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5 9 12 21 35 3

9856

BA AD

BC CD

AB BC CD DA

AD DC CB BA

P V

AB P V = C B D

= C

B D

P V γ = K B E

DA

AB P V γ = K B E

ED DA

A, B, C, D, E V C = V B V D = V A P B = P A P C = P E = P D

V A P A A P A

V B > V E > V A B > V E > V A

γ > 1 1

PV 5/3 = K K

Γ ω

P t

2 Γ ω

3 V

=

(P , V ) U

= (P , V ) = 0

P V = AT U = BT +C A B C T

U

= U (p, θ)

U = U (p, V )

U = U (θ, V )

dQ¯

U

= U (p, V )

θ = θ (p, V )

k

τ = k θ (L L 0 )

dU (L, θ) (τ, L)

dQ¯

k

τ = k θ (L L o )

(τ, L)

U = a θ + b p

a b β = 1

θ κ = 1

p

C p C v a, b, p, θ

300

P V

T = 300 P = 1,0 V P = 2,0 1, 0

U W Q

U W Q

1 5

10 γ = 5

3