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‘‘The History of the Philippines” is a historical book in which the author, Kathleen Nadeau, an Associate

Professor of Anthropology at California State University, wants to present the rich cultural and historical heritage of the
Philippines, and make the readers’ explore the Philippine History in a way that is balanced and reflective of the Filipinos’
struggle for democracy and freedom. The book was printed and published by Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., in 2008.

Nadeau consistently used the primary and secondary sources which verify the accuracy and validity of the argued
points. The book is chronologically organized by seven chapters:

Part I: Southeast Asian Prehistory

In this chapter, Nadeau describe in detail the events prior to the written history of the Southeast Asia and the
Philippines. She made it clearly explain how the ancient people made their living to survival, from learning on how to
farm and eventually growing rice and domesticated animals. She also presents the early flora and fauna and made sure the
existence of a world maritime trade economy by its archaeological and linguistic evidence.

 Politics and Economics

Part II: Spanish Colonization

In chapter II, Nadeau explains the later Spanish Colonization and Christianization of the Philippines, which forcibly
changed the course of development in the Philippine history. This chapter examines the historical processes that
underpinned the Spanish colonization of the Philippines.

 The discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus in 1492, which paved the way for the discovery of the
Philippines by Ferdinand de Magellan in 1521.
 In 1565, by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi,
 brought the Filipinos, whom they called “Indios”

Part III: The Philippine Revolution

In this chapter, Nadeau evidently describe the three major motives of the Spaniards in colonizing the Philippines.
(1) To gain a share of the profitable spice trade dominated by the Portuguese in south and Southeast Asia (2) to establish a
stopover in the galleon trade between Mexico and China, with the intention of setting up a home base for the
evangelization of China and Japan (3) to Christianize the people of the Philippines.

She never failed to pinpoint that the Philippine Revolution is one of the most important events in the country’s
history, awakening a proud sense of nationalism. In a period of heavy struggle and conflict, Filipinos of different
backgrounds united with a common goal: to resist colonialism.

 Propaganda Movement—La Solidaridad was founded by Graciano Lopez Jaena in 1888,

 Jose Rizal’s’—La Liga Filipina; Marcelo del Pilar, Lopez Jaena, and Apolinario Mabinis’ contributions
 Andres Bonifacio—KKK

Part IV: American Colonization

Nadeau made it clear to see in this chapter how the new colonizers—Americans continued to expand upon the
traditional authority structure by working through wealthy landed elites to consolidate their colonial rule. In this way, they
continued and solidified the inequitable class system that was put in place by the Spanish and that continues to shape and
characterize the Philippines.
The Filipino people fiercely resisted the American invasion, and colonization was forced upon them in 1901,
although fighting continued intermittently and the nationalist struggle persisted.

 Treaty of Paris
 The Japanese Occupation

Part V: Philippine Independence

In this chapter, Nadeau describe in detail on how Philippines achieved its Independence from a successive waves
of colonization and series of bloody revolts. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo declared the country’s independence and the
birth of the Philippine Republic. The Philippines’ National Anthem, “Lupang Hinirang” was first heard by the Filipino

 Quirino Administration (1948–1953)

 Magsaysay Administration (1953–1957)
 President Carlos Garcia (1957–1961)
 President Diosdado Macapagal (1961–1965)

Part VI: The Marcos Regime

In this chapter, Nadeau strongly shows Macros’ declaration of Martial Law as the rising tide of violence and
lawlessness to Filipinos. Marcos declared martial law and ruled the Philippines for a total of 20 years, until he was
overthrown by a massive People’s Power revolution in February 1986.

Part VII: Philippines after Marcos

Nadeau made the last chapter looks at how the various forces maneuvered and imposed themselves on those who
came to power during the post-Marcos era. They had to face the Philippines’ most pressing problems. The biggest
problems were poverty and the collapse of the economy, since Marcos had left the country in shambles. There was also
the issue of political strife between the Left and Right and the Muslim separatists in Mindanao. Corruption at the highest
levels, gambling and syndication in the police and armed forces, the terrorist organization of Abu Sayyaf, and the
restoration of a democratic system of governance had to be addressed.

 The Aquino Presidency (1986–1992)

 The Presidency of Fidel Ramos (1992–1997)
 President Joseph Estrada (1998–2001)
 President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (2001–)
 Benigno Simeon "Noynoy" Cojuangco Aquino III (2010-2016)
 Rodrigo "Rody" Roa Duterte (2016-Present)

In conclusion, Nadeau’s book: “The History of the Philippines” embarked and in-depth understanding about the
history of the Philippines. It serves and provides as a comprehensive account of the Philippines and its struggle to
discover a national identity. Nadeau uses seven-part structure in order to described and explain clearly the historic events,
making it easy for readers to follow the flow of a particular Philippines’ history. The book cites primary and secondary
sources on all sides, including the foreign evidences. The author seems unbiased, in any way, by the fact that she’s
American native yet she was able to objectively write the book with its purpose. She also engage other writers’ work to
accurately describe and explain the historic events of the Philippines. Overall the book is effective and insightful, in part
because it somehow gives the readers a picture of the nation as it exists today.