Magadha also had profitable trading networks with other
regions. These factors helped Magadha to emerge as the strongest mahajanapada and eventually into
an empire.
6. Students can read the comparison between monarchy and republic on the weblink given below and
share their views in class.
http://www.governmentvs.com/en/monarchy-vs-republic/comparison-14-20-0

34
7
New Ideas and Religions
Textbook Reference Page: 56–62 Number of Periods: 5–6
 Learning Objectives
The student will learn about
• The early life of the Buddha and his teachings • The early life of Mahavira and
his teachings • The causes for the rise of Buddhism and Jainism • The reasons
for the decline of the Vedic Gods

Lesson Development

TOPIC: UPANISHADS

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Read a poem from the Upanishads in class and ask the students to
discuss its meaning.
• Ask the students to read topic ‘Upanishads’ (page 61–62) of the
textbook. Discuss the main teachings of the Upanishads.

Examples/Modelling: Write a note on the practices followed by Hindus even


today which are similar to the Later Vedic age.

Check for Understanding:


• Which principles do the Upanishads emphasise?
• Who were Gargi and Maitreyi?
• Why are the Upanishads referred to as part of the Later Vedic text?

 Weblink: http://www.hindunet.org/upanishads/

35
TOPIC: RISE OF NEW RELIGIONS: CAUSES

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Ask the students to read the topic and discuss the decline of the Vedic religion.
• Ask the students to explain the reasons for the emergence of new religions.

 Weblink: http://www.preservearticles.com/2011090212544/the-sixth-century-bc-and-the-
protestant-religious-movements-in-india.html

TOPIC: JAINISM AND VARDHAMANA MAHAVIRA


Sub-topics: Teachings of Mahavira; Spread of Jainism; Jaina Literature

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook • Projector

 Time: 60 minutes + visit to Jain temple

 Activity

• Ask the students to watch the video given in the weblink section.
• Ask the class to read the topic and answer the following questions.
 Who was Mahavira?
 Why did farmers find it difficult to follow Jainism?
 What is meant by Karma?
 What is the similarity between the maxims of Zoroaster and the Mahavira’s teachings?
• Ask the students to prepare a skit on the life and teachings of Mahavira.

Example/Modelling: Ask the students to write an essay on what they understand by non-violence. How
can they practise it in their daily life?

 Weblink: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9sqJCWJVtMI

TOPICS: BUDDHISM AND GAUTAMA BUDDHA; ORGANISATION AND RESIDENCE


Sub-topics: The Four Sights; Teachings of the Buddha; Buddhist Sacred Literature; Monasteries or Viharas

36
 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook • Projector

 Time: 60 minutes + Visit to a Buddhist monastery

 Activity

• Ask the students to read the sub-topic ‘The Four Sights’ and discuss how they affected Siddhartha
and led him to become the Buddha.
• Ask the students to read the sub-topic ‘Teachings of the Buddha’. Divide them into groups of
three students each, and ask them to make and compare the list of happy and sad things in class
with the Four Noble Truths and the Eight-Fold Path. Now ask them to create a motivational
multimedia message which can be used in the school that illustrates Buddha’s teachings and how
they apply in our times.
• Ask the students to read the sub-topic ‘Buddhist Sacred Literature’ and name the key Buddhist
text.
• Discuss with students similarities between Buddhist and Jaina teachings.
• Ask the students to read the topic ‘Organisation and Residence’. Discuss the lifestyle of the early
sangha, emphasising the nomadic nature, especially during the rainy season. Write down the key
features of monastic life and system of the sangha, based on this discussion.
• Discuss with the class the reason why women and children were not ordained as easily as men in
the sangha.
• Ask the class to collect photographs of Buddhist viharas and temples from this era. Ask the class
to interview a Bhikku or Buddhist monk, on life in a sangha.
• Watch the documentary The Buddha by David Grubin. (Website: http://www.pbs.org/
thebuddha/)

Examples/Modelling: The Buddha was a great storyteller and often told parables to get his message across.
Stories were also told about the Buddha by his followers, both to explain and understand the dharma. These
stories have been passed down to the present day and the most popular ones are the Jataka Tales, a collection
of hundreds of tales about the Buddha’s past lives. They show the kind of life one should lead to become a
Buddha. In many of these stories, the Buddha appears as an animal to teach the value of qualities such as
kindness, compassion, and giving. Ask the students to collect, illustrate and share one Jataka tale, and also
the value that the story highlights.

Check for Understanding:


• Who was Siddhartha?
• What are the main teachings of Buddhism?
• Name the key Buddhist texts and the language they are written in.
• What is a sangha? Why did people join it?
• What is a vihara or a monastery?

37
 Weblink: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/religion/buddhism/
http://www.buddhanet.net/bt1_conts.htm

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. i b. i c. i d. iii e. i

2. a. Angas, Purvas b. 24th c. Jainism d. Bodh Gaya; Bodhi e. the Buddha/ Buddhism

3. a. false b. false c. false d. true e. true


4. b. According to the Jaina tradition, Mahavira was the 24th and the last in a long line of teachers of
Jainism called the Tirthankaras. He belonged to the kshatriya varna.
c. Siddhartha left home at the age of 29 to seek answers to the problem of suffering.
a. The Upanishads emphasise good action, a pure and simple life and no costly sacrifices.
d. Bodh Gaya is located in Bihar. It is important because the Buddha attained enlightenment here.
e. The three sacred Buddhist texts are the Sutta Pitaka, the Vinaya Pitaka and the Abhidhamma
Pitaka.
5. a. Upanishads are a part of the Later Vedic literature (1000–600 BCE) but they show a shift in
emphasis from gods and rituals to abstract concepts and mystical knowledge. The Upanishads were
written between 1000 BCE and 400 BCE. There are about 200 Upanishads. The most famous
among them are the Isa, Katha, Aitareya, Chandogya, and Brihadaranyaka.
c. By following the Eight-Fold Path, a person could attain enlightenment and truth. It was based on
the Buddha’s middle path, i.e., neither to give up all worldly possessions, nor live in luxury. This is
why Buddha asked his followers to follow the Eight-Fold Path.
b. Mahavira was the founder of Jainism. He taught his people to lead a simple and virtuous life. He
believed that every object, even the smallest particle, possessed a soul. Therefore, one had to follow
the principle of non-violence and stop killing insects, animals or human beings.
d. Both Buddhism and Jainism laid stress on leading a simple life based on positive values and morals.
Besides, they also instructed their followers to stick to the principles of truth and non-violence.
e. The Middle Path means that the followers of Buddhism should neither give up all worldly
possessions, nor live in luxury. Thus, they were not asked to lead the life of strict austerity, which
would have little practical significance. At the same time, the followers were also asked to keep
from leading a luxurious life as this might have a corrupting influence on their personalities and
character.
6. Students can cite examples of ostentations that they see in their day-to-day lives such as luxurious
cars, flashy mobile phones, expensive branded clothes, etc., and discuss how money has contributed
to this kind of lifestyle.

38
8
The First Empire
Textbook Reference Page: 70–78 Number of Periods: 6–7
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Learn about the rise and fall of Maurya Dynasty • Learn about Alexander’s
campaign in India • Learn about Emperor Ashoka and locate his empire
on a map • Examine Ashoka’s great victory at Kalinga and his subsequent
renunciation of violence • Analyse how Ashoka’s conversion to Buddhism
influenced his rule of the Mauryan Empire • Read about the kingdoms
which came after the Mauryan Empire came to an end—Indo-Greeks, Sakas,
Parthians, Kushanas and Satavahanas and learn to locate these kingdoms on
a map

Lesson Development
TOPIC: THE BEGINNINGS

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook • Map of India


• Globe

 Time: 30 minutes
 Activity

• Ask the students to read the topic ‘The Beginning’.


• Discuss the conquests of Alexander and the situation prevailing
in the Indian subcontinent at the time of his invasion.

TOPICS: CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA; BINDUSARA

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook • Map of India

 Time: 30 + 30 minutes

39
 Activity

• Discuss the factors that led to the rise of Chandragupta Maurya.


• Discuss the role of Chanakya in the rise of Chandragupta Maurya.
• Ask the students to make the list of rulers of the Maurya dynasty.
• Ask the students to read the topic and discuss Bindusara’s relations with the neighbouring states.

Check for Understanding:


• What are the two literary sources that give us information on the Mauryan empire?
• Who was Alexander?
• What was the name of the father of king Ashoka?

 Weblink: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WbFaRcifx9Q

TOPIC: ASHOKA THE GREAT


Sub-topics: The Kalinga War and its Impact; Ashokan Edicts; Ashoka’s Administrative and Religious
Measures

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook • Map of India • Projector

 Time: 60 minutes
 Activity

• Ask the students to read the topic. Divide the class into groups of five and ask them to dramatise
Ashoka’s change of heart from ruthless king to follower of Dhamma after the battle of Kalinga
depicting the reasons why he turned to non-violence.
• Ask the students to mark on an outline map of India the extent of Ashoka’s empire. Then locate
Sarnath, Kalinga and Patliputra on it.
• Get an old one rupee coin to class and ask the students to trace the lion capital in their copy book
by placing the coin under the paper, pressing the paper hard against the coin and colouring it
with pencil so that the inscription on the coin gets traced on to the paper. Now tell the students
the importance of the lion capital.
• Ask the students to read about Ashoka’s Dhamma.
• Discuss the key values that the edicts of Ashoka promoted in his kingdom. Discuss what an edict
is and on an outline map of India locate and mark four places where Ashoka erected his edicts.
• Do you think Ashoka was a good ruler? Give reasons for your answer.

Examples/Modelling: Ask the students to go online and or research in the library and collect the text
of some of Ashoka’s edicts. Ask them to read those edicts and think and write four commands that they
would have inscribed for their kingdom if they were Ashoka.

40
Check for Understanding:
• What did Ashoka do to make the life of his people comfortable?
• Why did Ashoka attack Kalinga?
• What was Ashoka’s Dhamma? Give brief description of his teachings.
• What is the difference between an emperor and a king?

 Weblink: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uo4sSeoNvQI

TOPIC: THE MAURYAN ADMINISTRATION

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Ask the students to read the topic. Divide the class in groups of five. Ask the groups to make
diagram of the Mauryan administration on a chart paper in the form of a triangle with the
emperor on top and list of duties and rights of the emperor, followed by the different ministers
and forest people at the bottom with their rights and duties. Ask them to present their charts
in the class.

Examples/Modelling: Ask the class to imagine they are Megasthenes and write a note on the Mauryan
administration.

Check for Understanding:


• What was the taxation system in the Mauryan empire and what did the kings do to increase revenue?
• Name three officials in Mauryan empire along with their duties.

TOPIC: MAURYAN ART AND ARCHITECTURE

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss the major sources of information for the Mauryan period.


• Discuss the important features of Mauryan art and architecture.

41
TOPIC: DECLINE OF THE MAURYAN EMPIRE

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook • Map of India

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Ask the students to read the topic. Divide the class into six groups and give them one kingdom
each as a topic and give the sixth group the sub-topic ‘What was happening elsewhere’. Ask
them to visit the library and collect information about the kingdoms assigned to them and make
presentations in class in the form of 5-minutes news bulletins.
• Ask the students to write a note on the disintegration of the Mauryan empire.

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1.a. iii b. i c. iii d. iii e. i


2.a. Nanda b. Kautilya c. Shravana Belgola d. Mahendra; Sanghamitra e. Gramika
3.a. true b. false c. true d. false e. false
4.
a. Indica by Megasthenes and Arthashastra by Kautilya are the two sources which give us information
about the Mauryan empire.
b. Kalinga was the only kingdom that was not controlled by the Mauryas. It was important as it
controlled the routes to south India and South-east Asia by land and sea. This is why it was attacked
by Ashoka.
c. Ashoka treated his subjects as his own children and worked for their welfare. He built roads, rest
houses, hospitals for animals and human beings, planted trees and got wells dug so that his people
could be comfortable and happy.
d. Edicts are royal orders or proclamations issued by a ruler.
e. Ashoka’s edicts were usually written in Prakrit, i.e., the language of the common people. They were
also written in Greek, Kharosthi and Aramaic in north-west India.
5. a. Battle of Kalinga changed Ashoka’s life. Though Kalinga was conquered, the loss was very heavy. It
impacted Ashoka so much that he decided not to fight wars anymore. He became a follower of the
Buddha and devoted the rest of his life to his Dhamma.
b. Ashoka was the first ruler to communicate to his subjects through edicts. To spread his ideas,
Ashoka inscribed his messages on stone pillars, caves, boulders and rocks, so that people could read
them. These edicts were widely spread throughout his empire. They conveyed Ashoka’s ideas on
administration, religion and behaviour of people towards one another and their elders. Ashoka’s
edicts were usually written in Prakrit, i.e., the language of the common people. They were also
written in Greek, Kharosthi, and Aramaic in north-west India.
c. Though inspired by Buddhism, Ashoka’s Dhamma was essentially his ideas on society and
governance. He saw himself as a father to his subjects and felt that he had a moral duty to instil
good values in his people. He spoke directly to his people through his edicts. Through Dhamma,
Ashoka encouraged his subjects to be non-violent, truthful and tolerant and respectful towards
42 others’ religious beliefs. The Dhamma also instructed that one should be respectful towards one’s
elders and kind and charitable to all.
d. The Mauryan administration was well-defined. The king held supreme power. He took important
decisions only after consulting his ministers (mantri parishad) and other members of the royal
family. The empire was divided into provinces, which were ruled by governors who were usually
royal princes or Kumaras. Provinces were further divided into districts, which comprised several
towns or villages. Each village had a headman called the gramika. Pataliputra, the capital city, and
its surrounding territories were regarded as the core area, and were directly administered by the
emperor with the help of officials appointed by him and who were responsible to him.
Taxes were levied on providing water for irrigation. The other sources of revenue were land revenue,
taxes on trade and crafts, forest produce, output from mines as well as fines.
e. The Mauryan empire declined mainly because the successors of Ashoka were weak. They could not
efficiently manage the huge expenditure on the army. What added to the disorder were invasions
in the north-western border of India. Some historians also feel that Ashoka’s pacifist policy was
responsible for the decline of the Mauryan empire.
6. Students can search the Internet to find out the answer to this question.

43
9
Life in Towns and Villages
Textbook Reference Page: 79–87 Number of Periods: 5–6
 Learning Objectives
The student will learn about
• The need to improve agriculture with growth of kingdoms • City life and rise of
cities • Growing trade and its impact on the economy and society. • Craftsmen,
guilds and occupational diversity

Lesson Development

TOPIC: THE SECOND URBANISATION


Sub-topics: Features of Second Urbanisation

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard

 Time: 60 minutes + a day long visit

 Activity

• Define the term ‘urbanisation’.


• Ask the students to read the topic ‘The Second Urbanisation’ and discuss the major
factors that led to the emergence of cities after 300 BCE.
• Ask the students to read the sub-topic ‘Features of Second Urbanisation’ and discuss
its important points in the class.
• Ask the students to make a list of the occupations of the people living in early towns
and the modern towns. What do they think are the major differences between the
ages?
• Discuss the structure of a guild and its benefits.
• Ask students to bring their favourite craft item or picture of the item to class and share
what they like about it, where does it come from and how it is made.
• Discuss the type of pottery and ceramic wells used by the people during the period
under study.
• Discuss the reasons for the rise of cities and the main attractions of certain cities
during this period.
• Find out about Patliputra, modern day Patna, during the time of Megasthenses and
compare it with how it is today.

