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A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O)

atoms, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the
empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m could be different from n).[1] Some exceptions exist; for
example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA,[2] has the empirical formula C5H10O4.[3]
Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon;[4] structurally it is more accurate to view them
as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones.[5]

The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that
includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups:
monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. In general, the
monosaccharides and disaccharides, which are smaller (lower molecular weight) carbohydrates,
are commonly referred to as sugars.[6] The word saccharide comes from the Greek word
σάκχαρον (sákkharon), meaning "sugar." While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is
complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose.
For example, grape sugar is the monosaccharide glucose, cane sugar is the disaccharide sucrose
and milk sugar is the disaccharide lactose (see illustration).

Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve for the storage
of energy (e.g., starch and glycogen) and as structural components (e.g., cellulose in plants and
chitin in arthropods). The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of
coenzymes (e.g., ATP, FAD and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as
RNA. The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include
many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system, fertilization,
preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.[7]

In food science and in many informal contexts, the term carbohydrate often means any food that
is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch (such as cereals, bread and pasta) or
simple carbohydrates, such as sugar (found in candy, jams, and desserts).

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates have the general molecular formula CH2O, and thus were once thought to
represent "hydrated carbon". However, the arrangement of atoms in carbohydrates has little to do
with water molecules.

Starch and cellulose are two common carbohydrates. Both are macromolecules with molecular
weights in the hundreds of thousands. Both are polymers (hence "polysaccharides"); that is,
each is built from repeating units, monomers, much as a chain is built from its links.

The monomers of both starch and cellulose are the same: units of the sugar glucose.
Sugars
Monosaccharides

Three common sugars share the same molecular formula: C6H12O6. Because of their six carbon

atoms, each is a hexose.

They are:

 glucose, "blood sugar", the immediate source of energy for cellular respiration

 galactose, a sugar in milk (and yogurt), and

 fructose, a sugar found in honey.

Although all three share the same molecular formula (C6H12O6), the arrangement of atoms differs
in each case. Substances such as these three, which have identical molecular formulas but
different structural formulas, are known as structural isomers.

Glucose, galactose, and fructose are "single" sugars or monosaccharides. Two monosaccharides
can be linked together to form a "double" sugar or disaccharide.

Disaccharides

Three common disaccharides:

 sucrose — common table sugar = glucose + fructose

 lactose — major sugar in milk = glucose + galactose

 maltose — product of starch digestion = glucose + glucose

Although the process of linking the two monomers is rather complex, the end result in each case
is the loss of a hydrogen atom (H) from one of the monosaccharides and a hydroxyl group (OH)
from the other. The resulting linkage between the sugars is called a glycosidic bond. The
molecular formula of each of these disaccharides is

C12H22O11 = 2 C6H12O6 − H2O

All sugars are very soluble in water because of their many hydroxyl groups. Although not as
concentrated a fuel as fats, sugars are the most important source of energy for many cells.

Carbohydrates provide the bulk of the calories (4 kcal/gram) in most diets, and starches provide
the bulk of that. Starches are polysaccharides.

Polysaccharides
Starches

Starches are polymers of


glucose. Two types are
found:

 amylose consists of
linear, unbranched
chains of several
hundred glucose
residues (units). The
glucose residues are linked by a glycosidic bond between their #1 and #4 carbon atoms.

 amylopectin differs from amylose in being highly branched. At approximately every


thirtieth residue along the chain, a short side chain is attached by a glycosidic bond to the
#6 carbon atom (the carbon above the ring). The total number of glucose residues in a
molecule of amylopectin is several thousand.

Starches are insoluble in water and thus can serve as storage depots of glucose. Plants convert
excess glucose into starch for storage. The image shows starch grains (lightly stained with
iodine) in the cells of the white potato. Rice, wheat, and corn (maize) are also major sources of
starch in the human diet.
Before starches can
enter (or leave) cells,
they must be
digested. The
hydrolysis of starch is
done by amylases.
With the aid of an amylase (such as
pancreatic amylase), water molecules
enter at the 1 -> 4 linkages, breaking
the chain and eventually producing a
mixture of glucose and maltose. A
different amylase is needed to break
the 1 -> 6 bonds of amylopectin.

Glycogen

Animals store excess glucose by polymerizing it to form glycogen. The structure of glycogen is
similar to that of amylopectin, although the branches in glycogen tend to be shorter and more
frequent.

Glycogen is broken back down into glucose when energy is needed (a process called
glycogenolysis).

In glycogenolysis,

 Phosphate groups — not water — break the 1 -> 4 linkages

 The phosphate group must then be removed so that glucose can leave the cell.

The liver and skeletal muscle are major depots of glycogen.

There is some evidence that intense exercise and a high-carbohydrate diet ("carbo-loading") can
increase the reserves of glycogen in the muscles and thus may help marathoners work their
muscles somewhat longer and harder than otherwise. But for most of us, carbo loading leads to
increased deposits of fat.

Cellulose

Cellulose is probably the single most abundant organic molecule in the biosphere. It is the major
structural material of which plants are made. Wood is largely cellulose while cotton and paper
are almost pure cellulose.
Like starch,
cellulose is a
polysaccharide
with glucose as
its monomer.
However,
cellulose differs
profoundly from
starch in its properties.

 Because of the orientation of the


glycosidic bonds linking the glucose
residues, the rings of glucose are
arranged in a flip-flop manner. This
produces a long, straight, rigid molecule.

 There are no side chains in cellulose as


there are in starch. The absence of side
chains allows these linear molecules to
lie close together.

 Because of the many -OH groups, as


well as the oxygen atom in the ring, there
are many opportunities for hydrogen
bonds to form between adjacent chains.

The result is a series of stiff, elongated fibrils — the perfect material for building the cell walls of
plants.

This electron micrograph (courtesy of R. D. Preston) shows the cellulose fibrils in the cell wall
of a green alga. These long, rigid fibrils are a clear reflection of the nature of the cellulose
molecules of which they are composed.

Carbohydrate Classification
There are a variety of interrelated classification schemes. The most useful classification scheme
divides the carbohydrates into groups according to the number of individual simple sugar units.
Monosaccharides contain a single unit; disaccharides contain two sugar units; and
polysaccharides contain many sugar units as in polymers - most contain glucose as the
monosaccharide unit.

Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides
Glucose Sucrose Starch
Galactose Maltose Glycogen
Fructose Lactose Cellulose
Ribose
Glyceraldehyde

Number of Carbons

Monosaccharides can be further classified by the number of carbons present. Hexoses (6-
carbons) are by far the most prevalent.

