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1. Which philosophical approach reflects your beliefs about

a.) the school’s purpose
Constructivism because it focuses on using education to shape a student’s
world view.
b.) what subjects are of value
Progressivism because it focuses on developing the student’s moral compass.
c.) how students learn
Humanism is about fostering each student to his or her fullest potential.
d.) the process of teaching and learning?
Essentialism is the teaching of basic skills that have been proven over time to
be needed in society.
2. What curriculum focus would the perennialists and essentialists recommend for our
increasing diverse school-age population?
General Education
For Perennialists, they asserts that the aim of education is the acquisition and development of
understanding of great ideas and the cultivation of the intellect.
For essentialist, education is about providing learners fundamental ways of thinking and
developing basic skills and subject-matter knowledge through a well-organized curriculum in
order to live well in the modern world
3. What curriculum would the progressivists and reconstructionists select for a multicultural
student population?
Global education is by nature multi-faceted and embraces a broad scope. Rather than a
single course of study, global education is a perspective, an attitude, and an approach to
teaching and learning. It has been defined as "seeing things through the eyes and minds of
others-and it means the realization that while individuals and groups may view life differently,
they also have common needs and wants." (Tye, 1990). Global education has further been
defined in several contexts as a study of the "interconnectedness of systems... ecological,
cultural, economic political and technological" (Tye, 1990,). The global education perspective
promotes basic life skills for living and interacting in today's world. It is inclusive of all people
and all ages in its call for a moral commitment to social and individual behavior.

4. Should curriculum workers adopt a single philosophy to guide their practices? Why? Why
Yes, because the philosophical foundation of curriculum helps determine the driving
purpose of education, as well as the roles of the various participants just as for the teachers and
the learners. While all foundations propose to set goals of curriculum, philosophy presents the
manner of thinking from which those goals are created. Philosophies vary in perception of
truth, ranging from absolute to relative, and from moralistic to scientific In all of this, one’s
philosophy defines the role of the teacher, ranging from all-knowing authoritarian to that of a
mentor, and the role of the student, ranging from an obedient vacant vessel to an individual
worthy of actively engaging in one’s own educational process. As we look through the lens of
history, we see how philosophies have gained and waned in popularity in society, and how
even psychological research is embraced, ignored, or even rejected based on philosophical
standings of the time.
5. Which philosophy is most relevant to contemporary education? Why?
A. Progressivism
Progressivists believe that education should focus on the whole child, rather than on the
content or the teacher. This educational philosophy stresses that students should test ideas by
active experimentation. Learning is rooted in the questions of learners that arise through
experiencing the world. It is active, not passive. The learner is a problem solver and thinker
who makes meaning through his or her individual experience in the physical and cultural
context. Effective teachers provide experiences so that students can learn by doing. Curriculum
content is derived from student interests and questions. The scientific method is used by
progressivist educators so that students can study matter and events systematically and first
hand. The emphasis is on process-how one comes to know. Shared decision making, planning
of teachers with students, student-selected topics are all aspects. Books are tools, rather than
B. Reconstructionism
Social reconstructionism is a philosophy that emphasizes the addressing of social
questions and a quest to create a better society and worldwide democracy. Reconstructionist
educators focus on a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education. In his
view, humans must learn to resist oppression and not become its victims, nor oppress others.
To do so requires dialog and critical consciousness, the development of awareness to overcome
domination and oppression. Rather than "teaching as banking," in which the educator deposits
information into students' heads, For social reconstructionists, curriculum focuses on student
experience and taking social action on real problems, such as violence, hunger, international
terrorism, inflation, and inequality. Strategies for dealing with controversial issues (particularly
in social studies and literature), inquiry, dialogue, and multiple perspectives are the focus.
Community-based learning and bringing the world into the classroom are also strategies.