44
• Discuss the difference between barter system and money economy. What kind of coins were used
to carry out trade in this period? On a map of India, ask the students to mark the major trading
ports used to trade with Rome.
• Find out about collecting coins—how it is done and how and why should one start their own coin
collection.
• Take your students for a visit to a local crafts bazaar and ask them to interview crafts people on
their life and trade today.

Examples/Modelling: Ask the students to imagine that they are the Pramukha or Shreshthin of the
weavers guild and write roles and responsibility for members of the guild and behaviour towards other
guilds.

 Weblink: http://download.nos.org/srsec315new/History%20Book_L05.pdf

TOPIC: VILLAGE LIFE

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss the role and responsibility of the gram-bhojaka.


• Ask the students to find out the variety of crops grown by farmers in north India today. Now ask
them to write the story of bread— how wheat became bread and how many people it came across
in this journey.
• Discuss the difference between village life and city life today with your students.

TOPIC: SOURCES OF THE PERIOD

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss the sources that tell us about life of the common people during this era.
• Write a note on Sangam literature and how it helps us understand history of this era.
• Discuss the importance of Jataka Tales as a source of information for this period.

45
TOPIC: CASE STUDY: A CLOSER LOOK AT TAMILAKAM

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard • World map

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Locate Cochin, Kaveripattinam, Puhar and Rome on a world map. Ask the students to chart
various sea routes to get to these places from Rome with a chalk on the map.
• Discuss in class the rise of trade and the goods traded between Tamil Nadu and Rome.
• Find out what are the main items that India exports and imports today. Name two items which
we have continued to trade since ancient times.

Examples/Modelling: Ask your students to write a note imagining that they are a trader from Rome.

Check for Understanding:


• Write down the new words on blackboard.
• Read aloud things to remember.

 Weblink: http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~lkawgw/tamil.html

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. i b. iii c. ii d. ii e. i
2. a. Indus Valley Civilisation b. silver, copper c. grama bhojaka/gramika
d. drains; for storage of water e. gopalakas
3. a. true b. false c. false d. false e. true
4. c. Farmers who owned large tracts of cultivable land were known as vellalars. Farmers who owned
small pieces of land were known as uzhavars. Landless laboureres who worked on the land of big
landowners were called kadai siyars.
d. In the villages of north India, the largest landowner was usually appointed the village headman or
grama bhojaka.
a. Guilds were formed to organise the large-scale trading activities during this period.
e. Jatakas are basically stories about the previous births of the Buddha.
b. Silver, copper, tin, lead and potin were used to make punch-marked coins.
5. a. Major features of the Second Urbanisation include
• Iron tools and implements • Guilds and trade
• Coins • Urban centres
• Northern Black Polished Ware Pottery • Ring wells

46
b. The use of iron became extensive during Second Urbanisation. It was now possible to clear the deep
forests with the help of iron implements. This, along with improved knowledge of cultivation, increased
the area of cultivation, resulted in agricultural surplus and better standards of living for people.
c. Northern Black Polished Ware pottery was a special type of pottery that was used by people during
this period. It was black with a glossy surface. It was made of clay. During 500–300 BCE, it reached its
peak. The remains of such pottery have been found in the Gangetic plains of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar,
central, eastern, and southern India.
d. The discovery of a number of Roman coins at various sites in the peninsula leaves no doubt that India
was a gainer in trade with Roman empire. Pottery, terracotta and beads ornaments, wires, and copper
vessels have also been found in large number.
d. Trade with Rome was an important source of revenue for the south Indian kingdoms. Moreover, the
exports from India to the Roman empire far exceeded its imports. That was why trade with Rome was
in India’s favour. Similarly, Romans were able to get some of the trade items that were in demand there.
The Roman traders also set up several settlements along the Indian coasts.
6. Across: 3. Muziris 4. Megasthenes
Down: 1. Guilds 2. Barter 5. Silappadikaram
7. Student can read about the role of village headmen in today’s times on the following weblink and make
necessary comparisons.
http://revenue.hp.nic.in/PDFFiles/Manual/Chapter4.pdf

47
10
Contact with Distant Lands
Textbook Reference Page: 78–86 Number of Periods: 6–8
 Learning Objectives
The student will learn about
• The development of trade and trade routes in ancient India • The reason for the
rise and fall of trade relationship between Rome and India • The links between
trade and kings • The impact of trade on society and social structures • Changes
in Buddhism and brahmanism and the spread of new ideas • The spread of Bhakti
form of worship

Lesson Development

TOPICS: THE SANGAM AGE; THE TAMILAKAM


Sub-topics: The Cheras; The Cholas; The Pandyas; The Satavahanas

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard • Map of India

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss about the three kingdoms of the Tamilakam, their important


rulers and major achievements, cities, trade items, etc. Ask the students
to compare them and prepare a write-up on it.
• Ask the students to mark on a map of India the three Sangam kingdoms
and the Satavahanas.
• Discuss with the class the difference between the trade activities of
north and south India.
• Discuss the achievements of the Satavahana rulers and the matronymical
system of lineage they followed.

 Weblink: http://indiansaga.com/history/post_mauryan_south1.
html

48
0 TOPIC: INVASIONS FROM THE NORTH-WEST
Sub-topics: Indo-Greeks; Sakas; The Parthians; Kushanas

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard • Map of India

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss the different groups of people from Central Asia who invaded the north and north-west
parts of India after the decline of the Mauryas.
• Discuss the achievements of Kanishka as a ruler.
• On a map of the Indian subcontinent, mark the extents of territories ruled by the Indo-Greeks,
the Sakas, the Parthians and the Kushanas.

 Weblink: http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch28gup.htm

TOPIC: TRADE ROUTES OVER SEA AND LAND


Sub-topic: Indo-Roman Trade Links

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard • Map of India

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Ask the students to list various places that they shop in. Ask them also to prepare a list of different
items that they use in their daily life and where they come from.
• Discuss the meaning of trade and what sources tell us about trade in ancient India. Also, discuss
the difference between internal and external trade.
• Ask the students to read the topic while trying to answer the question: What was the reason for
the decline in trade between Rome and India? After they have written the answers, discuss their
answers in class.
• Ask the students to find out what are the main items that India exports and imports today.

 Weblink:
http://www.wormspit.com/bhg_silk.pdf
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=owAumLXoOC8
http://www.pbs.org/thestoryofindia/teachers/lessons/3/

49
TOPIC: SILK ROUTE

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard • Maps of India and Asia

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Share the story of how silk is obtained (weblink) or tell the class the process of producing silk
from silkworms.
• Discuss the importance of the Silk Route in ancient India.
• Ask students to mark on a map of Asia the important cities that were located along the famous
Silk Route.

TOPIC: SPREAD OF BUDDHISM

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Show the class pictures of the Buddha, Nalanda University and Borobudur temple and the
ancient wonders of the world.
• Divide the class into two groups, Mahayana and Hinayana, and ask them to present their case
on how they wish to practise their religion to each other pretending to be at the Fourth Buddhist
Council.
• Ask the students to make a four page brochure to study in Nalanda University. They can browse
the Internet and get information on Nalanda University in ancient India.
• Discuss what Hsuan Tsang wrote about the education system in India.
• Discuss the difference between Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism.
• Ask your students to use the internet to collect images of various Buddhist remains in Indonesia,
China and Afghanistan. Which one impresses you the most and why?

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. ii b. i c. i d. i e. ii
2. a. Indo-Greeks b. Sakas c. Silk d. Hinayana, Mahayana e. Nalanda
3. a. false b. false c. false d. true e. false
4. a. According to the Chera poets, their greatest king was Senguttuvan or the ‘good Chera’.

50
b. The most powerful Chola king was Karikala.
c. Fa Xian and Xuan Zang were two Chinese pilgrims who visited India during this period. They
came to India to collect sacred literature.
d. The split in Buddhism happened over the question of worship of the Buddha and belief in
Bodhisattvas.
e. The Silk Route is a land trade route used by ancient traders to carry Chinese products especially silk
to western Asia.
5. a. Sangam refers to the three assemblies of poets from Tamilakam (present-day Tamil Nadu and
Kerala). Historians are of the opinion that these poets met in Madurai to bring out their work in
Tamil between approximately 500 BCE and 300 CE. The compositions of these ancient Tamil
poets are collectively called Sangam Literature and the period in which they were compiled is called
the Sangam Age. A study of the Sangam texts reveals that Tamil was a highly developed language.
Sangam literature is mostly about battles, heroic deeds of kings, and the social, political, economic,
and religious life of people in those times. It is from Sangam literature that we get to know about
the Cholas, the Cheras, and the Pandyas.
b. Indo-Greeks or Bactrian Greeks (as they ruled Bactria, modern north Afghanistan) were the first to
invade north India. Indian art was influenced by the Greek art and style and led to the development
of Gandhara School of Art. This was a mixture of the Indian and Greek styles of art—the images
of the Buddha and Bodhisattvas displayed distinct Greek styles. The Indo-Greeks were the earliest
rulers to mint gold coins with their portraits.
c. The Sakas or the Scythians were originally nomadic tribes of Central Asia. They invaded the north-
western parts of the Indian subcontinent and established supremacy there, after defeating the Indo-
Greeks. The Puranas and the Mahabhasya, several inscriptions, and coins tell us about the Sakas.
They established themselves at Takshila and Mathura, and ruled till the 4th century CE. There were
five branches of the Sakas which ruled in different areas. They were known as satraps.
d. Some Indian kings, who had their kingdoms adjacent to the Silk Route, began to tax the traders as
they passed through the Indian kingdoms. In return, the Indian kings assured them full protection
from robbers and bandits. The Kushana king, Kanishka controlled a branch of this route that
extended from Central Asia to Takshila to the seaport at the mouth of river Indus, from where the
silk was shipped westwards to the Roman empire.
e. Xuan Zang wrote on the education system followed in Nalanda. He said that Nalanda is an
international university, where about 10,000 students receive higher education. It is a six-storeyed
building with several colleges and three great libraries. No fee is charged from the students. They
are given free boarding and lodging. Here, admission is very difficult. Besides Brahmanical and
Buddhist literature, grammar, logic, philosophy, medicine, and astronomy are the main subjects.
Sanskrit is the medium of instruction. The expenditure of this university is derived from the gifts
and from the revenue of 100 villages, set aside by the king for the maintenance of the university. The
entrance examination is so difficult that only two or three out of ten succeed in getting admission.
6. Trading with the West was beneficial to India as there was inflow of revenue in the country.
Students can share their views and have a discussion in class on this topic.

51
11
Political Developments
Textbook Reference Page: 98–107 Number of Periods: 7–8
 Learning Objectives
The student will learn about
• The importance of charita kavyas and prashastis as the sources of information
for this period • Gupta dynasty and its administration • Emergence of smaller
kingdoms especially Kanauj • The kingdoms of south India • Local governance
and the role of assemblies in south India • The lives of ordinary people during
this period

Lesson Development

TOPIC: THE SOURCES: CHARITA KAVYAS AND PRASHASTIS

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard • Map of India

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss the difference between autobiography and biography. Ask


the class to name some famous autobiographies like The Story of My
Experiments with Truth, Diary of Ann Frank, etc.
• Ask the students to read the topic and discuss why kings needed
charita kavyas and prashastis.

Examples/Modelling: Ask the students to imagine that they are writers


of charita kavya in the court of Samudragupta or Vikramaditya and write two
poems in their praise.

TOPIC: THE GUPTA DYNASTY


Sub-topics: Chandragupta I (320–335 CE); Samudragupta (335–380 CE);
Chandragupta II (380–412 CE); Successors

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard • Map of India

52
 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Ask the students to read the topic, trace the genealogy of Samudragupta and write it on the
blackboard/whiteboard.
• Discuss with the students the factors that enabled Samudragupta to embark on extensive
conquests and put together a large empire and what sources tell us about him.
• Discuss the achievements of Chandragupta II.
• On a map of India, mark the Gupta empire.
• Discuss the factors that led to the downfall of the Guptas.
• Ask the students to find out more about the Nav Ratna of Vikramaditya.

TOPIC: ADMINISTERING EMPIRES


Sub-topic: New Developments in Administration

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Ask the students to read the topic.


• Divide the students into groups of eight and ask them to prepare a daily schedule of the king in
the Gupta kingdom and dramatise their interaction with all the officers in their court so that their
role and responsibility are clearly understandable.
• Discuss the Gupta system of administration and ask the students to compare it with the Mauryan
administration.

TOPIC: EMERGENCE OF NEW KINGDOMS


Sub-topic: Harshavardhana (606–647 ce)

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard

 Time: 30 minutes
 Activity

• Ask your students to make a diary entry and describe their experiences of a day imagining that
they are travellers from foreign countries visiting an Indian kingdom.
• Discuss the achievements of Harshavardhana of Kanauj.
• Ask the students to write a note about the impact of the death of King Harsha.
53
Check for Understanding:
• What is Si-yu-ki?
• What was the result of Harsha’s Deccan campaign?
• Name two authors who wrote about Harshavardhana.

 Weblink: http://www.preser vearticles.com/2011081610838/complete-biography-of


emperor-harshavardhana-the-greatest-ruler-of-india.html

TOPIC: THE KINGDOMS OF SOUTH INDIA


Sub-topic: The Pallavas and the Chalukyas

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

Ask the students to read the topic and discuss the Pallavas’ ambition to control the region ruled by
Pulakesin II, and its consequences.

TOPIC: LOCAL GOVERNANCE: THE ROLE OF ASSEMBLIES IN SOUTH INDIA

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Ask the students to read the topic and discuss Sabha, Nagaram and Ur.
• Explain the composition of local assemblies that existed in the southern kingdoms during the
post Gupta period.

 Weblink: http://indiainfocentre.info/history/ancient/the-southern-kingdoms/

TOPIC: LIFE OF THE PEOPLE

 Resources: • Textbook • Whiteboard/blackboard

54
 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Read out the story of Kalidasa’s Abhijnanashakuntalam in the class. (Look at weblinks)
• Discuss with students two positive and two negative points of ordinary life during this period.

Examples/Modelling: Write a story about a little girl and her brother, both living in the post Gupta
period in the southern state, depicting how different their lives would be.