Number of Carbons
Six = Hexose Five = Pentose Three = Triose
Glucose Ribose Glyceraldehyde
Galactose
Fructose

Functional Groups

 Aldoses contain the aldehyde group - Monosaccharides in this group are glucose,
galactose, ribose, and glyceraldehyde.
 Ketoses contain the ketone group - The major sugar in this group is fructose.

 Reducing: Contain a hemiacetal or hemiketal group. Sugars include, glucose, galactose,


fructose, maltose, lactose

 Non-reducing: Contain no hemiacetal groups. Sucrose and all polysaccharides are in this
group.

Types of Carbohydrates

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Like all other biomolecules carbohydrates are made of micromolecules and


macromolecules. Micromolecules are the monosaccharides while the
macromolecules are the oligosaccharides and polysaccahrides. Actually, the
micromolecules polymerize and condense to form macromolecules.

Carbohydrates basically are of three types - Monosaccharides, Oligosaccharides and


Polysaccharides.

Monosaccharides or simple sugars consists of single polyhydroxy aldehyde or


ketone. Most common classes of monosaccharides are

Aldoses - Aldotiroses, aldotertoses, aldopentoses, aldohextoses and aldoheptoses.

Ketoses - Ketotrioses, ketotetroses, ketopentoses, ketohextoses, and ketoheptoses.

Oligosaccharides are polymerized monosaccharides, which contain more two to ten


residues on hydrolysis.

Oligosacharides are classified as disaccharides, trisaccharides and


tetrasaccharides.

Disaccahrides yield two monosaccharides on hydrolysis.

Disaccharides are of two types - Reducing disaccharides (example maltose) and


non-reducing disaccharides(example sucrose).

Trisaccahrides are found in sugar beet and and cotton seed. Example raffinose.
Tetrasaccharide yield four monosaccharides on hydrolysis. Example: stachyose.

Polysaccharides are polymeric anhyderides of monosaccharides. Polysaccharides


are of two types based on their function and composition.

Based on function, polysaccharides of two types storage and structural.

Storage polysaccharides - starch.

Structural polysaccharide - cellulose.

Based on composition polysaccharides are of two types homoplysaccharides and


heteropolysaccharides. Homopolysaccharides give single type of monosaccharide
on hydrolysis. Example Inulin polymer of fructose.

Heteropolysaccharides example hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulphate.

Example of Carbohydrates

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Following are common examples of carbohydrates:

Monosaccharides - Glucose, galactose, glycerose, erythrose, ribose, ribulose,


fructose.
Oligosaccharides - Maltose, lactose, sucrose, raffinose, stachyose.

Polysaccharides - Starch, glycogen, cellulose, pectin, inulin, hyaluonic acid.

Foods rich in carbohydrates are referred to as strachy foods. They are found in
legumes, starchy vegetables, whole-grain breads and cereals. They also occur
naturally with vitamins and minerals in foods like milk, fruits, milk products. They
are alsdo found in refined and processed products like candy, carbonated
beverages, and table sugar.

Carbohydrates Classification

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Carbohydrates are classified into three groups

Monosaccharides or Monosachoroses

From Greek, mono=one; sakchron=sugar.

Monosaccharides are often called simple sugars, these are compound which possess
a free aldehyde or ketone group. They are the simplest sugars and cannot be
hydrolyzed. The general formula is C n(H2O)n or CnH2nOn. The monosaccharides are
subdivided into tiroses, tertrose, pentoses, hexoses, heptoses etc., and also as
aldoses or ketoses depending upon whether they contian aldehyde or ketone group.

Examples of monosaccharides are Fructose, Erythrulose, Ribulose.


Oligosaccharides or Oligosaccharoses

In Greek, Oligo means few.

Oligosaccharides are compound sugars that yield 2 to 10 molecules of the same or


different monosaccharides on hydrolysis.
Oligosaccharides yielding 2 molecules of monosaccharides on hydrolysis is known
as a disaccharide, and the ones yielding 3 or 4 monosaccharides are known as
trisaccharides and tetrasaccharides respectively and so on. The general formula of
disaccharides is Cn(H2O)n-1 and that of trisaccharides is C n(H2O)n-2 and so on.

Example of disaccharides are sucrose, lactose, maltose etc.


Trisaccharides are Raffinose, Rabinose.

Polysaccharides or Polysaccharoses
In Greek, poly means many.

Polysaccharides are compound sugars and yield more than 10 molecules of


monosaccharides on hydrolysis. Theya re further classified depending on they type
of molecules produced as a resullt of hydrolysis. They may be homopolysaccharides
i.e, monosaccharides of the same type or heteropolysaccharides i.e.,
monosaccharides of different types. The general formula is (C6H10O5)x.

Example of homopolysaccharides are starch, glycogen, cellulose, pectin.


Heteropolysaccharides are Hyaluronic acid, Chondrotin.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar; British English:
monosaccharaides) are the most basic units of carbohydrates. They are the simplest form of
sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, crystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a
sweet taste. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose) and
galactose. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides (such as sucrose and
lactose) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch). Further, each carbon atom that
supports a hydroxyl group (so, all of the carbons except for the primary and terminal carbon) is
chiral, giving rise to a number of isomeric forms, all with the same chemical formula. For
instance, galactose and glucose are both aldohexoses, but have different physical structures and
chemical properties.[1]

Glucose, a monosaccharide (or simple sugar) also known as grape sugar or corn sugar, is an
important carbohydrate in biology.The living cell uses it as a source of energy and metabolic
intermediate.Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration
in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

All major dietary carbohydrates contain glucose,either as their only building block,as in starch
and glycogen,or together with another monosaccharide, as in sucrose and lactose.In the lumen of
the duodenum and small intestine the oligo- and polysaccharides are broken down to
monosaccharides by the pancreatic and intestinal glycosidases.Glucose is then transported across
the apical membrane of the enterocytes by SLC5A1,and later across their basal membrane by
SLC2A2.Some of the glucose goes directly toward fueling brain cells and erythrocytes,while the
rest makes its way to the liver and muscles,where it is stored as glycogen,and to fat cells,where it
can be used to power reactions which synthesize some fats.Glycogen is the body's auxiliary
energy source,tapped and converted back into glucose when there is need for energy.

Properties:
The Gibbs free energy of formation of solid glucose is -909 kJ/mol and the enthalpy of formation
is -1007 kJ/mol.The heat of combustion (with liquid water in the product) is about 2803 kJ/mol,
or 3.72 kcal per gram.The ΔG (change of Gibbs free energy) for this combustion is about -2880
kJ/mol.

Upon heating, glucose,like any carbohydrate,will undergo pyrolysis (carbonization) yielding


steam and a char consisting mostly of carbon.This reaction is exothermic, releasing about 0.237
kcal per gram.

