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TOPIC:- “Foaming capacities of different


Name:- Anish Dey

Class:- XI B4
Roll:- 04
Session:- 2018-19

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I wish to express my deep gratitude and sincere
thanks to our Principal Madam for her
encouragement and all the facilities that she has
provided for this project. l extend my thanks to our
Chemistry Teacher Ms. Priyanka Mukherjee who
guided me to successful completion of this project.
I am also thankful to Mr. Pijush Kanti Sir and Mr.
Bijay Karmakar who helped me in each step of my
project. Last but not the least, I also extend my
gratitude to my parents for their valuable support
and co-operation. Also, thanks to my fellow group
members who helped me during the course of this
project and made the working of the project
interesting and enjoyable.

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Contents Page No.

Introduction 4

Some facts 6

Experiment 7

Conclusion 12

Bibliography 13

Note of certification 14

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Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a
variety of cleansing and lubricating products
produced from such a substance. Household uses
for soaps include washing, bathing, and other types
of housekeeping, where soaps act
as surfactants, emulsifying oils to enable them to be
carried away by water. In industry, they are used
as thickeners, components of some lubricants, and
precursors to catalysts.
Since they are salts of fatty acids, soaps have the
general formula (RCO2−)nMn+ (R is an alkyl). The
major classification of soaps is determined by the
identity of Mn+. When M is Na or K, the soaps are
called toilet soaps, used for hand washing. Many
metal dications (Mg2+, Ca2+, and others)
give metallic soap. When M is Li, the result
is lithium soap (e.g., lithium stearate), which is used
in high-performance greases.

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Soap in 19th century

Until the Industrial Revolution, soapmaking was

conducted on a small scale and the product was
rough. In 1780, James Keir established a chemical
works at Tipton, for the manufacture of alkali from
the sulfates of potash and soda, to which he
afterwards added a soap manufactory. The method
of extraction proceeded on a discovery of
Keir's. Andrew Pears started making a high-quality,
transparent soap in 1807[29] in London. His son-in-
law, Thomas J. Barratt, opened a factory
in Isleworth in 1862.
During the Restoration era (February 1665 – August
1714) a soap tax was introduced in England, which
meant that until the mid-1800s, soap was a luxury,
used regularly only by the well-to-do. the soap
manufacturing process was closely supervised by
revenue officials who made sure that soapmakers'
equipment was kept under lock and key when not
being supervised. .

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Some facts about soaps
 The first record of soap use was around
3000 BC. Sumerians were using soap solutions
of water and ash mixed with animal fat to clean
dishes and wool (in preparation for dyeing).
 Ancient Roman legend suggests soap
derived its name from Mount Sapo. From here,
rainwater washed melted animal fats and wood
ash (both from sacrifices) into the river below,
where the soapy mixture was found to benefit
the washing of clothes.
 Soap is thought to have arrived in England
around the 13th century, to be used for
preparing wool and cloth for dyeing, rather than
for personal hygiene.
 1868 BJ Johnson developed the first
formula for liquid soap, made from palm and
olive oils. He called it, Palmolive. The first liquid
soap for household cleaning soon followed,
made from pine oil.

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To study the foaming capacity of different washing
soaps and the effect of addition of sodium
carbonate on it.
Soaps and detergents are those substances which
are used for cleaning purposes. Soaps are sodium or
potassium salts of higher fatty acids containing long
chains of 15-18 carbon atoms. Some common
examples are sodium stearate, sodium palmitate,
sodium oleate, etc. When soap gets dissolved in
water, it forms foam or lather which carries away
dirt and grease by forming emulsion then excess of
water is added.
The cleansing action of soap basically depends upon
he foaming capacity of soap that is the extent to
which it forms lather. The foaming capacity of
different soaps can be easily compared by

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considering the time taken for the disappearance of
foam produced in different soap solutions of same
concentration. Lesser is the time taken for the foam
to disappear, the lower will be the foaming capacity
of a soap sample. Limitations of usage of soap is
that it cannot be used in hard water because hard
water contains certain metal ions like Mg2+and Ca2+.
These ions react with soap and form a curdy white
ppt. known as scum.

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This scum does not form emulsions and hence, are
not able to remove oil, fat or grease from cloths
thus, reducing the cleansing capacity of the soap.
Na2CO3 can be used to remove hardness of water as
it causes the precipitation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in
the form of their carbonates.
Ca2+ + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2Na+
Mg2++ Na2CO3 MgCO3 + 2Na+
Therefore, addition of sodium carbonate to the
soap solution removes Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions and
finally, increases the foaming capacity of soap.
Materials required:-
 Test tube :4
 Glass Rod :1
 Beakers :4
 Graduated cylinder :1
 Stopwatch :1

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 Burner :1
 Tripod Stand :1
 Different brands of soap :5
 Distilled water : 500 ml
Investigation of foaming capacity of different
washing soaps

1. 1 g of each of the different samples of soap were

2. These samples were dissolved separately in 100
mL of distilled water taken in different beakers
labelled as A, B,C, and D.
3. The solutions were warmed to dissolve the soap
4. 2 mL of the soap solution was taken from the
beakers A, B, C, D in separate 20 mL test tubes
labelled as A', B',C', and D' respectively. All these
four test tubes were arranged on a test tube stand.
5. 10 ml of distilled water was added to the test
tube A' and the mouth of the tube was closed with
the help of a cork and etc. and it was shaked upside
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down for 2 mins and that foam increased
uniformly. It was kept.
6. Foams were produced in the test tube A'. The
time taken for the foam to settle down was noticed.
7. The steps were repeated with other samples of
soaps and the observations were noted in table.

The following observations were made-
Amount of soap taken = 1.0 g
Volume of distilled water added = 100 mL
Volume of soap solution taken in each test tube = 2

S. NO Soap Sample Time taken for

disappearance of foam of
2mm(in seconds)
1. Lux 3’28”
2. Santoor 16’32”
3. Dove 11’42”

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4. Cinthol 9’40”
Volume of distilled water added to the soap
solution = 10 mL
Time for which each test tube shaken = 2 min


This is the order of the cleansing capacity of the

soaps taken into account:-

The soaps for which the time taken for the

disappearance of foam is highest has maximum
foaming capacity and is the best quality soap
among the soaps tested. Also foaming capacity of
soap is maximum in distilled water and is least in
hard water because in hard water scum formation
takes place.

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 Chemistry LAB MANUAL class-11
 www.google.com
 www.wikipedia.org
 www.thechemistryguru.com

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This is to certify that ______________________ of
completed his chemistry investigatory project
my supervision for the session 2018-19.

Signature of Examiner

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