 Weblink: http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sha/sha12.htm

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. ii b. i c. iii d. i e. i
2. a. Lichchhavi b.Samudragupta c. Hunas d. Harshavardhana e. Kanchipuram
3. a. false b. false c. false d. true; but later they were land instead of cash e. false
4. a. Chandragupta I ascended the throne in 320 ce as the first important ruler of the Gupta dynasty.
b. The most authentic source of information about Samudragupta is the Allahabad Pillar Inscription
(Prayag Prashasti) composed by his court poet Harisena. It gives a vivid account of Samudragupta’s
conquests and military expeditions.
c. Si-yu-ki is an account of Harsha’s reign written by the famous Chinese traveller, Xuan Zang. Xuan
Zang tells us that Harsha held great assemblies at Prayaga (Allahabad) where he honoured scholars
of all religions and made donations.
d. Harsha tried to conquer the Deccan but his advance was checked by Pulakesin II of the Chalukya
dynasty.
e. The most renowned ruler of Chalukyas was Pulakesin II. He attained fame after defeating
Harshavardhana on the banks of river Narmada in 620 CE.
5. b. Theoretically, the king was the most powerful person and the centre of administration during
Gupta reign. A council of ministers or mantri parishad, assisted the king in the administrative
matters. A province was called a bhukti and was further divided into districts called vishaya. A
bhukti was placed under the charge of an uparika. Kumaramatyas were the other important officials
appointed by the king in the provinces, and were paid in cash. Besides administrative officials, other
categories of people began to enjoy a greater say in local or city administration.
a. Samudragupta was a great conqueror. He defeated and subjugated a number of other kings from
India and outside. Samudragupta was called the Indian Napoleon by the Irish historian Vincent
Smith because of his military exploits and expansionist policies. Harisena’s inscription states that
Samudragupta conquered the ‘whole world’. He was a veteran of many battles. He was also a great
scholar, musician, and poet—some of his coins show him playing the veena.

55
c. Fa Xian was a Chinese pilgrim. He visited India during Chandragupta II’s reign. He described
Chandragupta II as a wise, just, and benevolent ruler. His account describes the condition of
society during that period. He has also written about the plight of untouchables.
d. The Pallava kingdom was located in the Kaveri Delta. Its capital was Kanchipuram. The Pallavas,
who probably began as officers of the Satavahana kings, became powerful after the decline of
the Satavahanas. They fought many wars against the Pandyas and the Chalukyas and ultimately
established their kingdom in the rich and fertile Kaveri Delta. Among the Pallava rulers,
Mahendravarman and his son, Narasimhavarman I were the most famous. The latter defeated
Pulakesin II. He even captured Vatapi (Badami) and adopted the title of Vatapikonda or the
‘conqueror of Vatapi’. The Pallavas were weakened by their continuous struggle against the later
Chalukyas and the Pandyas and were defeated by the Cholas by the end of the 9th century CE.
e. Composition of local assemblies that existed in the southern kingdoms during the post-Gupta
period is as follows.
• Sabha:  An assembly of brahmana landowners  Worked through a number of committees, such
as, committees on irrigation, agriculture, maintenance of roads, etc.
• Nagaram:  An assembly of rich merchants  Primarily functioned in towns and cities and looked
after a wide variety of urban and administrative matters.
• Ur:  Another assembly at village level  Consisted of non- brahmana landowners
6. a. Yes, in some parts of the country, women are restricted to do a lot of things. But the position of
women is definitely better than in 9th century. Women now have the right to vote and participate
in public affairs along with having education and job opportunities. Students can share their views
on this topic and have a discussion in class.
b. Sanskrit was considered the language of the elite, while prakrit was the language of the common
people.

56
12
Culture and Science
Textbook Reference Page: 108–116 Number of Periods: 6–7

 Learning Objectives
The student will learn about
• The major milestones achieved in culture and science during the period
under study • The important styles of art and architecture that emerged
during this period • The builders of important monuments and the purposes
for which they were built

Lesson Development
TOPIC: LITERATURE
Sub-topics: The Epics; Tamil Epics; Puranas; Jatakas; Panchatantra; Kavyas

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Define the term ‘oral literature’ and briefly discuss how the literary
texts composed in this mode were passed on from one generation
to the next.
• Discuss different types of literary texts composed during the period
under study.
• Discuss the contents of the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the
Silappadikaram, and the Manimekalai.
• Discuss the importance of the Puranas and the Jatakas as sources of
information regarding the period under study.
• Discuss the important kavyas or poetic compositions and dramas
of the Age with reference to the work of Kalidasa, Bharavi, and
Shudraka.

  Weblink: http://www.historytuition.com/ancient_india/
literature.html

57
TOPIC: SCIENCE
Sub-topics: Aryabhatta; Varahamihira

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss the major achievements of the ancient Indians in the world of science.
• Discuss the notable contributions of Aryabhatta and Varahamihira, and how their work was path
breaking in certain ways.

 Weblink: http://www.ece.lsu.edu/kak/a3.pdf

TOPIC: MEDICINE

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss the different areas of medical science in which the ancient Indians distinguished themselves.
• Discuss the work of Charaka and Susruta as pioneers of Ayurveda or Indian system of medicine.

TOPICS: ART AND ARCHITECTURE; STUPAS; CAVE ARCHITECTURE; WHO BUILT THESE
MONUMENTS AND WHY?
Sub-topics: Rock Temples; Sanchi Stupa; Ajanta and Ellora; Karle; Elephanta Caves

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes + 30 minutes + 30 minutes + 30 minutes

 Activity

• Ask your students to read the topics ‘Art and Architecture’, ‘Stupas’, and ‘Cave Architecture’ in the
book and prepare a chart on the monuments built during the period under study, entailing their
location, who built them, their key features, the form of architecture they can be identified as, etc.

58
• Discuss the major achievements of the Pallavas and the Chalukyas in temple architecture.
• Discuss the salient features of stupas and ask students to make a list of the famous stupas built
during this period.
• Describe the distinctive features of the ancient cave architecture highlighting the unique aspects of
Ajanta, Ellora, Karle and Elephanta Caves.
• Discuss the process of building ancient monuments.

 Weblink: http://www.crystalinks.com/indiarchitecture.html

TOPICS: PAINTINGS; STATUES AND SCULPTURES


Sub-topic: The Gandhara School of Art; The Mathura School of Art

 Resources: • Whiteboard/blackboard • Textbook

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Define terms such as ‘tempera’, ‘murals’, ‘statuary’, ‘schools’ and ‘motifs’, and their importance
in the context of ancient Indian art forms.
• Discuss the major features of the Mathura and Gandhara schools of art, and compare them with
examples.

 Weblink: http://www.civilserviceindia.com/subject/History/prelims/gandharaschool.html

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. i b. i c. iii d. i e. i
2. a. Valmiki b. Silappadikaram; Manimekalai c. stupas; Ajanta caves d. Gupta e. Shikhara
3. a. false b. false c. false d. false e. false
4. a. The Ramayana and the Mahabharata are the two Hindu epics written during the Later Vedic period.
b. Manimekalai was composed by Sattanar.
c. Aryabhatta was a great mathematician and astronomer.
d. Susruta Samhita is a treatise on surgery.
e. Rock-cut cave temples at Ajanta and Elephanta were built during the Gupta period.
5. a. Two important epics, composed in Tamil were the Silappadikaram and Manimekalai. The
Silappadikaram was composed by IIango Adigal, around 1,800 years ago. Manimekalai, another
Tamil epic, was composed by Sattanar. It is a story of Kovalan and Madhavi’s daughter.

59
b. By the 3rd century BCE, mathematics, astronomy and medicine began to progress rapidly. In the
field of mathematics, the three greatest contributions of the ancient Indians were the notational
system, the decimal system, and the concept of zero.
c. Aryabhata and Varahamihira were two of the most outstanding astronomers of ancient India.
Aryabhata stated that day and night were caused by the rotation of the Earth on its axis. He also gave
a scientific explanation of eclipses and calculated the circumference of a circle and area of a triangle.
Varahamihira stated that the Moon rotates around the Earth, and the Earth around the Sun. His most
famous work is Brihat-samhita. He also wrote Pancha-siddhantika.
d. A stupa is a hemispherical (dome like) burial mound—a Buddhist monument for keeping sacred
relics. The pradakshina patha was a pathway that encircled the stupa on which devotees walked.
The torana was the outer gateway. The panels and pillars have sculptures of scenes mainly from the
Buddha’s life and the Jataka Tales.
e. The Iron Pillar at Mehrauli in Delhi was made presumably during the period of Chandragupta II.
This Iron Pillar stands next to the famous Qutb Minar. It stands about 22 feet high with just 3.8 feet
below the ground. Its diameter varies from 12.5 inch at the top to 16.4 inch at the bottom. It weighs
6.5 tonnes.
6. The metal technology used for making the Iron Pillar can be used in the construction of bridges,
tunnels, railway tracks, and the like.

60
13
The Planet Earth
Textbook Reference Page: 117–123 Number of Periods: 6
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Acquire in formation about the universe, the solar system and the heavenly
bodies •Identify the planets in the solar system • Find out more in formation
about important constellations • Understand the unique place of Earth in
the solar system, which provides ideal conditions for all forms of life

Lesson Development

TOPIC: THE UNIVERSE

 Resources: • Blackboard (or better still a whiteboard) with coloured


markers to show the myriad components of the universe

• A short filmfrom the Internet on the Big Bang Theory
• Articles on planetarium/observatory published in
magazines or newspapers or available online
 Time: 30 minutes + 30–35 minutes (film screening + discussion)
 Activity

• Explain the Big Bang Theory,using a flowchart or any other visual


aid.
• Facilitate a discussion on how the heavenly bodies and galaxies of
stars were formed.
• Use of one of many short films available on You Tube, to assist
students to understand how the Big Bang started
• Plan a trip for the students to visit the Nehru Planetarium Delhi or
any other planetarium or observatory closest to the school.
• A short quiz could also be planned on their diverse discoveries/
inventions.

TOPIC: STARS

 Resources: • Blackboard(or better still a whiteboard)

61
• Articles on planetarium/observatory published in magazines or newspapers or available
online
• Oracle Think Quest

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Summarise the key points of this section keeping in mind the following questions.
 What do galaxies consist of?
 What are constellations?
 To which galaxy do we belong?
 To us, the inhabitants of the Earth, which is the brightest star?
 Follow this with an introduction to stars, galaxies, constellations and our own location with in these.

TOPIC: THE SOLAR SYSTEM


Sub-topics: The Sun; The Planets; Asteroids; Satellites; Meteoroids, Meteors, and Meteorites;
Comets; The Moon

 Resources: • Blackboard • A globe and an atlas • Visuals of the landing on Moon • Maps that
explain its surface • Charts to show how festivals are closely related to the phases of
the Moon

 Time: 90 minutes

 Activity

• Summarise the key point soft his section with focus on the solar system, the Sun and the eight
planets of the solar system.
• Explain the composition of the Sun, its temperature, and significance in our lives.
• The teacher may introduce the characteristics of each planet gradually, giving reasons for every
fact that is shared.
• Encourage participants to browse the internet and discuss the or finding sin class regarding the
possibility of some life form on Mars.
• Explain the phases of the Moon and the corresponding shapes.
• Facilitate a discussion with visual aid son what Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin saw when they
set foot on the Moon.
• Show the students slides or print outs of some of the maps of the Moon that give information
about its surface and climate.
• Find out about astronaut Rakesh Sharma. What did he say when he saw Earth from space?
• A summary of other components of the solar system could be made with focus on the asteroid
belt, asteroids, meteoroids, meteors and meteorites.

62
• The teacher may ask students to look up the encyclopaedia or the internet to see what a meteorite
Fallooks like. Also, they could been courage to talk to their grand parents/parents about Halley’s
Comet sighting in 1986.
• Invite the students to form small groups and make a chart or even a model, showing all the
components of the solar system. Each group could make a presentation, highlighting the unique
feature soft he model.
• Find out about ‘space stations’ and ‘space tourism’.
• Find out more about these three Gods: Mars, Jupiter and Venus.

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. ii b. ii c. iii d. i e. i
2. a. Big Bang b. star c. gravitational pull d. Sun e. waxing
3. a. true b. false c. true d. true e. false
4. a. Galaxy is a system consisting of gas, dust and millions of stars, each with their planets.
f. Mete or sare the smaller pieces of rocky material that burn very brightly when they enter the Earth’s
atmosphere from space.
e. Chunk so frocky space debris hurt ling through space and or biting the Sunare known as mete or
oids.
b. Asteroids are small, rocky, airless fragments that orbit our Sun, butare too small to be called planets.
d. Comets are balls of dust, frozen gases, held together by ice particles that revolve around the Sunin
elongated orbits.
c. A light year is the distance travelled by light in one year.
5. a. A star is a heavenly body that shines by producing it sown light. Stars produce an incredible
amount of heat and light as they are burning bodies of gases. The Sun is a star. Planets do not have
their own light; they reflect the light that they receive from the Sun.
b. A group of stars that makes are cognisable pattern in the sky is known as a constellation or nakshatra.
Some of the easily recognisable constellations are the Great Bear (Ursa Major), Orion the Hunter,
Libra, the balance scales, etc.
c. The Earth is considered a unique planet because of many reasons. It is just at the right distance from
the Sun to get the required amount of heat and light that can support life. It is the only planet with
an atmosphere that has sufficient amount of oxygen, the gas that living beings need to breathe for
staying alive. The atmosphere plays an important role in supporting and preserving life on Earth.
Moreover, the Earth has soil and large quantities of water in its lakes, rivers, seas and oceans, which
is necessary for the survival of life.
d. Celestial bodies that move around the planets are called satellites. The Earth has only one Moon,
Jupiter has 62 known moons, Saturn 56, Uranus 27, Neptune 13, and Mars 2. Like the planets,
the satellites have no light of their own, and they too reflect the light they receive from the Sun.
e. The Moon has different phases. It appears to change its shape during the month. When the shape
appears to be growing, it is called the waxing period; and when the shape appears to be reducing,
it is called the waning period. We see different shapes of the Moon due to the Sun lighting up its
parts in its journey around the Earth.

63
14
Globe, Latitudes, and Longitudes
Textbook Reference Page: 124–131 Number of Periods: 7
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Understand the importance of globe as the Earth’s spherical model • Gain
insight into why imaginary lines like latitude and longitude are used • Develop
an understanding of the Heat Zones • Acquire the skill of locating a place on
the map • Develop understanding of Indian local time and Greenwich Mean
Time

Lesson Development

TOPIC: THE GLOBE

 Resources: • Atlas • Globe • Outline maps of India and the world


• Pencils • Erasers • Scales

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Ask the students to read the topic and find about its shape.
• Discuss the globe, its advantages, and why it is mounted on its stand.

TOPIC: LATITUDES

 Time: 45 minutes

 Activity

• Define latitude and its importance.


• Discuss the topic with the following questions in mind.
 What divides the Earth into two equal parts?
 Can you see latitudes? If not, why?
 How many latitudes are there in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres?
 Name some of the important latitudes.

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4 TOPIC: HEAT ZONES

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Ask students to read the topic and explain the reason for climatic differences across our planet.
• Discuss different climatic zones, their locations and features.
• Divide the class into two groups and ask each group to imagine what would happen
a. if the Earth were covered with ice
b. if the Earth became the closest planet to the Sun.
• Now, ask them to prepare two charts based on discussion in class on the two topics, compare
them, and put them on class notice-board.

TOPIC: LONGITUDES

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Define longitude and its importance.


• Ask students to read the topic and answer the following questions.
 What is the Prime Meridian? Which countries does it pass through?
 What is the meaning of meridian? How many meridians are there to the east and west of the
Prime Meridian?
 Where are the longitudes farthest apart? Where do they draw closer?

TOPIC: LOCATING PLACES ON THE EARTH

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss how different places can be located on the Earth.


• Ask the student to read the topic and answer the following questions.
 What helps us to find the location of a place north or south of the Equator?
 What do the lines of longitude helps us to locate?
 How do ships and planes identify the exact location of a place?