Monosaccharides are important in several ways. A constant source of blood glucose is


compulsory for human life. Glucose is the preferred energy source of the brain. Polysaccharides
function as storage and structural components in plants and animals.

Monosaccharides
A monosaccharide is a carbohydrate that can't be hydrolyzed to simpler carbohydrate
units. The monosaccharide is the basic carbohydrate unit of cellular metabolism.

Monosaccharides are single sugar units. Their general formula is (CH 2O)n. They are
classified according to the number of carbon atoms as trioses (3C), tetroses (4C),
pentoses (5C), hexoses (6C) and heptoses (7C). Of these, pentoses and especially
hexoses (e.g. glucose, fructose, galactose) are the most common so we will
concentrate on them.

The hexose monosaccharides are the most important carbohydrate sources of cellular
energy. 3 hexoses – glucose, galactose, and fructose – are of major significance in
nitrition. All 3 have the same molecular formula and thus contain an equal no. of
reduced carbons. They differ in structure but are biologically interconvertible.
Glucose plays a cenral role in carbohydrate energy utilization. Other carbohydartes
are usually converted to glucose before cellular utilization.

1.Glucose

Glucose is the most important of the monosaccharides. It is an aldohexose and is found in the
free state in plant and animal tissue.

Function

Glucose is commonly known as dextrose or grape sugar. It is a component of the


disaccharides sucrose, maltose, and lactose, and is also the monomer of the
polysaccharides starch, cellulose and glycogen. Among the common sugars, glucose is
of intermediate sweetness.

It is the most common respiratory substrate & the most common monosaccharides. It
is also the key sugar of the body and is carried by the bloodstream to all body parts.
The concentration of glucose in the blood is normally 80-100 mg per 100ml of blood.
Because glucose is the most abundant carbohydrate in the blood, it is also sometimes
known as blood suar. Glucose requires no digestion and therefore may be given
intravenously to patients who cannot take food by mouth. Glucose is found in the
urine of those who have diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes). The condition in which
glucose is excreted in the urine is called glycosuria.

Monosaccharides
A monosaccharide is a carbohydrate that can't be hydrolyzed to simpler carbohydrate
units. The monosaccharide is the basic carbohydrate unit of cellular metabolism.

Monosaccharides are single sugar units. Their general formula is (CH 2O)n. They are
classified according to the number of carbon atoms as trioses (3C), tetroses (4C),
pentoses (5C), hexoses (6C) and heptoses (7C). Of these, pentoses and especially
hexoses (e.g. glucose, fructose, galactose) are the most common so we will
concentrate on them.

The hexose monosaccharides are the most important carbohydrate sources of cellular
energy. 3 hexoses – glucose, galactose, and fructose – are of major significance in
nitrition. All 3 have the same molecular formula and thus contain an equal no. of
reduced carbons. They differ in structure but are biologically interconvertible.
Glucose plays a cenral role in carbohydrate energy utilization. Other carbohydartes
are usually converted to glucose before cellular utilization.

1.Glucose

Glucose is the most important of the monosaccharides. It is an aldohexose and is found in the
free state in plant and animal tissue.

Structure
Open chain and ring forms

Structure of the open chain and a and b ring forms of glucose. The three forms exist in equilibrium in aqueous
solution, with 0.02 % open chain, 36% a glucose and 64% b glucose.

The above graph shows glucose as having either an ‘open chain’ or ring structure. The
open chain form can be straight, but because of the bong angles between carbon atoms
it is possible for sugars with 5 and 6 carbon atoms to bend and form stable ring
structures. In hexoses like glucose, the first carbon atom combines with the oxygen
atom on carbon atom no. 5 to give a 6-membered ring. Oxygen is part of the ring and
that 1 carbon atom, carbon atom no. 6, sticks up out of the ring. In pentoses, the 1 st
carbon atom joins with the oxygen atom on the 4th carbon atom to give a 5-membered
ring.

The ring structures of pentoses and hexoses are the usual forms, with only a small
proportion of the molecules existing in the open chain form at any 1 time. The ring
structure is the form used to make dissaccharides and poly saccharides.
Alpha and beta isomers

The graph has also showed that glucose can exist in 2 possible forms, known as the
alpha and beta forms. The hydroxyl group on carbon 1 can project below the ring
(glucose) or above the ring ( glucose). Molecules like this, which have the same
chemical formula but with different structures are said to be the isomers of each other.
At any given moment in a glucose solution, some of the molecules will be in the open
chain form (0.02%) and some in the ring form. This is more stable and therefore more
common. A glucose molecule can switch spontaneously from the open chain form to
either of the2 ring forms and back again. Overall equilibrium is reached where the
proportions of the different forms remain constant.

As stated above, only the ring form can be used to make disaccharides and
polysaccharides. Despite the relatively small difference in structure between and 
glucose, there are important consequences.  glucose is used to make the
polysaccharide starch and glucose the polysaccharide cellulose molecules which
have very different properties.

Any 2 monosaccharides that differ only in the configuration around a single carbon
atom are called epimers. Thus D- and L-glyceraldehyde are epimers.

The structure called D-glucose is so named because the –H and –OH on carbon 5 are
in the same configuration as the –H and –OH on carbon 2 in D-glyceraldehyde. The
configuration of the –H and –OH on carbon 5 in L-glucose corresponds to the –H and
–OH on carbon 2 in L-glyceraldehyde.

Function

Glucose is commonly known as dextrose or grape sugar. It is a component of the


disaccharides sucrose, maltose, and lactose, and is also the monomer of the
polysaccharides starch, cellulose and glycogen. Among the common sugars, glucose is
of intermediate sweetness.

It is the most common respiratory substrate & the most common monosaccharides. It
is also the key sugar of the body and is carried by the bloodstream to all body parts.
The concentration of glucose in the blood is normally 80-100 mg per 100ml of blood.
Because glucose is the most abundant carbohydrate in the blood, it is also sometimes
known as blood suar. Glucose requires no digestion and therefore may be given
intravenously to patients who cannot take food by mouth. Glucose is found in the
urine of those who have diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes). The condition in which
glucose is excreted in the urine is called glycosuria.

2.Fructose

Fructose, also known as levulose, is a ketohexose that occurs in fruit juices, honey,
and (along with glucose) as a constituent of sucrose.

Structure

The open chain form can be represented in a Fischer projection formula:

Like glucose and galatose, fructose exists in both cyclic and open chain forms. One
common cyclic structure is a five membered furanose ring in the configuration:
Function

Fructose is the major constituent of the polysaccharide insulin, a starchlike substance


present in many plants. It is the sweetest of all the sugars,being about twice as sweet
as glucose. This accounts for the sweetness of honey. The enzyme invertase, present in
bees, spl;its sucrose into glucose and fructose. Fructose is metabolized directly but is
also readily converted to glucose in the liver.

3.Galactose

Galactose is also an aldohexose and occurs, along with glucose, in lactose and in
many oligo- and polysaccharides such as pectin, gums, and mucilages. Galactose is an
isomer of glucose, differing only in the spatial arrangement of the –H and –OH groups
around carbon 4.

Structure

Galatose, like glucose, is an aldohexose and differs structurally from glucose only in
the configuration of the –H and –OH group on the 4th carbon:

Galatose, like glucose, also exists primarily in 2 cyclic pyranose forms that have
hemiacetal structures and undergo mutarotation:
Function

Galactose is synthesized in the mammary glands to make the lactose of milk. It is also
a constituent of glycolipids and glycoproteins in many cell membranes such as those
in nervous tissue. Galactose is less than half as sweet as glucose.

4.Chief function of monosaccharides

  Examples
Trioses
 Glyceraldehyde

 dihydroxyacetone

Pentoses
 ribose

 deoxyribose

 ribulose

Hexoses
 glucose

 fructose

 galactose

Carbohydrate Monosaccharides

 inShare

 7

By Dr Ananya Mandal, MD

Carbohydrates are large macromolecules made up of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O)
and have the general formula Cx(H2O)y.

Carbohydrates can be classified according to the number of sugar units they contain, as follows:

 Monosaccharides consist of a single sugar. Examples include glucose and fructose.


Depending on the number of carbon atoms, the carbohydrate may be a triose, tetrose,
pentose or hexose.

 Disaccharides contain two sugar units

 Oligosaccharides contain 3 to 10 sugar units

 Polysaccharides contain more than 10 sugar units.

Monosaccharides
The general formula for a monosaccharide is (CH2O)n. Monosaccharides are the simplest form
of carbohydrate, which means they cannot be hydrolyzed or broken down into smaller
carbohydrates. Monosaccharides are important molecules that complex carbohydrates are broken
down into, in order to generate energy. They are also essential for building nucleic acids.

Monosaccharide classification
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Monosaccharides can be classified in three main ways, according to:

1. The number of carbon atoms – Monosaccharides containing three carbon atoms are
referred to as trioses, while those with four carbons are called tetroses and those with five
are called pentoses etc.
2. The location of the carbonyl group – If the carbonyl group is an aldehyde, then the
monosaccharide is an aldose whereas if the carbonyl group is a ketone, the
monosaccharide is a ketose.

3. The molecule’s stereochemistry or chiral handedness – This refers to the configuration of


the molecule, which may exist in different structural forms or isomers.

The first two classification systems above are often combined and a monosaccharide may be
called an aldohexose (e.g. glucose), an aldopentose (e.g. ribose) or a ketohexose (e.g. fructose),
for example.

Apart from the first and last carbon atom, each carbon atom bearing a hydroxyl group is
asymmetric and may have two possible configurations in space (R or S). A number of isomers
can therefore exist for any monosaccharide.

Glucose

Glucose is a carbohydrate, and is the most important simple


sugar in human metabolism. Glucose is called a simple sugar
or a monosaccharide because it is one of the smallest units
which has the characteristics of this class of carbohydrates.
Glucose is also sometimes called dextrose. Corn syrup is
primarily glucose. Glucose is one of the primary molecules
which serve as energy sources for plants and animals. It is
found in the sap of plants, and is found in the human
bloodstream where it is referred to as "blood sugar". The
normal concentration of glucose in the blood is about 0.1%, but
it becomes much higher in persons suffering from diabetes.

When oxidized in the body in the process called metabolism, glucose produces carbon dioxide,
water, and some nitrogen compounds and in the process provides energy which can be used by
the cells. The energy yield is about 686 kilocalories (2870 kilojoules) per mole which can be
used to do work or help keep the body warm. This energy figure is the change in Gibbs free
energy ΔG in the reaction, the measure of the maximum amount of work obtainable from the
reaction. As a primary energy source in the body, it requires no digestion and is often provided
intravenously to persons in hospitals as a nutrient.

Glucose
Glucose is a carbohydrate, and is the most important simple
sugar in human metabolism. Glucose is called a simple sugar
or a monosaccharide because it is one of the smallest units
which has the characteristics of this class of carbohydrates.
Glucose is also sometimes called dextrose. Corn syrup is
primarily glucose. Glucose is one of the primary molecules
which serve as energy sources for plants and animals. It is
found in the sap of plants, and is found in the human
bloodstream where it is referred to as "blood sugar". The
normal concentration of glucose in the blood is about 0.1%, but
it becomes much higher in persons suffering from diabetes.

When oxidized in the body in the process called metabolism, glucose produces carbon dioxide,
water, and some nitrogen compounds and in the process provides energy which can be used by
the cells. The energy yield is about 686 kilocalories (2870 kilojoules) per mole which can be
used to do work or help keep the body warm. This energy figure is the change in Gibbs free
energy ΔG in the reaction, the measure of the maximum amount of work obtainable from the
reaction. As a primary energy source in the body, it requires no digestion and is often provided
intravenously to persons in hospitals as a nutrient.

A monosaccharide is one saccharide (or sugar) molecule. An example of a monosaccharide is


glucose.
A disaccharide is two saccharides (sugars) bonded together through a dehydration reaction. An
example of a disaccharide is maltose which is two glucose linked together.
A polysaccharide is typically ten or more saccharides bonded together. Cellulose is an example
of a polysaccharide, which is ten or more glucose linked together.

What is the difference between a


monosaccharide and a disaccharide?
A:

The body requires less effort to break down monosaccharides, resulting in easier digestion
and more energy for the body than disaccharides. Monosaccharides include fructose, glucose
and galactose, while disaccharides include lactose, sucrose and maltose.

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Both disaccharides and monosaccharides are a form of carbohydrate called simple sugars.
Monosaccharides contain one sugar and disaccharides contain two sugars, and for a disaccharide
to form, two monosaccharides must come together via a covalent bond. Many sugars present in
foods are disaccharides, and they also exist in nature in the sucrose contained in fruits and
vegetables. Sucrose cannot be hydrolyzed (adding water to cleave chemical bonds) but other
disaccharides can be.