65
TOPICS: FINDING TIME; INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE
Sub-topics: Local Time; Standard Time

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• The teacher will explain about Time.


• Ask the students to read the topics and have a discussion around the following questions.
 How long does it take the Sun to pass over 1°of longitude?
 How long does it take the Earth to rotate once?
 When do all places in the meridian see the Sun directly?
 Why do places in the east face the Sun before places in the west?
 How is local time determined?
 What is Greenwich Mean Time?
 What is Indian Standard Time? What is the difference between IST and GMT?
 What happens when we travel from the Western Hemisphere to the Eastern Hemisphere?
 What, according to international agreement, is the 180°meridian called?

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. iii b. ii c. ii d. i e. iii
2. a. globe b. torrid c. Arctic Circle, North Pole d. grid e. Indian Standard Time (IST)
3. a. false b. false c. true d. false e. true
4. a. The latitude is the angular distance of a place, north or south of the Equator, as measured from
the centre of the Earth. Longitude is the angular distance of a place on the surface of the Earth
measured in degrees east or west of the Prime Meridian.
c. The Earth is divided into three heat zones.
d. As latitudes are parallel to the equator, they are called parallels of latitude. Longitudinal lines are
drawn around the Earth from the North Pole to the South Pole. They are semicircles of equal
length. That is why they are also called meridians of longitude.
b. Poles are always cold as they are permanently frozen because of the extreme slant of the Sun’s
rays.
e. The world is divided into time zones to avoid the confusion of frequent changes of time when
moving from one place to another.
5. a. The three heat zones are called torrid, temperate, and frigid zones. Torrid Zone which lies between
the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the south, is the hottest of
them. Temperate Zone is a moderate zone. The North Temperate Zone lies between the Tropic of
Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere while the South Temperate Zone lies
between the Tropic of Capricorn and Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere. Frigid Zone is
the coldest zone.

66
c. To avoid the confusion of frequent changes of time when moving from one place to another, a
system of Time Zones has been adopted since 1884. By international agreement, the Earth is divided
into 24 Time Zones or belts. The Prime Meridian, passing through the Greenwich Observatory,
near London, is used as the starting point. The local time here is known as the Greenwich Mean
Time or the GMT. GMT can be stated as an example of time zone.
d. The 82°30’E longitude, running near Allahabad, is taken as the Standard Meridian for the whole
country. The local time here is called the Indian Standard Time or IST.
e. The International Date Line (IDL) runs along 180° longitude. In Figure 14.7, you can see that
the 180° meridian is exactly 12 hours away from the Prime Meridian, in either direction. If we
move from the right (Western Hemisphere) to the left (Eastern Hemisphere) of the 180° line, we
get ahead by a day, or we lose a day. If we move from the left (Eastern Hemisphere) to the right
(Western Hemisphere), we go back by a day, or gain a day.
b. Each meridian is numbered and labelled with either the letter E or the letter W, indicating its
location in the Eastern or Western Hemisphere. Similarly, the latitude is the angular distance of a
place, drawn north or south of the Equator.
6. Due to the vast longitudinal extent of our country, it was imperative to have a standard time.
Absence of a standard time would lead to a lot of confusion in our day-to-day lives. It would be
difficult to travel, make plans, and carry out activities pan India.
Students can refer to Fig 14.7 and do the necessary calculations based on what they have learnt in
the chapter.

67
15
Rotation and Revolution
Textbook Reference Page: 132–138 Number of Periods: 5–6
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Understand how the Earth spins on its axis and how the Earth revolves
around the Sun • Learn about the summer and winter solstice • Acquire the
ability to draw diagrams • Understand why the seasons change

Lesson Development

TOPIC: ROTATION

 Resources: • Whiteboard • Markers • Chart papers • Coloured


papers • Sketch pens • Glue • Scissors • Torch • Globe

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• The teacher will introduce the two movements of the Earth and
discuss ‘Rotation’.
• The teacher will discuss the topic with the following questions in
mind.
 What is the imaginary line, on which the Earth rotates, called?
 Is the axis straight or tilted? At what angle is it tilted?
 What is the effect of the Earth’s rotation from west to east?
 Does only one half of the Earth get light from the Sun at one
time? What is the other half like?
 How long does the Earth take to complete one rotation?
 Why does the change from day to night continue non-stop?

TOPIC: REVOLUTION
Sub-topic: Effects of Revolution

 Time: 60 minutes

68
5
 Activity

• The teacher will introduce the topic.


• Ask students to read the topic and have a discussion guided by the following questions.
 Does the Earth move on its orbit? What does it move around? What is this movement called?
 How long does it take for the Earth to complete one revolution around the Sun?

TOPIC: SEASONS
Sub-topics: Change in Seasons; Solstice; Equinox

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss the topic with the following questions in mind.


 Why do the Southern and Northern Hemispheres have opposite seasons?
 In which season does Australia celebrate Christmas?
 Which are the summer months in the Northern Hemisphere?
 In which season does the heat become moderate?
 When is it winter in the Northern Hemisphere?
 When is it winter in the Southern Hemisphere?
• Ask students to draw a chart and write the dates of the summer and winter solstice and the
autumnal and spring equinox.
• Ask students to read the topic and answer the following questions.
 What causes day and night to be of unequal length?
 What happens on 21st June? What is this called?
 When does the Northern Hemisphere enjoy the summer?
 What happens to the length of the days and nights at the equator on the summer solstices?
 What happens when the Southern Hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun?
 Why are Norway and parts of the Arctic region called Land of the Midnight Sun?
 When does the autumnal equinox take place?
 When do the Sun’s rays shine vertically on the Tropic of Cancer? What do we call this
phenomenon?
 Why are the days shorter than the night in all places north of the equator? What is the
duration of days and night at the Equator? When is it summer in the Southern Hemisphere?
 When is the spring equinox in the Northern Hemisphere? What is the season like in Southern
Hemisphere then?

69
ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. ii b. i c. iii d. i e. ii
2. a. revolution b. Southern c. Tropic, Capricorn d. Equator e. autumnal, spring
3. a. true b. false c. false d. true e. true
4. b. The orbit of the Earth around the Sun known as elliptical orbit.
a. Earth’s rotation causes day and night.
d. The year with 366 days is called a leap year.
e. Equinox is a phenomenon that occurs on 21 March and 23 September when the Earth’s axis
is inclined neither away nor towards the Sun. It causes equal days and nights in Northern and
Southern Hemispheres.
c. The Sun seems to rise in the east and set in the west because of Earth’s rotation from west to east.
5. a. At sunset, the lighted part of the Earth turns away from the Sun and moves into its own shadow,
causing night. The circular line that separates night from day is called the Circle of Illumination.
The circle of illumination does not coincide with the Earth’s axis. Students can draw Fig 15.2.
c. The seasons are directly related to the unequal lengths of day and night. The four seasons that we
experience occur during the course of a year. When the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the
Sun, the Southern Hemisphere is tilted away. This explains why the hemispheres have opposite
seasons.
d. In June, the Sun goes higher in the sky and stays for a longer period of time in the Northern
Hemisphere. The rays of the Sun are more vertical. The Sun’s heat is also much stronger.
e. The Sun’s rays fall directly on the Tropic of Cancer, and this position of Earth in summer is
known as summer solstice. It occurs on 21 June, which is the longest day. The South Pole is tilted
towards the Sun and the Tropic of Capricorn receives the direct rays of the Sun. This position of
Earth is known as winter solstice, which falls on 22 December.
b. It takes the Earth 365 days and 6 hours to complete one revolution around the Sun. These 365
days and 6 hours make one year. For convenience, a year is considered equal to 365 days and every
fourth year, the remaining 6 hours are added to give an extra day (6 hours × 4 years = 24 hours = a
day).
6. Across: 4. Orbit 5. Equinox
Down: 1. Solstice 2. Rotation 3. Revolution
7. If the Earth stops rotating, there will not be any changes in day or night. One part of Earth will
continuously experience day, while the other has night.

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16
Maps and Map Reading
Textbook Reference Page: 139–146 Number of Periods: 4
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Learn about the maps and scale • Understand the importance of scale in
maps • Be able to differentiate between pictures, sketches and plans

Lesson Development
TOPIC: MAPS
Sub-topics: Types of Maps; Components of a Map (Title, Scale, Index,
Conventional Symbols, and Signs, Directions)

 Resources: Globe, atlas, different types of maps, colours and chart


papers.

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• The teacher will introduce the topic.


• Students will be asked to read about maps, their types and
components on pages 124–127.
• Class discussion will be guided by the following questions.
 What additional information do maps provide which globes
cannot?
 How do army officers use maps when they are engaged in
warfare?
 What are the characteristics of maps?
 What determines the title of maps?
 What does scale indicate?
 How is a small-scale map different from a large-scale map?
• Explain different components of a map.
• Class discussion will be guided by the following questions.
 Why are symbols used in a map? What are the symbols used for
a well and a level crossing?
 What does a Mariner’s compass tell us?
 Which line do we imagine to be in the centre of the map?
71
TOPIC: SKETCHES AND PLANS
Sub-topics: Sketches; Plans

 Time: 45 minutes

 Activity

• Ask the students to read the two sub-topics.


• Discuss the topic with the following questions in mind.
 What gives us a three-dimensional view of our surroundings?
 When do we use sketches?
 What is the difference between a sketch and a plan?
• Ask students to have a close look at parks, railway stations or other public places, and make their
sketches.
• Ask students to compare sketches, plans, and maps.

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. ii b. iii c. ii d. iii e. ii
2. a. atlas b. index c. linear d. compass e. Cartography
3. a. iv b. i c. ii d. vi e. iii f. v
4. a. It is not possible to show details of a smaller area on a globe. Globes cannot provide detailed
information about various topics related to land and its utilisation. These are the disadvantages of
globes.
b. Political, physical, and thematic are the different types of maps.
c. The index or legend of a map gives the key to the symbols used on the map.
d. Maps use a set of standard signs and symbols that are internationally accepted to depict certain
features and characteristics. These are known as conventional symbols.
e. A cartographer is a person who makes maps.
5. b. Scale is the proportion or ratio between a distance on a map and the corresponding distance on
the ground or the Earth’s surface. A small distance on the map represents a large distance on the
ground, based on a certain scale or value. A scale can be expressed as a statement.
a. Maps help us by providing detailed information about the Earth. Navigators, flight pilots need
maps as a guide to fix their location. Town-planners use maps to plan and show the layout of a
town or a city.
c. The larger the scale of the map, the more detail it shows. Maps can also be expressed as a representative
fraction; e.g., 1:10,000. Here, one unit on the map is equal to a number of the same units on the

72
ground. It is also represented as a linear scale (divided line) where a line is divided into equal parts
and each part represents the actual distance on the ground in metres/km. On the other hand, in a
small-scale map, the smaller the scale, the less detail it shows e.g., world maps or maps that show
large areas.
d. No map can be complete without cardinal directions. Most maps have a North Line. This is an
arrow or a line with N written on the top of the map. The North Line gives us the four main
directions on the map. The direction of a place is always taken with the help of the North Line.
e. Sketches are useful as they can be drawn quickly to give a rough idea of the layout of a certain area
or to show the route and locations of places. These are rough approximations. If you, for example,
invite a friend to your house, you may have to draw a sketch of the route he/she has to follow from
his/her house to yours.
6. In today’s times, people use GPS to locate places. People can also call each other and ask about the
exact location.

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17
The Four Realms of the Earth
Textbook Reference Page: 132–138 Number of Periods: 6
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Learn about the lithosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the
biosphere • Understand their importance vis-à-vis human life • Draw charts
and diagrams to clarify geographical phenomena

Lesson Development

TOPIC: LITHOSPHERE

 Resources: • Chart papers • Sketch pens and pencils • Bowl of


water

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss the structure of the Earth in the class.


• Ask students to read the topic.
• Ask the students to answer the following questions.
 What type of layers is the Earth made of?
 Do we live on the outer surface of the Earth or the inner core?
 What do we call the outermost layer of the Earth? What is it
made of? How thick is it?
 What are the three layers of the Earth’s interior called? What is
the core made up of?
 What do we call the solid layer which provides the base for life?
Does its thickness vary? I sit thicker over the continents or over
the oceans?
 Name the various plates the lithosphere is made up of?
 What are the two elements of the lithosphere? Which of them
is larger?

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7 TOPIC: HYDROSPHERE

 Time: 45 minutes
 Activity

• Introduce the topic.


• Discuss the importance of the atmosphere and why life could not be possible without it.
• Ask students to read the topic and answer the following questions.
 What is the atmosphere?
 When does the density of air start decreasing?
 What gases make up the atmosphere?
 Why do we find it difficult to breathe as we climb high mountains?
 In which layer of the atmosphere do we find water vapour?
 Which layer of the atmosphere protects us from the lethal ultraviolet rays of the Sun?
 Why can human beings, animals and plants not live without the atmosphere?
 ‘The atmosphere acts like a glasshouse.’ What is the advantage? What happens when air gets
heated? What happens when air gets cooled?

TOPIC: ATMOSPHERE
Sub-topic: Layers of the Atmosphere

 Time: 40 minutes

 Activity

• Introduce the topic.


• Discuss the importance of the atmosphere and why life could not be possible without it.
• Ask students to read the topic and answer the following questions.
 What is the atmosphere?
 When does the density of air start decreasing?
 What gases make up the atmosphere?
 Why do we find it difficult to breathe as we climb high mountains?
 In which layer of the atmosphere do we find water vapour?
 Which layer of the atmosphere protects us from the lethal ultraviolet rays of the Sun?
 Why can human beings, animals and plants not live without the atmosphere?
 ‘The atmosphere acts like a glasshouse.’ What is the advantage? What happens when air gets
heated? What happens when air gets cooled?

TOPIC: BIOSPHERE

 Time: 60 minutes

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 Activity

• Make a presentation on the biosphere briefly highlighting its different features and components
through diagrams and chart papers.
• Ask students to read about the biosphere.
• Have a class discussion guided by the following questions.
 What happens when land, water and air interact?
 Do living things interact with each other and other non-living things?
 What is the biosphere made up of?
 What are the four realms of Earth?
 Why should we ensure that the balance between them is maintained?

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. i b. ii c. iii d. iii e. ii
2. a. Sial; Sima b. asthenosphere c. water vapour d. stratosphere e. ionosphere
3. a. false b. false c. true d. true e. true
4. a. Lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere are the four realms of the Earth.
b. Atmosphere is important because has ozone layer which protects us from the lethal ultraviolet
rays of the Sun. Another layer of atmosphere called ionosphere makes radio and television wave
transmission possible.
c Biosphere is the zone where lithosphere, hydrosphere, and the atmosphere meet.
d. Habitat is a natural environment where life thrives and multiplies.
e. Due to the high level of emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the Earth’s temperature has
been going up. This phenomenon is known as global warming. Due to their unplanned industrial
activities and insensitive exploitation of natural resources, human beings are largely responsible for
global warming.
5. a. Lithosphere includes the layers of solid rock of the crust and the upper mantle.
The uppermost layer of the lithosphere is known as crust. It is made up of two layers—sial (upper
crust) and sima (lower layer). The mantle lies below the crust, and it is made of rocks that are denser
than the crust. Below the mantle is the core of the Earth. The core is made of heavy metals such as
iron and nickel. The lithosphere comprises both continents and ocean beds. Students can make Fig
17.1 (a).
b. Hydrosphere comprises oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, frozen water, underground water, and the water
vapour in the atmosphere. If there were no hydrosphere, there would be no drinking water and
it would have been impossible for human beings and various other living creatures to stay alive.
Oceans, rivers and lakes also serve as habitats for a number of living organisms and have their own
ecosystems. Moreover, they also act as channels of transportation for different purposes.