The simplest type of carbohydrate is the monosaccharide. Since they are the simplest form,
further hydrolyzing is not possible. Monosaccharides work to reduce other sugars and they taste
sweet. Due to their reducing abilities, they work in Fehling's or benedict's reagents to produce a
positive result. They get their classification from whether they have a keto or aldehyde group and
how many carbon atoms a molecule has. For example, if there are six carbon atoms on a
monosaccharide, it is a hexose, and if there are five carbon atoms, it is a pentose.
Monosaccharides and disaccharides are the two kinds of simple sugars, a form of carbohydrate.
In contrast to polysaccharides, which contain three or more sugars and are also known as
complex carbohydrates, monosaccharides and disaccharides contain one and two sugars,
respectively. Monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Disaccharides, by
contrast, include sucrose, lactose, and maltose, and these are made up of two monosaccharides
bonded together, such as glucose and fructose or even glucose with glucose. Monosaccharides
require the least effort by the body to break down and therefore are digested and subsequently
available for energy more quickly than disaccharides.

Carbohydrates are the body’s most immediately available source of energy, the source it relies
upon for everything from getting through a workout to fueling the brain. The more complex the
carbohydrate — that is, the more sugars it contains — the longer it takes to be broken down in
the intestines to its simplest components, monosaccharides and disaccharides. Glucose, a form of
monosaccharide, is the body’s preferred energy source, and it is also known as blood sugar. Most
carbohydrates, whether disaccharides or polysaccharides, end up in glucose form once broken
down in the digestive tract. In other words, a major difference between monosaccharides and
disaccharides is that monosaccharides are used immediately for energy, whereas disaccharides
must be converted into their monosaccharide components before they are of use to the body.

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The foods from which monosaccharides and disaccharides like fructose and sucrose are derived
for commercial purposes is another difference between the two. Glucose is found in a large
number of living organisms, from plants, to insects, to humans. In commercial food production,
however, fructose tends to be the preferred sweetener, as it is sweeter than table sugar and can be
made cheaply from corn. High fructose corn syrup, for instance, is a fructose sweetener derived
from corn that is found in many sweet foods and beverages like baked goods and soda.

Disaccharides are obtained from a variety of plant and animal sources, sources that naturally
contain a combination of monosaccharides. Sucrose, the scientific name for table sugar, is a
disaccharide that contains both glucose and fructose. It is typically derived from the sugar cane
or sugar beet plants, both of which are vegetables. Lactose, another disaccharide, comes not from
plants but from animals as it is the type of sugar found in milk and other dairy products. It is
made up of glucose combined with galactose.

Disaccharide
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A disaccharide or biose[1] is the carbohydrate formed when two monosaccharides undergo a


condensation reaction which involves the elimination of a small molecule, such as water, from
the functional groups only. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides form an aqueous solution when
dissolved in water. Three common references are sucrose, lactose,[2] and maltose.

"Disaccharide" is one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharide,


disaccharide, oligosaccharide, and polysaccharide).

Contents
 1 Classification
 2 Formation

 3 Properties

 4 Common disaccharides

 5 References

 6 External links

Classification
There are two different types of disaccharides: reducing disaccharides, in which one
monosaccharide, the reducing sugar, still has a free hemiacetal unit; and non-reducing
disaccharides, in which the components bond through an acetal linkage between their anomeric
centers and neither monosaccharide has a free hemiacetal unit. Cellobiose and maltose are
examples of reducing disaccharides. Sucrose and trehalose are examples of non-reducing
disaccharides. [3] [4]

Formation
Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides are joined together and a molecule of
water is removed, a process known as dehydration reaction. For example; milk sugar (lactose) is
made from glucose and galactose whereas the sugar from sugar cane and sugar beets (sucrose) is
made from glucose and fructose. Maltose, another notable disaccharide, is made up of two
glucose molecules.[5] The two monosaccharides are bonded via a dehydration reaction (also
called a condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis) that leads to the loss of a molecule of
water and formation of a glycosidic bond.[6]

Properties
The glycosidic bond can be formed between any hydroxyl group on the component
monosaccharide. So, even if both component sugars are the same (e.g., glucose), different bond
combinations (regiochemistry) and stereochemistry (alpha- or beta-) result in disaccharides that
are diastereoisomers with different chemical and physical properties.

Depending on the monosaccharide constituents, disaccharides are sometimes crystalline,


sometimes water-soluble, and sometimes sweet-tasting and sticky-feeling.

Common disaccharides
Disaccharide Unit 1 Unit 2 Bond
Sucrose (table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar, or Glucose Fructose α(1→2)β
saccharose)
Lactulose Galactose Fructose β(1→4)
Lactose (milk sugar) Galactose Glucose β(1→4)
Maltose (malt sugar) Glucose Glucose α(1→4)
Trehalose Glucose Glucose α(1→1)α
Cellobiose Glucose Glucose β(1→4)
Chitobiose Glucosamine Glucosamine β(1→4)

Maltose, cellobiose, and chitobiose are hydrolysis products of the polysaccharides starch,
cellulose, and chitin, respectively.

Less common disaccharides include:[7]

Disaccharide Units Bond


[8]
Kojibiose two glucose monomers α(1→2)
Nigerose two glucose monomers α(1→3)
Isomaltose two glucose monomers α(1→6)
β,β-Trehalose two glucose monomers β(1→1)β
α,β-Trehalose two glucose monomers α(1→1)β[9]
Sophorose two glucose monomers β(1→2)
Laminaribiose two glucose monomers β(1→3)
Gentiobiose two glucose monomers β(1→6)
a glucose monomer and a fructose
Turanose α(1→3)
monomer
a glucose monomer and a fructose
Maltulose α(1→4)
monomer
a glucose monomer and a fructose
Palatinose α(1→6)
monomer
a glucose monomer and a fructose
Gentiobiulose β(1→6)
monomer
either α(1→2), α(1→3), α(1→4), or
Mannobiose two mannose monomers
α(1→6)
a galactose monomer and a glucose
Melibiose α(1→6)
monomer
a galactose monomer and a fructose
Melibiulose α(1→6)
monomer
a rhamnose monomer and a glucose
Rutinose α(1→6)
monomer
a rhamnose monomer and a fructose
Rutinulose β(1→6)
monomer
Xylobiose two xylopyranose monomers β(1→4)
Name 3 Disaccharides

List of Disaccharides
By Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.

Chemistry Expert

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This is the chemical structure of lactose, a disaccharide found in milk. Calvero,


Creative Commons License

Updated September 15, 2014.


Disaccharides are sugars or carbohydrates made by linking two monosaccharides. This is a list of
some disaccharides, including the monosaccharides they are made from and foods containing
them. Sucrose, maltose, and lactose are the most familiar disaccharides, but there are others.

1. sucrose (saccharose)
glucose + fructose
Sucrose is table sugar. It is purified from sugar cane or sugar beets.