76
c. The series of changes which water in the hydrosphere undergoes between the sea, air and land
is known as the hydrological cycle or the water cycle. Water keeps changing from one form to
another in a cyclical manner. Water from the oceans, seas and rivers becomes water vapour in the
atmosphere, through evaporation. The water vapour then cools and changes into minute water
droplets. This is called condensation. On cooling further, the tiny droplets in the cloud become
larger and fall as rain. This is known as precipitation. This happens also in the form of snow, hail,
etc. This rainfall/snowfall feeds glaciers, rivers, lakes and underground water sources, and eventually
goes back to the oceans, thus completing the water cycle.
d. The realm of air that surrounds the Earth is called the atmosphere. It is held together due to the
Earth’s gravity. It extends for almost 1,600 km above the surface of the Earth. Beyond it lies airless
space. As we go upwards, the density of air keeps decreasing.
e. A community of organisms interacting with each other and with their non-living environment is
known as an ecosystem. It is a natural unit, consisting of both living or biotic and non-living or
abiotic parts.
6. Yes, global warming has resulted in the rise of sea level. Glaciers are also melting due to global
warming. We can help in arresting this problem by keeping a check on use of machines/appliances
that emit CFCs and other harmful substances. Students can also browse the Internet to find out
more information on this topic.

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18
Continents and Oceans
Textbook Reference Page: 154–165 Number of Periods: 5–6
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Acquire information about continents and oceans • Study their formation
• Gather relevant geographical information from the Internet

Lesson Development

TOPIC: CONTINENTS
Sub-topics: Asia; Africa; North America; South America; Antarctica;
Europe; Australia

 Resources: • Atlas • Internet • Outline map of the world • Maps of


different continents.

 Time: 90 minutes
 Activity

• The teacher will define a ‘Continent’ and briefly explain its features.
• The teacher will ask students to look at the world map given on page
139 and find out what colours like green and blue represent.
• Students will read about the continents.
• There will be a class discussion around the following questions.
 How much space of the Earth’s surface do the continents take?
 Name the seven continents. Which is the largest continent?
 What separates Europe from Africa?
 Why is Africa known as the Dark Continent?
 In which hemisphere does South America lie?
 Which two continents does the Isthmus of Panama link?
 Which is the third largest of the seven continents?
 How would you describe the USA, Canada and Greenland?
 Which is the White Continent? Why is it called ‘white’?
 Which is the smallest continent?
 Which continent is thickly populated—Australia or Europe?
 Study the maps of different continents and make a list of the
countries located there.

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 Weblink: http://www.softschools.com/social_studies/continents/map.jsp
http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/World_Continents.htm

TOPIC: OCEANS
Sub-topics: Pacific Ocean; Atlantic Ocean; Indian Ocean; Arctic Ocean; Southern Ocean

 Time: 60 minutes
 Activity

• Ask students to look at the map of the world and find out the names of five big oceans.
• Briefly describe how these five oceans are connected.
• Ask students to read all about the oceans.
• Have a discussion around the following questions.
 Which is the largest of all the five oceans?
 How would you describe the size of the Atlantic Ocean?
 Which country is the Indian Ocean named after?
 Which ocean remains frozen for greater part of the year?
 Which ocean borders Antarctica?
 Is the coastline of countries always straight?
• Locate major ports and harbours on the map of the world.

 Weblink: http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/worldquiz.html

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. iii b. ii c. iii d. ii e. iii


2. a. 71 b. Isthmus c. Antarctica d. Strait of Gibraltar e. Australia
3. a. true b. false c. true d. false e. true
4. a. The world’s longest river, the Nile (6,650 km), is located in Africa.
b. Amazon rainforests are useful because they provide the essential environmental world service of
continuously recycling carbon dioxide into oxygen. More than 20 per cent of the world’s oxygen is
produced in the Amazon rainforest.
c. Antarctica is known as the ‘White Continent’ because of a thick carpet of ice and snow that covers
it entirely.
d. The Holy See or the Vatican (110 acres), the world’s smallest country, is located in Europe.
e. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is an underwater mountain range on the floor of the Atlantic. It is the
longest mountain range on Earth and spreads from Iceland to Antarctica beneath the Atlantic.
5. a. Antarctica is the world’s driest and coldest continent. It extends from the South Pole to the Antarctic
Circle and is the fifth largest continent. It is called the White Continent as a thick carpet of ice and
snow covers it entirely. It is the only continent where no human beings live permanently.

79
b. The Great Barrier Reef is an interesting feature of Australia. It is over 1,553 miles of coral. At
present, it the largest living structure in the world.
c. Most of the world’s active and dormant volcanoes are also located in the Pacific Ocean basin. The
volcanoes form a ring around the basin and therefore it is called the Pacific Ring of Fire. About 90
per cent of the world’s earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire.
d. The Indian Ocean is mostly in the Southern Hemisphere and between Africa and Australia in
east Asia. India lies at its head. The waters of the Indian Ocean happens to be the world’s largest
breeding grounds for humpback whales and also the coelacanth fish, which was earlier thought to
be extinct.
e. The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world’s five oceans. The Northwest Passage (US and Canada)
and Northern Sea Route (Norway and Russia) are two important seasonal waterways. A sparse
network of air, ocean, river, and land routes circumscribes the Arctic Ocean. During the winters,
this ocean is frozen. It is the only place on the Earth where polar bears live.

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19
Relief Features of the Continents
Textbook Reference Page: 165–171 Number of Periods: 3–4
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Study the world’s major relief features and the processes of their formation
• Study the types and importance of mountains, plateaus, and plains

Lesson Development

TOPIC: MOUNTAINS

 Resources: • Atlas • Internet • Charts of the world’s relief features


• Physical maps of the world’s different continents

Sub-topics: Fold Mountains; Block Mountains; Volcanic Mountains

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss the relief features of the continents.


• Explain the processes of formation of mountains and their
different types.
• Discuss folding and faulting.
• Ask students to make diagrams showing the formation of fold and
block mountains.
• Ask students to find the Alps, the Himalayas, the Rockies and the
Andes on their map.
• Describe the features of young mountains with suitable examples.
• Ask students to find out in which countries are these volcanoes—
Mt Fujiyama, Mt Vesuvius, and Mt Pelee.
• Go to the Internet and findout a little more about block
mountains—horsts.
• Ask students to name the older mountains found in India and
find out why these mountains are lower than the young fold
mountains.
• Ask students to list the significant advantages of mountains for the
humankind.
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  Weblink: http://hassam.hubpages.com/hub/Famous-Mountains-Of-The-World

TOPIC: PLATEAUS

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Describe the key features of plateaus and explain how they are different from mountains.
• Explain why plateaus are also called tablelands.
• Describe different types of plateaus and the major factors that lead to their formation.
• Ask students to mark important plateaus on an outline map of the world.
• Describe how plateaus are useful for us.

 Weblink: http://hassam.hubpages.com/hub/Famous-Plateaus

TOPIC: PLAINS

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Explain the important features and types of plains.


• Discuss how plains are formed and why most of the plains are densely populated.
• Ask students to visit an encyclopedia or the Internet to find out about the river valley civilisations
of ancient period and how plains facilitated their growth.
• Describe how plains are useful for us.

 Weblink: http://www.scienceclarified.com/landforms/Ocean-Basins-to-Volcanoes/Plain.
html#b

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. iii b. ii c. ii d. iii e. ii
2. a. Folding, faulting, volcanic eruption b. Fold c. Lava d. mountain system
e. Plateaus

82
3. a. true b. false c. true d. false e. true
4. a. Most mountains are formed as a result of earth movements—folding, faulting, or volcanic eruptions.
b. The upward folds or ridges are known as anticlines, while the downward folds or valleys are called
synclines.
c. A rift valley or graben is a valley that is formed when the land between the faults sinks down.
d. Plains are fertile due to alluvium deposited by rivers and their tributaries.
e. Plains provide the most fertile agricultural land and the best living conditions in the world. Hence,
they are the most densely populated areas of the world.
5. a. Folding is a compressive movement of the Earth’s lithospheric plates. Layers of rocks are pushed
towards each other and are uplifted by folding to form fold mountains almost as a piece of paper
folds when pushed together. Young and old mountains are formed by this process. Fold mountains
are formed throught this process. These include the Alps (Europe), the Himalayas (India), the
Rockies (North America), Aravallis, Western and Eastern Ghats, Urals, the Andes (South America),
etc.
b. Faulting is a process through which block mountains are formed when tectonic plate tensional
movements push, squeeze, or release a plate, causing it to rise or fall. A lifted section of rock made
through this process is known as a horst. The Harz Mountains of Germany and the mountain
ranges of Nevada and Utah in the USA are block mountains. Similarly, a rift valley or graben is
formed when the land between the faults sinks down.
c. Volcanic mountains are formed when hot molten rock (magma) deep within the Earth, erupts
through openings or vents in the crust, and piles upon the surface. Magma is called lava when it\
breaks through the Earth’s crust. When the ash and lava cools, it builds a cone of rock. Rock and
lava pile up, layer upon layer often forming a mountain.
d. Plateaus and mountains are different in their structure and height. While plateaus rise from the
ground rather steeply and have a flat upper surface like a table, mountains are much loftier with
uneven heights.
e. Many plateaus, such as the Deccan Plateau in India, are rich in minerals. Plateaus formed by
solidification of lava are rich in black soil, which is very good for growing sugar cane and cotton.
6. The Indo-Gangetic Plain is one of the most fertile regions of the world and is drained by rivers such
as Ganga, Yamuna and their tributaries. This region is ideal for agriculture and most of the food
crops that are consumed by people of India are grown here.

83
20
India: Physical Features
Textbook Reference Page: 172–182 Number of Periods: 5–6
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Acquire information about the varying physical features of India • Understand
that there is unity in this diversity • Read maps and interpret diagrams

Lesson Development

TOPIC: PHYSICAL FEATURES


Sub-topics: The Northern Mountains; The Northern Plains; The Great Indian
Desert; The Peninsular Plateau; The Coastal Plains; The Islands

 Resources: • Political map of Asia (or South Asia) and India • Atlas
• Outline maps of India and south Asia • Modelling clay
(to make a model of peninsular India) • Internet

 Time: 30 minutes + 30 minutes + 30 minutes + 30 minutes + 30


minutes + 30 minutes

 Activity

• Tell the class about ‘India in the World’ and its location and political divisions.
• Ask students to read the topic and have a class discussion around the following questions.
 In which continent is India located?
 What is the world’s population?
 Where does one-sixth of this population live?
 Why is India described as ‘a land of diversity’?
 What unites the people of India?
• Ask students to look at the map and name the seven countries that share India’s land
frontier.
What has given a boost to India’s trade and commerce?
• Ask students to name the states which share their western border with Pakistan.
• Ask students to name the states through which the Tropic of Cancer passes. What is the
distance from the east to the west of India? Why does the Sun rise in Arunachal Pradesh
almost two hours before Gujarat?

84
0 Sub-topic: The Northern Mountains
• Talk about the physical features of India.

• Ask students to read the sub-topic and have a class discussion around the following questions.
 Where is the Himalayan mountain range to be found?
 Name the three main ranges found in the Himalayas.
 Which is the highest mountain range? What is its height?
 Where are most of the beautiful hill stations to be found? Which are the valleys found in this
range?
 What is the average height of the Siwalik ranges?
 What is the Terai?
 Which mountain range is known for its fruit production and animal rearing?
 What is the source of the Ganga?
Sub-topic: The Northern Plains
• Describe the Northern Plains.
• Ask students to read about them from the book and have a class discussion around the following
questions.
 Which states comprise the Northern Plains?
 What are the two distinguishing features of these plains?
 Which are the three rivers that flow through the plains?
 How is this plain formed?
 What grows in abundance in this belt?
 Which states does the Brahmaputra flow through? Where does it join the Ganga? Which is
the world’s largest and most fertile delta?
Sub-topic: The Great Indian Desert
• Describe the Indian Desert.
• Ask students to read the sub-topic and answer the following questions.
� Where is the Thar Desert?
� What is it made up of?
� How is a sand dune different from a hillock?
Sub-topic: The Peninsular Plateau
• Ask students to read the sub-topic and answer the following questions.
� What is the Peninsular Plateau made up of?
� Which are the important rivers found in this Plateau?
� What have the rocks in the Plateau given us?
Sub-topic: The Coastal Plains
• Make a presentation on the sub-topic.
• Have a class discussion around the following questions.
� Where are the coastal plains? Why have they been coloured green and not brown?
� Which plain is crossed by many large rivers? What grows in these deltas?
Sub-topic: The Islands
• Make a presentation on the sub-topic.
• Have a class discussion around the following questions.
� Where are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands?
� Where are the Lakshadweep Islands?
� Find out what attracts tourists to visit the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep
Islands.
85
ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. ii b. ii c. iii d. iii e. ii
2. a. Shivaliks b. Satluj c. peninsular d. igneous, metamorphic
3. a. true b. true c. false d. true e. true
4. a. The Greater Himalayas or the Himadri, the Lesser Himalayas or the Himachal, and the Outer
Himalayas or the Shiwalik Range are the three ranges of the Himalayas.
b. The alluvium deposited by Satluj, Ganga, and its tributaries makes the Northern Plains extremely
fertile.
c. Volcanic activity in the past caused molten rock from inside the Earth to flow out through cracks
in the lithosphere. This lava then spread out onto the Earth’s surface as lava sheets, which got built
up into the plateau.
d. Coral polyps are tiny sea organisms. When they die, their skeletal remains accumulate on the
seabed to form coral, which may eventually get built up into islands.
e. Lakshadweep is so named because it literally means one hundred thousand (laksha), and they were
thought to be 100,000 islands.
5. a. India is part of the great Asian land mass, located at the head of the Indian Ocean in the Eastern
Hemisphere. The Himalayas separate India and its neighbours, together called the Indian
subcontinent, from the rest of Asia. The southern half of India lies within the Tropical Zone while
its northern half lies in the Temperate Zone and is often said to be subtropical in nature.
b. Unlike the Himachal and Himadri ranges, the Shiwalik range has an average height of 1,550 m.
Also, this is not a continuous range and merges with the marshy foothills, called the Terai. Since
these are still under formation, this range is prone to landslides.
c. The Peninsular Plateau is the oldest physical feature of India. This plateau is made up of two
parts—the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau. The Central Highlands occupy the north
of the Peninsular Plateau. The Malwa Plateau, the Bundelkhand Plateau, and the Chota Nagpur
Plateau make up the Central Highlands. The Deccan Plateau is largely made up of both igneous
and metamorphic rocks. Volcanic activity in the past caused molten rock from inside the Earth to
flow out through cracks in the lithosphere.
d. Along the western and eastern edges of the Deccan Plateau are chains of hills. While the Eastern
Ghats are lower and broken up by rivers flowing across them, the Western Ghats are higher and
continuous. The Eastern Ghats meet the Western Ghats, just north of the Nilgiri Hills.
e. The Western Coastal Plain is narrow with rocky cliffs and an indented coastline. No large rivers
cross this plain. The northern half of this plain is called the Konkan Coast while the southern half
is known as the Malabar Coast. Between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal, is the Eastern
Coastal Plain, a broad coastal plain. The plain is called the Coromandel Coast
in the south, while in the north, it is known as the Northern Circars.
6. Every physical division in our country has some advantage or the other. The plateaus are rich in
minerals; plains are suitable for agriculture; mountains are excellent tourist spots and so on. These
advantages make our resources rich and make India a prosperous country.
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21
India: Climate, Vegetation, and
Wildlife
Textbook Reference Page: 183–193 Number of Periods: 8–9
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Acquire information about climate, seasons, natural vegetation and India’s
wildlife • Gain insights into the reasons why the weather changes • Learn about
the varied vegetation and wildlife found in India • Understand the importance
of afforestation and preservation of wildlife, especially those species that are
becoming extinct

Lesson Development

TOPIC: INDIA’S CLIMATE: INFLUENCING FACTORS

 Resources: • Atlas • Outline map of India • List of endangered and


extinct species

 Time: 40 minutes

 Activity

• Introduce the topic highlighting the factors that affect climate.