2. maltose
glucose + glucose
Maltose is a sugar found in some cereals and candies. It is a product of starch
digestions and may be purified from barley and other grains.

3. lactose
galactose + glucose
Sugar found in milk.

4. lactulose
galactose + fructose

5. trehalose
glucose + glucose

6. cellobiose
glucose + glucose
Hydrolysis product of cellulose.

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Bonds and Properties

Note multiple disaccharides are possible when monosaccharides bond to each other, since a
glycosidic bond can form between any hydroxyl group on the component sugars. For example,
two glucose molecules can join to form maltose, trehalose, or cellobiose. Even though these
disaccharides are made from the same component sugars, they are distinct molcules with
different chemical and physical properties from each other.

What are the different Polysaccharides?

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Image Credit:

http://bioweb.wku.edu/
Our body needs different types of food for the various functions, maintenance and growth. Food
can be categorized broadly into carbohydrates, proteins and fats. While fats help in long term
storage of energy which is not utilized right away, proteins help in building muscles and tissues.
It is the carbohydrates that provide us with the energy required to do immediate work as they can
be broken down right away into glucose which is utilized by the muscles to provide energy.
These in turn are categorized into mono-saccharides(simple sugars), di-saccharides and
polysaccharides. "SACCHARIDES" is derived from the greek word sacchar meaning "Sugar"
and Poly meaning many sugars put together is basically a many sugared molecule in simple
terms. Polysaccharides are polymer carbohydrates made up of many monosaccharides or
disaccharides. In simple terms, polysaccharides are complex sugar molecules made up of many
blocks of simple sugar. The sugars are held together by the glycosidic bonds. A glycosidic bond
is a covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate molecule to another group that may or may not be a
carbohydrate. Their properties may vary from their building blocks i.e. the monosaccharides.

Content

What are the various types of Polysaccharides?

What are the different kinds of Structural Polysaccharides?

How are Polysaccharides processed in our Body?

What is Dietary Fiber?

What is Starch?

What is Ganoderma Polysaccharide?


What are the various types of Polysaccharides?

If the polysaccharide is made up of same type of monosaccharides, they are


called homopolysaccharide or homoglycan, if it is mad up of different types of
monosaccharides, they are known as hetero-polysaccharides or heteroglycans. The three
common polysaccharides are Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose.

Starches : While Starches are basically glucose polymers they need the enzyme Amylase to be
broken down into glucose or to be digested. Plants store glucose in the form of starches.

Glycogen : This is a storage form of glucose which is broken down into glucose when needed
by animals and humans.

Cellulose : These are polysaccharides that are the components of plants and are used as building
material. They give both shape and structure to the plants. Cellulose cannot be digested by
humans and that is the reason we cannot digest grass as it is made up of cellulose. Cows, horses,
sheep, goats can digest cellulose because they have symbiotic bacteria in their intestinal tract and
it is these bacteria with their enzymes that help in digesting cellulose. Humans still use Cellulose
in the form of cotton, paper to make a lot of products which we are all too familiar with.

What are the different kinds of Structural Polysaccharides?

Chitin : It is a modified polysaccharides that contains Nitrogen. It is derived from glucose. It


forms the external skeleton in many animals and is also bio-degradable. These polysaccharides
resembles the cellulose in structure and the protein keratin in terms of function. This
polysaccharide has a wide use in the agricultural, industrial and medical fields. Chitin has
proven great use as a fertilizer and also to increase the immunity among the plants. It is used as a
binder in dyes, adhesives and fabrics in the industrial area. It is also used as a surgical thread in
the field of medicine because of its ability to dissolve.

Pectin : This is a polysaccharide that forms the primary cell walls of many terrestrial plants.
This is an example of heteropolysaccharides. It has various uses in the food industry as it acts as
a gelling agent for jams and jellies. It is also used as a food thickening agent and stabilizer in
juices, milk.

Arabinoxylans : It is a polysaccharide found in the primary and secondary cell wall of plants
i.e. wood and also in the cereal grains. It is a combination of arabinose and xylose.

How are Polysaccharides processed in our Body?


The food we eat is mixed with enzymes released by the body at various points to help in the
digestion of the different types of molecules such as fats, proteins and carbohydrates. While
chewing helps in breaking down the carbohydrates into smaller chunks, it is in the stomach
followed by the small intestine that the final breakdown of the polysaccharides happens. The
acid released in the stomach breaks them down into monosaccharides. The monosaccharides are
glucose molecules which are the basic energy providing molecules. The glucose is further broken
down in the cells into molecules of ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate. It is only when glucose is
broken down into ATP can carbohydrates provide energy that can utilized by the body to do
work. While the excess ATP molecules are converted by the liver into glycogen, these can be
later broken down to glucose when needed by the body.

What is Dietary Fiber?

Dietary Fiber is a kind of polysaccharide that our body cannot digest. While women need at
least 25 grams of fiber per day, men need anywhere from 30-38 grams per day. Dietary fiber is
fiber that our body cannot digest to get any nutrients out of it and is the indigestable part that
absorbs water as it moves down the alimentary canal and helps in bowel movement. But then not
all fibers are dietary fibers. Some of the examples of fibers are, non-starch polysaccharides -
cellulose, lignin, chitins and pectins, gum, mucilage. Both fibers and Dietary fibers are present
in soluble and insoluble forms. Dietary fiber is only present in plant food which includes nuts,
fruits and vegetables. Good sources of dietary fiber are broccoli, bran cereals, beans, peas,
whole-wheat breads, grains and cereals. The soluble dietary fiber helps us in preventing
constipation, reducing cholesterol levels, treatment of hemorrhoids and diverticulosis. The
soluble fibers can be only digested with the help of the bacteria present in our digestive tract. The
insoluble fiber is indigestible and helps in bowel movement.

What is Starch?

Starch, an example of the storage polysaccharide is produced by all plants. It acts as a major
energy reserve in plants and consists of glucose units. Starch is generally made up of 20-
25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin. Starch can be digested by hydrolysis with the help of
"Amylases" enzymes. Amylases enzymes are present in animals and humans and hence starch
can be digested by them. Rice, Potato, Maize and Wheat are all starches used by us as part of our
diet. Starch is also used as an adhesive.

What is Ganoderma Polysaccharide?


Polysaccharides are present in a very high concentration in 2 Asian herbs, Ganoderma Lucidum
and Cordyceps Sinensis. While the Ganoderma herb has Ganoderma Polysaccharides, the
Cordyceps herb contains Cordyceps Polysaccharides. Both these herbs are proven to improve
immune system, which helps in helping with cancer and diabetes.