• Ask students to read about the climate from the textbook.
• Have a class discussion focusing on the following.
 Why is India described as ‘the land of the monsoons’?
 Which agricultural activities depend on the monsoons?
• Mark your town/city on the map and show how far it is from the
Equator and the sea.

TOPIC: CYCLE OF SEASONS


Sub-topics: Summer; Monsoon; Retreating Monsoon; Winter

 Time: 90 minutes

87
 Activity

• Discuss the types of seasons in India.


Sub-topic: Summer
• Ask students to read about the summer season from their textbooks.
• Have a class discussion around the following questions.
 What is the temperature like in most parts of northwest India during the hot season?
 What is the temperature in the coastal areas?
 Why is the temperature in the coastal areas lower than in northwest India?
 Why is the temperature in hilly areas lower than in other parts of India?
 When is the Sun vertically above the Tropic of Cancer?
 Which wind blows over northwest India during the hot season?
• Ask students to list out the fruits and vegetables we get during the hot season.

Sub-topics: Monsoon; Retreating Monsoon


• Discuss the causes and outcomes of monsoon and retreating monsoon.
• Have a class discussion in the class around the following questions.
 Which areas get rain from the southwest monsoon?
 Which big water body does the southeast monsoon blow over?
 Which regions get the heaviest rain?
 Why does the desert in Rajasthan get only 25 cm of rain?
 When do the monsoons retreat from most of India?
• Find out how much rainfall your state gets.

Sub-topic: Winter
• Have a class discussion around the following questions.
 What is the temperature in winter like in most parts of India?
 Name the winter months.
 Why do coastal areas have mild winters?
 Why do the northeast monsoons not bring rain?
 Why does Tamil Nadu receive more than half of its annual rainfall in winter?

TOPIC: VEGETATION OF INDIA


Sub-topics: Tropical Evergreen Rainforests; Deciduous Monsoon Forests; The Thorn and Scrub or Dry
Forests; Mangrove or Tidal Forests; The Mountain Forests

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Introduce the topic in the class.


• Have a class discussion on the following questions.
 Which factors determine the kind of natural plant life?

88
 Where are the tropical evergreen rainforests found?
 Describe the trees and plants found in these forests.
 What does light green represent? Which trees are found in these forests?
 Describe the plant life in areas where the rainfall is between 40 cm and 60 cm?
 What are some of the water-saving devices that vegetation in thorn forests has developed?
 Where do walnuts, chestnuts and maple grow?
 What trees are found in coniferous forests?
 Why are forests described as a very important natural resource?
 How can we contribute towards making a greener India?
• Ask students to search the internet for information on Bahugana and the Chipko Movement.
• Ask students to draw these trees which are found in coniferous forests: pine, cedar, deodar, and
silver fir. They can look up the encyclopaedia or the Internet for some interesting details about
them.

TOPIC: IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS

 Time: 30 minutes + nature walk

 Activity

• Discuss the topic and ask students to read it from the book.
• Ask students to prepare a list of important forest products, their uses, and where they are found.
• The students should be taken on nature walks and encouraged to develop an interest in the trees
and plants around them, and how these change through the seasons.

TOPIC: WILDLIFE

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Introduce the topic and ask students to read it.


• Have a class discussion around the following questions.
 Which wildlife is found in the wet and dense forests?
 Where do we find lions and deer?
 Which animals are found in the scrub and thorn forests?
 Name the animals found in the higher ranges of the Himalayas.
 Name some of the birds that you see in your neighbourhood.
 Which life forms do we find in rivers and deltas?
 When do we observe wildlife week in India? Why do we observe it?
 How are animals and birds kept in national parks?
 Why do you think wildlife sanctuaries are called so?
 What are the major objectives of the Tiger Reserves?

89
• Ask students to select an endangered animal/bird and find out about its habitat, its food, and the
reasons for sharp decrease in its population.
• Encourage students to visit a wildlife sanctuary in their vacations.

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a.
ii b. iii c. iii d. iii e. iii
2. a.
Bardolichheerha b. rainshadow c. evergreen rainforests d. coniferous
e. Project Tiger; Project Rhino
3. a.
true b. true c. false d. false e. false
4. a.
In Kerala, the local thunderstorms are called mango showers as they help in the ripening of mangoes.
b. Monsoon winds bring most of the rain to India.
c. Tamil Nadu receives more than half of its annual rainfall in winter.
d. The Himalayan areas from Assam stretching westwards to Kashmir and parts of the higher hills in
the Western Ghats.are the areas where coniferous trees are found.
e. Lions and leopards are found in the grasslands of India
5. a.
The monsoons play a vital role in determining the lives of people. However, numerous physical and
local factors also influence the climatic conditions of India. These are latitude, altitude, direction of
mountain ranges, distance from the sea, and seasonal winds.
b. The two main branches of the monsoon winds over India are Southwest monsoon and Southeast
monsoon. The main branch is the Southwest monsoon that blows over the Arabian Sea towards
India’s west coast. When the south-west monsoons approach the Indian coast, they divide into two
branches—an Arabian Sea branch and a Bay of Bengal branch. The Arabian Sea branch blows
towards the west coast of India bringing rain to peninsular India and parts of Gujarat. The Bay of
Bengal branchagain divides into two branches— one that moves towards Myanmar, Bangladesh
and eastern India, while the other travels in a south-easterly direction up the Northern Plains and
the Gangetic Valley towards the low pressure centred in the north-western part of India.
c. By October, the weather gets clearer and cooler. By the end of September, the Sun begins to move
to the Southern Hemisphere and a reversal of winds takes place. Dry winds begin to blow from the
land to the sea. The Southwest monsoon winds seem to withdraw in stages during this season. That
is why this season is known as the Retreating Southwest monsoon season. Northeast monsoon
blows in northeast direction from the land to the sea. It does not bring rain.
d. Mangrove forests grow in coastal regions in places where the sea water mixes with fresh water.
The vegetation in these forests includes trees, shrubs, ferns, and palms. The most common tree here
is the Sundari.
e. The Government of India has taken strict steps to protect wildlife. National parks and wildlife
sanctuaries have been set up. India has more than 90 National Parks, over 490 Wildlife
Sanctuaries
and 49 Tiger Reserves. Project Tiger and Project Rhino are special efforts to protect two of the
endangered animals tigers and rhinos.
6. If India were situated near the Tropic of Cancer, then north India would be hotter than South
India. The rainfall pattern would also change as monsoon winds would blow from some other
regions. Students can study the climatic conditions near Tropic of Capricorn by browsing the
Internet and discuss this question in class.
90
22
Understanding Diversity
Textbook Reference Pages: 194–200 Number of Periods: 4
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Develop a clear understanding and appreciation of the concept of diversity • Be
conversant with those attributes that unite them as Indians

Lesson Development

TOPICS: WHAT IS DIVERSITY?; DIVERSITY IN INDIA


Sub-topics: Geographical Diversity; Economic Diversity; Religious Diversity;
Cultural Diversity

 Resources: • Internet • A Bombay cinema film that highlights inter-


religious/inter-cultural coexistence (Bombay or Jodhaa
Akbar) • Constitution of India • Display of diverse cuisine
during Tiffin Break.

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Make a short presentation on the unique concept of ‘unity in diversity’ in the


context of India, underscoring the fact that diversity is part of being human
and that it adds to our lives in so many different ways.
• Ask students to read this section and think about their experiences with
diversity and difference.
• Students will form small groups and do the following.
 Each student fills in the information about herself/himself (as listed in the
table on page 195). The teacher could add a few more questions to this
form—for example, how many festivals do they celebrate, what clothes do
they wear on these festivals, etc.
 Then, each student reads out aloud some of the key aspects of his/her
identity. For example, place of birth, languages she/he speaks, religion,
favourite food etc.
 At the end of the exercise, the teacher and the students collectively identify
the common characteristics. They also try to explore if the lists of any two
students matched exactly.
91
 This is followed by a discussion on the beauty of diversity—the fact that, even the same festivals,
such as Diwali, are celebrated in different ways across the country.
• Ask students to go to the Internet and identify all the different religions and languages that are practised
and spoken in India. Also, look up the lyrics of Jana Gana Mana (the national anthem) and Saare
Jahan Se Achcha. What do the lyrics of these two songs tell us about the diversity of India?
• Highlight the different ways in which India is diverse.
• Have a discussion around the following questions.
 What are the different ways in which diversity exists in India (clothes, festivals, religions, cuisines,
languages, etc.)?
 What are the reasons for the rich diversity in India?
 In what ways do the dresses of Indians living in Kashmir differ from those in Rajasthan? What are
the causes for this difference?
 Why do a majority of north Indians eat chappati or paratha and south Indians rice-based dishes?
 In what ways do the environment and geography of places influence local festivals and dance-music
traditions?
• For Tiffin Break, each student brings one dish, which is made in the village/town/city of his/her birth.
They talk about the ingredients and history of this dish before sharing it with their classmates.
• Organise a class trip to a local national museum or weavers’ haat where students can see, through the
cuisine and clothes on display, the richness of India’s cultural traditions.

TOPIC: WHAT DOES DIVERSITY ADD TO OUR LIVES?

 Time: 60 minutes, additional time for film screening

 Activity

• Summarises the importance of recognising ‘diversity’ in India while also highlighting those attributes
that unite Indians.
• Ask students to read this section, and try to identify points to learn.
• Facilitate a discussion around the following questions.
 In what ways are Indians similar and different?
 How did Indians come together to fight the British colonisers?
 Celebrating difference and diversity enriches our lives and brings happiness to us. Think of examples
from your own life.
 What were the contributions of Akbar and Ashoka to contemporary India?
• Ask students to browse the Internet and look for photographical representations of the diversities in
India—with respect to clothes, cuisine, religion, language, lifestyle, etc.
• The teacher could organise a screening of the movie Bombay or Jodhaa Akbar as an example of the idea
that people of different cultures and religions can coexist happily with one another.

92
ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. iii b. iii c. i d. iii e. Equality


2. a. 800 b. economic c. secular d. unity e. Equality
3. a. false b. false c. true d. false e. true
4. a. In cold places such as Kashmir, people eat meat and milk products, especially in winters as few
crops are grown here.
b. Rearing sheep and yaks is the chief occupation of people in Jammu and Kashmir.
c. Secular state means a state where equal respect is given to all religions.
d. Kuchipudi is a dance form of India
e. Diversity adds variety to our life and enriches it significantly. It helps us understand that one thing
can be done in many different ways. It teaches us to be open-minded and tolerant. It helps us evolve
as better human beings because we respect people with different religious beliefs, viewpoints, tastes,
customs and cultures.
5. a. The economic activities of an area are influenced by the area’s geographical conditions. Different
regions grow different crops. Agriculture is the primary occupation of people residing in the fertile
Indo-Gangetic Plains. People in coastal areas depend on sea food as means to their livelihood
unlike those in the mountains, who depend on cattle and sheep rearing for their livelihood.
b. Diversity in India is of different types. The most significant among these are geographical, religious-
cultural, and economic diversities. Geographical diversity determines the kind of food they eat,
what they do for a living and the customs they follow. Similarly, religious and cultural diversities
determine their faiths and cultural practices while economic diversity determines their occupations.
c. Diversity adds variety to our life and enriches it significantly. It helps us understand that one thing
can be done in many different ways. It teaches us to be open-minded and tolerant.
d. India is a vast country, with a variety of geographical and climatic conditions. In India, you find
many different ethnic, racial, and religious groups. People living in different regions of India speak
different languages, have different types of food, celebrate different festivals, and practise different
religions. That is why India is referred to as a land of ‘unity in diversity’.
e. Right to Equality is one of the Fundamental Rights laid down by the Indian Constitution. It states:
Right to equality, including equality before law, prohibition of discrimination on grounds of
religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth, and equality of opportunity in matters of employment,
abolition of untouchability and abolition of titles.

93
23
Prejudice, Discrimination, and
Inequality
Textbook Reference Pages: 201–208 Number of Periods: 4
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Develop a clear understanding of the three concepts—prejudice, discrimination,
and inequality—and be able to distinguish between them • Understand that
discrimination has many different sources, and we should watch out for these in
our daily interactions • Be familiar with the efforts of nationalist leaders who tried
to reduce inequality and discrimination in Indian society

Lesson Development
TOPIC: PREJUDICE
Sub-topics: Causes that Give Rise to Prejudice; Effects of Prejudice; Steps
Necessary to Reduce Prejudice

 Resources: • Internet • CDs of a few episodes of Aamir Khan’s


Satyamev Jayate which looks at what ordinary Indians
are doing to remove different forms of inequality and
discrimination • Textbook
 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Present a short summary of the topic.


• Ask students to read this section and identify one question or one insight
from the reading, which they can bring into the discussion.
• Facilitate a class discussion around the following questions.
 What is prejudice? What according to each student is the most common
cause of prejudice?
 Do we see prejudice in our homes? Between daughters and sons? Against
the domestic help who works in our homes or the sweepers who cleans our
streets? Are there other people against whom you have noticed prejudice?
 How many different types of prejudice can we think of?
 How does prejudice harm us and our fellow citizens?
 What steps can we, as individuals, take to reduce prejudice?
94
• Invite a few members of your school staff who are responsible for cleaning the toilets to your classroom
for a discussion. Ask them about the kinds of prejudice they have faced since childhood and what
hopes and aspirations they have for their own children.

 Weblink: http://satyamevjayate.in/

TOPIC: STEREOTYPE

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Provide a summary of the topic.


• Ask students to read the section and facilitate a class discussion around the following questions.
 What is a stereotype?
 What are some of the common stereotypes that we have about other people?
 Why should we avoid making stereotypical statements?

 Weblink: http://goindia.about.com/od/indiancultureetiquette/tp/Top-10-Indian-
Stereotypes.htm

TOPIC: DISCRIMINATION AND INEQUALITY


Sub-topics: Religion and Discrimination; Caste System and Discrimination; Racial Diversity and
Discrimination; Gender Disparity and Discrimination; Economic Inequality and Discrimination

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Provide a summary of the topic.