What are three examples of polysaccharides?

Topic: Molecular Biology

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Polysaccharides form when monosaccharides or disaccharides attach in chains. They are


carbohydrate structures and generally heterogeneous. They are common in plants and are used as
food and energy storage by most animals.

The most prominent example of a polysaccharide is Starch, which is composed of glucose.


While it is not soluble in water, it can be digested by any animal with the specific enzyme
amylase, including humans. Starch helps regulate and store energy.
Another common polysaccharide is Cellulose, the primary component of plants and especially
trees. Since cellulose has a very strong molecular structure, it is not easily digested by animals;
dietary fibers such as psyllium husk are examples of cellulose.

Chitin is another example; it is the smooth substance that forms crustacean and clam shells, as
well as insect exoskeletons. Chitin is not easily broken down and is very common, and so acts as
protection in organisms and has many industrial uses.

Polysaccharide
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

3D structure of cellulose, a beta-glucan polysaccharide.

Amylose is a linear polymer of glucose mainly linked with α(1→4) bonds. It can be made of
several thousands of glucose units. It is one of the two components of starch, the other being
amylopectin.

Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of


monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on hydrolysis give the
constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly
branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural
polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.

Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating
unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their
monosaccharide building blocks. They may be amorphous or even insoluble in water.[1][2] When
all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a
homopolysaccharide or homoglycan, but when more than one type of monosaccharide is present
they are called heteropolysaccharides or heteroglycans.[3][4]
Natural saccharides are generally of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general
formula (CH2O)n where n is three or more. Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose,
and glyceraldehyde[5] Polysaccharides, meanwhile, have a general formula of Cx(H2O)y where x
is usually a large number between 200 and 2500. Considering that the repeating units in the
polymer backbone are often six-carbon monosaccharides, the general formula can also be
represented as (C6H10O5)n where 40≤n≤3000.

Polysaccharides contain more than ten monosaccharide units. Definitions of how large a
carbohydrate must be to fall into the categories polysaccharides or oligosaccharides vary
according to personal opinion. Polysaccharides are an important class of biological polymers.
Their function in living organisms is usually either structure- or storage-related. Starch (a
polymer of glucose) is used as a storage polysaccharide in plants, being found in the form of both
amylose and the branched amylopectin. In animals, the structurally similar glucose polymer is
the more densely branched glycogen, sometimes called 'animal starch'. Glycogen's properties
allow it to be metabolized more quickly, which suits the active lives of moving animals.

Cellulose and chitin are examples of structural polysaccharides. Cellulose is used in the cell
walls of plants and other organisms, and is said to be the most abundant organic molecule on
earth.[6] It has many uses such as a significant role in the paper and textile industries, and is used
as a feedstock for the production of rayon (via the viscose process), cellulose acetate, celluloid,
and nitrocellulose. Chitin has a similar structure, but has nitrogen-containing side branches,
increasing its strength. It is found in arthropod exoskeletons and in the cell walls of some fungi.
It also has multiple uses, including surgical threads. Polysaccharides also include callose or
laminarin, chrysolaminarin, xylan, arabinoxylan, mannan, fucoidan and galactomannan.

Contents
 1 Function

o 1.1 Structure

 2 Storage polysaccharides

o 2.1 Starches

o 2.2 Glycogen

 3 Structural polysaccharides

o 3.1 Arabinoxylans

o 3.2 Cellulose

o 3.3 Chitin
o 3.4 Pectins

 4 Acidic polysaccharides

 5 Bacterial capsular polysaccharides

 6 Chemical identification tests for polysaccharides

o 6.1 Periodic acid-Schiff stain (PAS)

 7 See also

 8 References

 9 External links

Function
Structure

Nutrition polysaccharides are common sources of energy. Many organisms can easily break
down starches into glucose; however, most organisms cannot metabolize cellulose or other
polysaccharides like chitin and arabinoxylans. These carbohydrate types can be metabolized by
some bacteria and protists. Ruminants and termites, for example, use microorganisms to process
cellulose.

Even though these complex to carbohydrates are not very digestible, they provide important
dietary elements for humans. Called dietary fiber, these carbohydrates enhance digestion among
other benefits. The main action of dietary fiber is to change the nature of the contents of the
gastrointestinal tract, and to change how other nutrients and chemicals are absorbed.[7][8] Soluble
fiber binds to bile acids in the small intestine, making them less likely to enter the body; this in
turn lowers cholesterol levels in the blood.[9] Soluble fiber also attenuates the absorption of sugar,
reduces sugar response after eating, normalizes blood lipid levels and, once fermented in the
colon, produces short-chain fatty acids as byproducts with wide-ranging physiological activities
(discussion below). Although insoluble fiber is associated with reduced diabetes risk, the
mechanism by which this occurs is unknown.[10]

Not yet formally proposed as an essential macronutrient (as of 2005), dietary fiber is
nevertheless regarded as important for the diet, with regulatory authorities in many developed
countries recommending increases in fiber intake.[7][8][11][12]

Storage polysaccharides
Starches
Starches are glucose polymers in which glucopyranose units are bonded by alpha-linkages. It is
made up of a mixture of amylose (15–20%) and amylopectin (80–85%). Amylose consists of a
linear chain of several hundred glucose molecules and Amylopectin is a branched molecule made
of several thousand glucose units (every chain of 24–30 glucose units is one unit of
Amylopectin). Starches are insoluble in water. They can be digested which can break the alpha-
linkages (glycosidic bonds). Both humans and animals have amylases, so they can digest
starches. Potato, rice, wheat, and maize are major sources of starch in the human diet. The
formations of starches are the ways that plants store glucose

Glycogen

Glycogen serves as the secondary long-term energy storage in animal and fungal cells, with the
primary energy stores being held in adipose tissue. Glycogen is made primarily by the liver and
the muscles, but can also be made by glycogenesis within the brain and stomach.[13]

Glycogen is the analogue of starch, a glucose polymer in plants, and is sometimes referred to as
animal starch,[14] having a similar structure to amylopectin but more extensively branched and
compact than starch. Glycogen is a polymer of α(1→4) glycosidic bonds linked, with α(1→6)-
linked branches. Glycogen is found in the form of granules in the cytosol/cytoplasm in many cell
types, and plays an important role in the glucose cycle. Glycogen forms an energy reserve that
can be quickly mobilized to meet a sudden need for glucose, but one that is less compact and
more immediately available as an energy reserve than triglycerides (lipids).