• Ask students to read the text under this topic and think of examples that they have observed in their
daily lives.
• Facilitate a discussion around the following questions.
 What is discrimination? How is it linked to stereotypes and prejudices?
 What are the different types of discrimination?
 Even though India banned untouchability soon after independence, why does such discrimination
still continue? What forms does this discrimination take?
 What were the contributions of Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi with respect to the
rights of all Indians to live in dignity, peace and happiness?

95
 According to the national census 2011, there has been a decline in the number of girls under the
age of seven. Why do you think this is happening?
• In addition to listing the names of Indians who tried to break the rigid caste system, please also think
about the ways in which they did this. What methods did they use?

 Weblink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2474466

TOPIC: STRIVING FOR EQUALITY

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Present a summary of the topic.


• Ask students to read the topic and facilitate a discussion around the following questions.
 What are some of the ways in which nationalist leaders tried to create a society based on equality
and respect for all Indians?
 What are the Fundamental Rights? Are we practising these rights in our lives? Are all our fellow
citizens able to practise these rights?
 In what ways do we find equality being practiced in our school? For instance, how are the school
sweepers treated? What can we do to promote equality?
• The teacher can bring 10 to 15 newspapers to the classroom for a discussion around the different types
of inequality that still exist in India, and what efforts are being made to reduce discrimination and
deprivation. The activity can begin with students scanning the newspapers for reports on violence and
discrimination against individuals/groups. These can be categorised on the basis of the classifications in
the textbook. Then, students look for positive stories which showscase efforts to remove discrimination
and inequality, and uphold fundamental rights.

 Weblink: http://www.preservearticles.com/201104265964/1310-words-essay-on-equality-
in-india.html

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. i b. i c. i d. i e. iii
2. a. Prejudice b. Education c. inoculation d. Discrimination
e. Economic
3. a. false b. false c. true d. true e. true
4. a. The biased or unfavourable opinion formed without examination of facts is called prejudice.
b. Prejudice leads to disunity and disharmony in society through strife and war.

96
c. When all persons of a particular group are fitted into one fixed image which may be imagined or
observed, it is called a stereotype. For example, ‘Girls are not good at mathematics or fixing things’,
or ‘Boys don’t cry’, or ‘Boys are naughty and girls are gentle.’ and so on.
d. Jyotiba Phule and Raja Ram Mohan Roy fought against social discrimination.
e. The term ‘apartheid’ means discrimination on grounds of skin colour. Nelson Mandela of South
Africa fought against it.
5. a. Prejuduce is the biased or unfavourable opinion formed without examination of facts. Discrimination,
on the other and, signifies negative attitude shown by a person or groups of persons towards others
on the basis of prejudice. It arises when there is differentiation between people on the basis of class,
race, religion, colour, gender, caste, etc., without regard to individual merit.
b. Discrimination is unfair treatment of a person or groups of persons on the basis of prejudice.
Prejudice arising out of diversity and lack of feeling of equality among people too can lead to
discrimination. Diversity, if not understood and appreciated, can lead to misunderstanding and
become a source of discrimination.
c. Discrimination can be due to religious differences. Religious differences can sometimes lead to
serious consequences. Another negative effect of discrimination is the caste system which still exists
in our society, although it has become less rigid. High infant mortality in many countries due to
gender disparity and economic inequality are other two negative effects of discrimination.
d. When we hear people say that ‘Girls are not good at mathematics or fixing things’, or ‘Boys don’t
cry’, or ‘Boys are naughty and girls are gentle’, these are stereotypes. They are neither true for
all boys nor for all girls. It is important to remember that all individuals and social groups have
different ways of doing the same thing. We must try to understand and respect one another as well
as be sensitive towards each other.
e. In order to protect this diversity and to show respect to India’s diverse social groups and cultures,
the Constitution has granted all Indians the following Fundamental Rights.
• Right to Equality
• Right to Freedom
• Right against Exploitation
• Right to Freedom of Religion
• Cultural and Educational Rights
• Right to Constitutional Remedies

97
24
Government
Textbook Reference Pages: 209–217 Number of Periods: 8–9
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Be familiar with the purpose of a government and its key functions • Be able to
distinguish between the different levels of government and the different organs
of government (and their respective functions and duties) • Understand the
different forms of government and a citizen’s power in each • Understand the
meaning of political equality and universal adult franchise

Lesson Development
TOPICS: WHAT IS A GOVERNMENT?; LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT IN
INDIA

 Resources: • Internet • Pictures of national and international political


figures • Newspapers • current affairs magazines • A class
trip to Parliament/State Assembly
 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Summarise the topic highlighting the need for a government.


• Ask the students to read the section and facilitate a discussion around the
following questions.
 How does the presence of a government make life easier for us?
 What are the key functions of a government?
 What are the different levels of government?
 Think of one important role that each level of government performs.
• Organise a class discussion around the government’s responsibility to
provide education to all Indians. Students should read news reports and
Internet articles on this issue. They should form their own opinion on the
subject, and come to class for a discussion.
• Ask students to look around the classroom. How diverse is it? Does it
represent different socio-economic and cultural backgrounds? Ask them to
write a short note on it.

98
 Weblink: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_of_India

TOPIC: FUNCTIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT


Sub-topics: Maintenance of Law and Order; Defence of the Country; Programmes to Deal with Socio-
Economic Problems; Health Services and Infrastructure; Provision for Education of the People; Rescue
Operations; Ensuring Economic Stability; Provision for Easy Movement of Goods and People; Ensuring
Justice to the People

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Summarise the topic, describing the important functions of government.


• Facilitate a discussion around the following questions.
 Why are the armed forces needed by a country?
 What measures are taken by the government to maintain peace and order, and ensure proper
administration of justice?
 How does the government ensure economic stability in the country?
 What measure does the government take to provide health services and education to the people?
 What type of rescue operations are conducted by the government?

 Weblink: www.anand.to/india/government.html/

TOPIC: ORGANS OF THE GOVERNMENT IN INDIA


Sub-topics: Legislature; Executive; Judiciary

 Time: 30 minutes, plus additional time for a field trip to the State Assembly or Parliament

 Activity

• Summarise the topic, highlighting the important role that each organ of the government plays.
• Ask students to read this section and facilitate a discussion around the following questions.
 What are the three organs of the government?
 What are the different functions that they perform?
 Why is each organ dependent on the other? Why do all three need to work in cooperation with one
another?
• Plan a class trip to the Parliament or to the State Legislative Assembly. Observe how our elected
leaders make laws, and how they argue in favour or against a proposed law.

99
TOPIC: TYPES OF GOVERNMENT
Sub-topics: Democracy; Monarchy; Dictatorship

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Present a summary of the level of a citizen’s power in each form of government, underscoring the
significance of India being a ‘representative democracy’.
• Facilitate a discussion focused on the different forms of government, their advantages and disadvantages.
• Encourage students to talk about which form of government they like best, and why.

 Weblink: stutzfamily.com/mrstutz/WorldAffairs/types of govt.html/

TOPICS: DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT; THE SUFFRAGETTE MOVEMENT; ANTI-APRTHEID


STRUGGLE; IMPORTANCE OF DEMOCRACY

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• Define democracy and discuss its important features.


• Explain the terms ‘representative democracy’ and ‘universal adult franchise’ with examples.
• Present a short history of the struggle for universal adult franchise.
• Facilitate a discussion around the following questions.
 Why were governments hesitant to give women the right to vote?
 What were some of the methods used by women in the UK and USA to fight for the right to vote?
 In pre-independence India, who were the leaders of the suffragette movement? What were the
criteria for those who were allowed to vote?
• Explain the term ‘apartheid’ and discuss the role of African National Congress and its leader Nelson
Mandela in the struggle against racism in South Africa.
• Discuss the importance of democracy.

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. i b. i c. iii d. i e. i
2. a. monarchy b. dictatorship c. representative d. 18
e. First World War
3. a. false b. true c. false d. true e. false

100
4. a. A system by which a country is governed or administered.
b. A government is needed because it functions to avoid disorder, anarchy and confusion in a country.
c. The government in India functions at three levels—local, state, and central.
d. On the basis of the source of power, governments around the world can be of three main types—
Democracy, Monarchy, and Dictatorship.
e. When all adult citizens who have attained the age of 18 years are entitled to vote, it is called
universal adult franchise.
5. a. Main functions of the government are
• Maintenance of Law and Order • Defence of the Country • Programmes to Deal with Socio-Economic
Problems • Provision of Health Services and Infrastructure • Provision for Education of the People •
Rescue Operations • Ensuring Economic Stability • Provision for Easy Movement of Goods and People
• Ensuring Justice to the People
b. The three organs of the government are the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary. These
organs are independent and perform three different functions.
c. 
In a monarchy, the monarch or king/queen has the power to run the country. In a democracy, it is
the people who give the government the power to make decisions. People do this through elections.
d. When one person heads the government and governs on the basis of his/her own wishes, without
paying any attention to the wishes and needs of the people, it is called an authoritarian government
or dictatorship. In this type of government, the dictator assumes sole and absolute power and his/
her word is law. In a democracy, it is not an individual or group of individuals but the citizens of
an entire country who play a vital part in the formation and functioning of the government.
e. The Suffragette Movement was a movement organised by British women in the early 20th century
to win political rights. It began in the West in the 1800s. Eventually, it came to be identified with
the struggle of women to fight for the right to vote.
Students can cite examples or incidences where people were discriminated because of their skin.
The teacher may talk about ways to deal with such situations after the students share their
experiences.

101
25
Democratic Government
Textbook Reference Pages: 218–224 Number of Periods: 4
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Understand the concept of a ‘democratic government’ • Be familiar with
citizens rights in such a system • Be able to identify the different elements of a
democratic government • Understand the meaning of equality and justice and
their importance in the success of a democracy

Lesson Development
TOPIC: WHAT IS A DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT?

 Resources: • Internet • Constitution of India • Newspapers •


Magazines • Chart paper • Markers

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Present a short summary of the key features of a democratically-elected


government and the rights of citizens in such a system.
• Ask students to read this section and facilitate a discussion around the
following questions.
 Our right to vote in a democracy comes with certain responsibilities.
What are these responsibility?
 What have been the contributions of Mahatma Gandhi and Nelson
Mandela to democratic processes in India and South Africa?
 In a democracy, the government is “of the people, by the people, and
for the people”. What does this mean in practice? Whose words are
these?
 What are the main features of a democratic government?
• Ask students to do Internet research on the number of countries that have
democratically elected governments and those that don’t. Then, ask them
to find reasons for not choosing the democratic form of government

 Weblink: http://www.stanford.edu/~ldiamond/iraq/
WhaIsDemocracy012004.htm
102
TOPIC: ELEMENTS OF DEMOCRACY
Sub-topics: Electing Representatives by Exercising Right to Vote; Other Ways of Participation;
Accountability; Freedom; Resolving Conflicts; Equality and Justice

 Time: 90 minutes

 Activity

• Present a short summary of the key elements of a democracy.


• Ask students to read the section and facilitate a discussion around the following questions.
 How do ordinary people participate in the governance of the country?
 What are the different types of elections that are held in our country?
 In addition to their right to vote, what are some of the other ways in which people participate in a
democracy?
 What are some of the methods that we can use to bring public attention to our concerns?
 The Constitution guarantees many freedoms to the citizens of India. What are some of these
freedoms?
 What are the responsibilities that we must be mindful of in the exercise of our freedom?
 What are the different types of conflicts that have erupted in India? What are the sources of these
conflicts? Newspapers or the Internet can be used to address this question.
 In order for there to be peace between communities and nations, what changes do we need to make
in our behaviour?
 Why are equality and justice the cornerstones of Indian democracy?
 What are some of the ways in which equality can be promoted?
• There are different ways of resolving conflicts. Browse the Internet to do some research on what
Mahatma Gandhi had to say about conflict and nonviolence.

 Weblink: http://www.international.gc.ca/cip-pic/assets/pdfs/cip-pic/library/
Discussion%20Paper%20-%20Elements%20of%20Democratic%20Governance.
pdf

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. i b. iii c. i d. ii e. i
2. a. dialogue; negotiation b. participation c. Election Commission
d. polling station e. affirmative action
3. a. true b. true c. true d. true e. true
4. a. Democracy is a form of government where people have the right to participate in the governance
of the country through their elected representatives.
b. People are at the centre of democratic government. So, they enjoy certain rights which they can
exercise freely and without state’s intervention. This is what freedom means in the democratic
context.
103
c. In a democracy, the government is elected for a fixed period. At the end of that period, elections are
held again. This is done so as to ensure that government explains its activities and decisions to the
people. If the people are not satisfied with the functioning of the government, they may not vote
for their representatives in the next elections.
d. Rallies are held by groups of people to put their demands before the government or oppose certain
measures adopted by the latter.
e. The twin values of equality and justice are the guiding principles of a democracy.
5. a. 
Freedom of speech and expression, freedom to practise the religion of their choice, freedom to
move within the country, etc. are some of the basic freedoms guaranteed to the people. These types
of freedoms can be exercised in a democratic country provided they do not break any law or harm
the interest of other members of society or communities. Such freedom is not absolute; it can be
restricted to protect the nation’s sovereignty and integrity, public peace, or harmony.
b. Processions are often taken out by different communities and religious groups. They follow certain
routes and the members of other groups can find some reason to disrupt these due to some real or
imaginary happening in the past. Inter-state disputes too are common reasons for conflict. Sharing
of scarce natural resources such as river water has been a source of tension between states in India
for a long time. The Central Government can try to resolve such conflicts amicably.
c. Voting is one way of participating in the process of government. People can participate in
governmental processes in other ways also. They can keep a watch on the working of the government
by asking questions, seeking explanations, and/or by criticising the government through their
elected members.
d. 
Special efforts such as reservation or affirmative action for backward classes have been made in
our Constitution. The government uses its legal machinery to promote justice and mitigate the
differences between the haves and the have-nots, the backward and the advanced sections, for
the upliftment of women and for protection of their rights. Equality can be brought about by a
powerful legal system.
e. The value of equality is the foundation of democracy. No government can be stable if some of its
citizens are denied opportunities provided to others. Differences created on grounds of caste, race,
colour, gender, religion, etc. are enemies of democracy and these have to be dealt with using legal
and humanitarian methods.

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26
Local Self-Government and
Rural Administration
Textbook Reference Pages: 225–233 Number of Periods: 5
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Understand the concept of local self-government (panchayati raj) • Be able
to distinguish between Gram Sabha, Gram Panchayat, and Nyaya Panchayat
• Understand the significant role that Panchayati Raj has played in empowering
rural women and other marginalized groups

Lesson Development

TOPIC: THE LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT


Sub-topic: Need and Importance of Local Self-Government

 Resources: • Internet for background research on the history and


functioning of Panchayati Raj
institutions. • Outdoor activities and class trips

 Time: 30 minutes + additional time for the visit to a village

 Activity

• Introduce the concept of local self-government.


• Ask students to read this section and facilitate a discussion around the
following questions.
 What is local self-government?
 Why is it important in a large country like India?
• Plan a class trip to a nearby village so that participants can watch the
proceedings of a Gram Sabha or a Gram Panchayat. This activity should
be done as early as possible so that students are able to connect better
with the descriptions in the textbook.