In the liver hepatocytes, glycogen can compose up to eight percent (100–120 g in an adult) of the
fresh weight soon after a meal.[15] Only the glycogen stored in the liver can be made accessible to
other organs. In the muscles, glycogen is found in a low concentration of one to two percent of
the muscle mass. The amount of glycogen stored in the body—especially within the muscles,
liver, and red blood cells[16][17][18]—varies with physical activity, basal metabolic rate, and eating
habits such as intermittent fasting. Small amounts of glycogen are found in the kidneys, and even
smaller amounts in certain glial cells in the brain and white blood cells. The uterus also stores
glycogen during pregnancy, to nourish the embryo.[15]

Glycogen is composed of a branched chain of glucose residues. It is stored in liver and muscles.

 It is an energy reserve for animals.

 It is the chief form of carbohydrate stored in animal body.

 It is insoluble in water. It turns red when mixed with iodine.

 It also yields glucose on hydrolysis.


Schematic 2-D cross-sectional view of glycogen. A core protein of glycogenin is


surrounded by branches of glucose units. The entire globular granule may contain
approximately 30,000 glucose units.[19]

A view of the atomic structure of a single branched strand of glucose units in a glycogen
molecule.

Structural polysaccharides
Arabinoxylans

Arabinoxylans are found in both the primary and secondary cell walls of plants and are the
copolymers of two pentose sugars: arabinose and xylose.

Cellulose

The structural component of plants are formed primarily from cellulose. Wood is largely
cellulose and lignin, while paper and cotton are nearly pure cellulose. Cellulose is a polymer
made with repeated glucose units bonded together by beta-linkages. Humans and many animals
lack an enzyme to break the beta-linkages, so they do not digest cellulose. Certain animals such
as termites can digest cellulose, because bacteria possessing the enzyme are present in their gut.
Cellulose is insoluble in water. It does not change color when mixed with iodine. On hydrolysis,
it yields glucose. It is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature.

Chitin

Chitin is one of many naturally occurring polymers. It forms a structural component of many
animals, such as exoskeletons. Over time it is bio-degradable in the natural environment. Its
breakdown may be catalyzed by enzymes called chitinases, secreted by microorganisms such as
bacteria and fungi, and produced by some plants. Some of these microorganisms have receptors
to simple sugars from the decomposition of chitin. If chitin is detected, they then produce
enzymes to digest it by cleaving the glycosidic bonds in order to convert it to simple sugars and
ammonia.

Chemically, chitin is closely related to chitosan (a more water-soluble derivative of chitin). It is


also closely related to cellulose in that it is a long unbranched chain of glucose derivatives. Both
materials contribute structure and strength, protecting the organism.

Pectins

Pectins are a family of complex polysaccharides that contain 1,4-linked α-D-galactosyluronic


acid residues. They are present in most primary cell walls and in the non-woody parts of
terrestrial plants.

Acidic polysaccharides
Acidic polysaccharides are polysaccharides that contain carboxyl groups, phosphate groups
and/or sulfuric ester groups.

Bacterial capsular polysaccharides


Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. This
"capsule" cloaks antigenic proteins on the bacterial surface that would otherwise provoke an
immune response and thereby lead to the destruction of the bacteria. Capsular polysaccharides
are water soluble, commonly acidic, and have molecular weights on the order of 100-2000 kDa.
They are linear and consist of regularly repeating subunits of one to six monosaccharides. There
is enormous structural diversity; nearly two hundred different polysaccharides are produced by
E. coli alone. Mixtures of capsular polysaccharides, either conjugated or native are used as
vaccines.

Bacteria and many other microbes, including fungi and algae, often secrete polysaccharides to
help them adhere to surfaces and to prevent them from drying out. Humans have developed some
of these polysaccharides into useful products, including xanthan gum, dextran, welan gum,
gellan gum, diutan gum and pullulan.
Most of these polysaccharides exhibit useful visco-elastic properties when dissolved in water at
very low levels.[20] This makes various liquids used in everyday life, such as some foods, lotions,
cleaners, and paints, viscous when stationary, but much more free-flowing when even slight
shear is applied by stirring or shaking, pouring, wiping, or brushing. This property is named
pseudoplasticity or shear thinning; the study of such matters is called rheology.

Viscosity of Welan gum

Shear Rate (rpm) Viscosity (cP)

0.3 23330

0.5 16000

1 11000

2 5500

4 3250

5 2900

10 1700

20 900

50 520

100 310

Aqueous solutions of the polysaccharide alone have a curious behavior when stirred: after
stirring ceases, the solution initially continues to swirl due to momentum, then slows to a
standstill due to viscosity and reverses direction briefly before stopping. This recoil is due to the
elastic effect of the polysaccharide chains, previously stretched in solution, returning to their
relaxed state.

Cell-surface polysaccharides play diverse roles in bacterial ecology and physiology. They serve
as a barrier between the cell wall and the environment, mediate host-pathogen interactions, and
form structural components of biofilms. These polysaccharides are synthesized from nucleotide-
activated precursors (called nucleotide sugars) and, in most cases, all the enzymes necessary for
biosynthesis, assembly and transport of the completed polymer are encoded by genes organized
in dedicated clusters within the genome of the organism. Lipopolysaccharide is one of the most
important cell-surface polysaccharides, as it plays a key structural role in outer membrane
integrity, as well as being an important mediator of host-pathogen interactions.

The enzymes that make the A-band (homopolymeric) and B-band (heteropolymeric) O-antigens
have been identified and the metabolic pathways defined.[21] The exopolysaccharide alginate is a
linear copolymer of β-1,4-linked D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid residues, and is
responsible for the mucoid phenotype of late-stage cystic fibrosis disease. The pel and psl loci
are two recently discovered gene clusters that also encode exopolysaccharides found to be
important for biofilm formation. Rhamnolipid is a biosurfactant whose production is tightly
regulated at the transcriptional level, but the precise role that it plays in disease is not well
understood at present. Protein glycosylation, particularly of pilin and flagellin, became a focus of
research by several groups from about 2007, and has been shown to be important for adhesion
and invasion during bacterial infection.[22]

Chemical identification tests for polysaccharides


Periodic acid-Schiff stain (PAS)

This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (March 2013)

Polysaccharides with unprotected vicinal diols or amino sugars (i.e. some OH groups replaced
with amine) give a positive Periodic acid-Schiff stain (PAS). The list of polysaccharides that
stain with PAS is long. Although mucins of epithelial origins stain with PAS, mucins of
connective tissue origin have so many acidic substitutions that they do not have enough glycol or
amino-alcohol groups left to react with PAS.

carbohydrates
gen formula
simplest carbohydrate (structural formula)
classification of carbohydrates
importance of monosaccharide w/ structual fornula
difference between monosaccharide
what are disaccharides (w/ examples)
what are polysaccharides (w/ examples)