 Weblink: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category: Local_government_


in_India

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TOPIC: PANCHAYATI RAJ SYSTEM

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Introduce the system of Panchayati Raj which is practised across rural India.
• Facilitate a discussion around the following questions.
 Why is local-self government, in rural India, called Panchayati Raj?
 What are the essential functions of the Village Panchayat?
 What are the optional or voluntary functions of the Panchayat?
 What are the three levels at which the Panchayati Raj system works?
 What are the differences between Gram Sabha, Gram Panchayat, and Nyaya Panchayat?

TOPICS: ORGANISATION OF A GRAM PANCHAYAT


Sub-topics: Gram Sabha; The Gram Panchayat; Functions of the Gram Panchayat; Optional or Voluntary
Functions; Sources of Income

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss the topic and ask students to read each of the sub-topics carefully.
• Explain the composition and functions of gram sabha and gram panchayat.
• Discuss the functions and sources of income of village panchayat and nyaya panchayat

TOPICS: WOMEN AND PANCHAYAT; RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STATE GOVERNMENT


AND PANCHAYATI RAJ

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Underscore the importance of the participation of women in the Panchayat’s proceedings.


• Ask students to read this section and facilitate a discussion around the following questions.
 Why did the government reserve 33 per cent seats in Panchayati Raj institutions for women?
 In what ways has the entry of women into local rural politics and administration helped them and
the larger society?
 The teacher and students could jointly discuss the nature of the relationship between the state
government and Panchayati Raj institutions.

106
TOPICS: RURAL ADMINISTRATION; MAINTENANCE OF LAND RECORDS; INHERITANCE
LAW—HINDU SUCCESSION (AMENDMENT) ACT, 2005

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• Discuss the important features of rural administration.


• Explain the process of maintaining land records and the role of the village patwari and tehsildar.
• Discuss how the new law of inheritance ensures the equality of women.

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. iii b. i c. iii d. ii e. ii
2. a. district b. Gram Sabha c. Superintendent of Police
d. civil administration e. 2005
3. a. false b. true c. true d. false e. false
4. a. The present form of Panchayati Raj administration is a three-tier system comprising the Village
Panchayat, the Block Samiti, and the Zila Parishad.
b. The Gram Sabha is the assembly of a village comprising all adult men and women in a village who
have attained the age of 18 years.
c. The Nyaya Panchayat is like a local court. Its purpose is to settle minor disputes and provide justice
quickly and cheaply. There is usually one Nyaya Panchayat for three or four villages.
d. The land record keeper or patwari is a government official in the rural area who maintains records
of ownership of land and tilling. She/He is also known as the lekhpal.
e. The District Collector or Deputy Commissioner is an official heads the civil administration in a
district.
5. a. The local self-government is of great importance because of the following reasons.
• Local people know their problems well, and hence can solve them better by taking part in the
local governance.
• Participation of the local people in the process of governance generates a spirit of cooperation
and involves them in the decision-making process.
• The local self-government provides opportunities to the elected representatives to acquire
training and experience in administration.
• The local self-government lightens the burden on the central and state governments and
provides a link between the people and the central government.

107
b. The Panchayat has a Panchayat Secretary, who is also the secretary of the Gram Sabha. He/She
is not elected but is appointed by the government (i.e., by the District Magistrate or the Deputy
Commissioner). He/She maintains the records, prepares accounts and supervises the work of the
Gram Panchayat.
c. According to the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005, after the death of the head of the
family, the property is to be equally shared between his wife, sons, as well as daughters. The law
imparts full and equal rights to daughters. This change marks an important milestone in ensuring
equality in society, although it is applicable only amongst the Hindu community. However, it has
to be implemented properly by creating awareness among the women folk, both in rural and urban
areas so that they can establish and claim their legal right.
d. The essential functions or compulsory functions of a village panchayat are as follows.
• Construct and maintain village roads, wells, drains and tanks
• Implement Community Development Programmes
• Collect taxes, tolls and fees
• Maintain record of births and deaths in the village
• Provide clean drinking water for all
• Supply good seeds and fertilisers and provide better irrigation facilities
• Provide electrification of roads and streets
• Provide basic and necessary public health and sanitation services
• Construct and maintain public buildings
• Supervise the work of government servants such as the patwari, the lekhpal, the police constable
and the village chowkidar
• Build schools and supervise primary education
e. The land record keeper or patwari is a government official in the rural area who maintains records
of ownership of land and tilling. She/He is also known as the lekhpal, kanungo, karamcharior
village officer. Land records are important because farmers may require a copy of their land records
for sale and purchase of a plot of land. These are also required to take loans from a bank to carry
out activities such as digging a well or for division of property among those who inherit.
6. Student can think of ways to ensure that every girl child attends school. Some of the ways may be
keeping the school timings according to the convenience of the girls, giving them food, etc.

108
27
Urban Administration
Textbook Reference Pages: 234–240 Number of Periods: 3
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Develop a clear understanding of the structure and functions of the Municipal
Corporation • Learn about the methods of protest that citizens can employ to
get their grievances addressed • Understand the differences between a Municipal
Council and a Municipal Corporation

Lesson Development

TOPICS: MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS; MUNICIPAL COUNCILS;


CITY COUNCILS ; FUNCTIONS OF MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS;
SOURCES OF INCOME; WATER SUPPLY AND URBAN LOCAL
BODIES; CITIZEN’S GRIEVANCES

 Resources: Chart papers and colours

 Weblink: http://www.egyankosh.ac.in/
bitstream/123456789/25911/1/Unit-19.pdf

 Time: 90 minutes

 Activity

• Present a short summary of the decision-making structure of the


Municipal Corporation, its functions, and responsibilities.
• Ask students to read this section, identifying any doubts that they wish
to clarify.
• Facilitate a discussion around the following questions.
 What are the local needs of people living in the city? Are they
different from those of people who live in villages?
 Who takes cares of our needs in a city like Delhi?
 Why are some seats in Municipal Corporations reserved for women,
Scheduled Castes, and Scheduled Tribes?
 What is the role of the Municipal Commissioner?
 What are the key functions and responsibilities of the Municipal
Corporation? Some of these can be illustrated on chart papers by
the students.
109
 In what ways is the new method of waste disposal better than the earlier one?
 The Municipal Corporation takes active steps to prevent the spread of water-borne and insect-
induced diseases. Can you think of some examples of how it does this?
• Facilitate a discussion around the key distinctions between a Municipal Council and a Municipal Corporation.
• Summarise the major sources of income of a municipal corporation.
• Discuss different types of taxes levied by municipal corporations.
• Ask students to read the section on citizens’ grievances. Does it give them ideas on how they can solve
the problems in their own locality?

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. i b. ii c. i d. i e. iii
2. a. 10 lakhs b. aldermen c. mayor, mahapaur
d. nagar panchayat e. Taxes, grants-in-aid
3. a. false b. true c. false d. true e. true
4. a. Three types of urban local self-governing bodies are municipal corporation, municipal council, and
city council.
b. Municipal governance in India has been in existence since the year 1687 with the formation of
Madras Municipal Corporation, and then Calcutta and Bombay Municipal Corporations in 1726.
c. The head of the Municipal Corporation is known as the Mayor or mahapaur, though he or she is
known by different names in different states.
d. Municipal commissioner is the chief executive officer of municipal corporation, appointed by state
government.
e. Right to Information means the citizens’ right to secure access to information under the control
of public authorities, in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every
public authority.
5. a. The members of a Municipal Corporation are elected by adult citizens of the city for a term of five
years. For the purpose of elections, the city is divided into wards. Each ward elects a member to the
Municipal Corporation on the basis of universal adult franchise. These elected members are known
as Councillors.
b. The state government appoints the Municipal Commissioner, the Chief Engineer, and the Chief
Medical Officer. Municipalities also receive annual grants and part of the taxes from their respective
state governments.
c. Major functions of municipal corporation are as follows.
• Maintenance of Public Hygiene • Maintenance of Public Health • Registration of Births and
Deaths *Education Facilities

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Besides, the Municipal Corporation also maintains public parks, parking lots, street lighting, public
conveniences, roads and bridges, recreation centres, fire services, plantation and maintenance of
trees, issuing of licences for markets, malls, restaurants, housing complexes, etc.
d. The chief sources of income of a Municipal Corporation are taxes and grants from the State and Central
governments. The taxes include octroi tax, entertainment tax, property tax, toll tax, and water tax.
Municipalities also receive annual grants and part of the taxes from their respective State governments.
c. For the purpose of elections, the city is divided into wards. Each ward elects a member to the
Municipal Corporation on the basis of universal adult franchise. These elected members are known
as councillors. The number of elected members depends upon the size of the city’s population.
Seats are reserved for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Also, one out of three seats are
reserved for women.
d. The Municipal Corporation has a Municipal Commissioner or Chief Executive Officer appointed
by the state government. It is the Commissioner’s duty to ensure that the decisions made by the
corporation are implemented. The Commissioner also acts as a link between the state government
and the Municipal Corporation. Officers in charge of various departments such as health, education,
engineering, and sanitation help the Commissioner in his/her work. He/she also has the power to
appoint lower level employees to the Municipal Corporation.
e. There are several ways in which citizens may express their grievances or protest in case they are not
satisfied with the government and local civic bodies. Apart from holding dharnas, people can file
cases in special courts such as Lok Adalat. People can also go to consumer courts. They are also
entitled to use their Right to Information to obtain information. People may also sign petitions and
send these to the Municipal Councillor, or write to newspapers in order to be heard. Debates and
discussions leading to public criticism provide checks and balances and ensure effective working of
the vast network of public services.

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28
Rural and Urban Livelihood
Textbook Reference Pages: 241–250 Number of Periods: 5
 Learning Objectives
The student will
• Be conversant with the different livelihood options available to people
living in rural India, in addition to farming • Be able to list out the different
categories of farmers • Be familiar with new strategies that seek to improve rural
livelihoods • Be familiar with the differences between primary, secondary and
tertiary occupations—and how these differ from rural livelihoods • Be familiar
with the differences between self-employment, regular employment and wage
employment • Be sensitive to the inter-linkages between rural and urban lives

Lesson Development
TOPIC: TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS

 Resources: Chart papers, pens and colours

 Time: 30 minutes

 Activity

• The teacher and students participate in a joint reading of the section.


• Ask students to identify the different types of occupational livelihoods
available in India.
• Introduce primary, secondary and tertiary occupations.
• Ask students to identify at least five examples for each category to
distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary occupations.

TOPICS: MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD IN RURAL AREAS; RURAL


INDEBTEDNESS; GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES
Sub-topics: Farming; Non-Farming Occupations

 Time: 60 minutes + time spent on watching a film

112
 Activity

• Facilitate the screening of a film on farmers in India informing the students about different types of
farmers.
• A majority of farmers in India are poor and lead impoverished lives. Ask students to do Internet
research on the types of challenges farmers confront.
• Facilitate a discussion focussed on the following questions.
 What can we, as individuals, do to reduce hunger and poverty in rural India?
 In addition to farming, what are some of the other livelihood activities practised in the villages of
India?
 What is the advantage of a cooperative? How does it help villagers?
 What is animal husbandry? How does it help in supplementing the income of villagers?
• Present a concise summary of rural indebtedness and strategies to help poor villagers.
• Ask students to read the topics ‘Rural Indebtedness’ and ‘Government Initiatives’ and have a discussion
based on the following questions.
 What do you mean by rural indebtedness?
 What are the major causes of rural indebtedness?
 What steps has the government taken to provide viable employment to villagers and to lift them
out of poverty?
• Why are farmers committing suicides in different parts of the country? Ask students to do Internet
research on this and come up with their own ideas about what can be done to prevent farmers from
taking such an extreme step.
• Do Internet research on MNREGA (National Rural Employment Guarantee Act), which seeks to
provide a basic, humane, minimum wage to all Indians who live below the poverty line. How would
NREGA affect landless labourers like Gopinath and even small farmers like Mohan Nair?

TOPICS: URBAN LIVELIHOOD; DIFFERENT TYPES OF EMPLOYMENT; MIGRATION


Sub-topics: Vegetable Vendor; Domestic Help; Garment Worker; Bank Employee

 Time: 60 minutes

 Activity

• While there are differences between the vegetable vendor, domestic help, garment worker, and bank
employee, are there any similarities in their hopes and aspirations? If so, what are these?
• Make a list of the occupations of the parents of each student in the class. Ask students to classify them
into primary, secondary and tertiary occupations.
• Organize a brief discussion on the differences between self-employment, regular employment and
wage employment, eliciting examples from the students for each.
• Facilitate a brief discussion around the following questions.

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 How are rural and urban lives connected to one another?
 What are some of the ways in which the rural and urban sectors can grow simultaneously?
 Does any of us have family living in the villages? If so, what is our relationship with them and how
are our lives linked to theirs?

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN THE BOOK

1. a. i b. iii c. i d. ii e. iii
2. a. agriculture, related activities b. tertiary c. Large
d. Amul e. migration
3. a. false b. false c. false d. true e. false
4. a. Secondary occupations are manufacturing activities or activities that transform raw material from
primary occupations into finished goods.
b. Farming is the chief source of livelihood of people residing in rural areas in India.
c. The main reason for rural indebtedness is buying seeds, pesticides, or cattle
d. Self-employment does not ensure a regular income while regular employment does.
e. Agricultural labourers migrate to towns and cities every year in search of better jobs and higher
standard of living.
5. a. Primary occupations are those that deal directly with nature. Forestry and wood-cutting are two
examples of such occupations. On the other hand, secondary occupations are manufacturing
activities or transforming raw material from primary occupations into finished goods. Textiles and
readymade food industry are examples of such occupations.
b. There are weavers, potters, blacksmiths, carpenters, masons, barbers, etc., in the village who offer
their services to earn their livelihood. Some people collect firewood, fruits, herbs, and other items
from the forests. Small farmers or agricultural labourers collect items such as tendu leaves, mahua,
and honey from the forests and sell these to traders. Fishing, animal husbandry, and dairy farming
are other important non-farming activities of people in rural India.
c. The government is aware that rural people suffer from seasonal unemployment and poverty. To
give them employment during the lean season, the government often undertakes public works
programmes, such as construction of roads and water tanks. While choosing workers for projects,
the government gives preference to the members of poor families. It also provides employment to
local people in its offices, banks, schools, and post offices in villages. Banks are directed to give them
loans in times of need.
d. The rural sector does not provide employment throughout the year. People usually migrate from
rural to urban areas in search of jobs. Millions of people migrate to towns and cities every year in
search of better jobs and higher standard of living. An increase in urbanisation has also contributed
to the cause of migration since people’s dependence on agriculture has been decreasing.
e. Rural and urban areas are strongly connected. Farmers buy tractors, machinery, fertilisers, good
quality seeds, pesticides and other finished articles from the cities. Similarly, food products and raw
materials for factories can be procured from the rural sector. The all-round growth and development
of India is dependent on a balanced progress of both the rural and the urban sectors.
6. The government can provide better employment opportunities to people and basic facilities such as
water, electricity, better sanitation, etc., so that rural people can live with dignity in their own villages.

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