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15 просмотров18 страницLESSON PLAN

Nov 13, 2019

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LESSON PLAN

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same.

circuits and solve related problems.

circuit is equal to the sum of the potential difference in the

circuit.

circuit to a variety of D.C. circuits and solve related problems.

equal to the sum of currents in the separate branches.

D.C. circuits and solve related problems.

the separate branches is the same.

a variety of D.C. circuits and solve related problems.

Prior Knowledge: The entire topic of Current Electricity, especially the following—

Students should be already able to:

resistors in series and in parallel to simple D.C. circuits and

solve related problems.

voltmeter.

Students are also familiar with the use of Crocodile Physics from

previous lessons.

Concept Map:

D.C. Circuits

Characteristics

Characteristics

Worksheets: Appendix B

Set Induction:

Step into the room and turn off all the lights except the row of lights nearest to the

whiteboard. Wait for about 20 seconds for all the students to pay attention to what

you are doing. Announce to the class that you want them to observe how, with the

flick of each switch, each row of ceiling lights turns on.

Ask students what they think would happen if one of the ceiling lamps blew.

Refer to a picture of ceiling lamps in a gymnasium and point out how one of the

lamps has blown but the rest remain lit. (PowerPoint Slide) Lead them to realise the

importance of connecting circuits in series or parallel in their everyday life.

Ask students why they think this is so. Are the ceiling lamps in the room connected in

series or parallel? When do we connect circuits in series? parallel? or both?

Inform the class that it is the characteristics of series and parallel circuits that enable

us to decide when and why they are to be connected in a certain way.

Introduce the topic on D.C. circuits by asking students to recall the previous chapter

on Current Electricity where resistors in series and parallel were looked at briefly, and

Ohm’s Law was defined.

Inform students that in today’s lesson we will be investigating the principle of current

flow and potential difference in series and parallel circuits.

Lesson Development:

1) Everyday applications

The trigger activity will set the students thinking about the importance of the characteristics

of series and parallel circuits as observed from the association of electrical circuits such as

ceiling lights in their everyday life. It also arouses students’ interest using an authentic

situation they are familiar with.

This will be a student-centred, inquiry-based lesson whereby the class will be required to

investigate on the characteristics of current and potential difference in series and parallel

circuits (Appendix B). Students will be tasked to work in pairs and will be using a pre-

designed Crocodile Physics file to help them in their investigations. The investigations will be

divided into two sections, where the first section focuses on series circuits (Appendix B—

Class Activity 1), and the second, on parallel circuits (Appendix B—Class Activity 2). The

worksheet consists of some leading questions to guide students to collect data based on the

circuits preloaded in their Crocodile Physics file. Students will be given approximately 15

minutes to work on each of the class activities. After each section is completed, students are

expected to discuss and deduce the characteristics of current and potential difference in

series or parallel circuits, using the data they have gathered. If there is sufficient time,

students can be tasked to test out their hypothesis by constructing further circuits of their

own in Crocodile Physics itself. The teacher also scaffolds students’ participation by walking

around to monitor and facilitate students’ discussion during each 15 minute slot. There are

also leading questions in the worksheet. In this hands-on, minds-on and collaborative

learning approach, it will encourage maximum participation on the part of students.

Students are required to work in pairs to complete their investigation exercise, using

Crocodile Physics. Discussion and interaction with their partners enable students to enhance

their learning through collaboration with their peers and guidance from the teacher. After

each 15 minute slot where they are given time to complete 2 investigations in their pairs,

random pairs will be asked to share their findings with the class. This helps the teacher to

consolidate and gather feedback to check that students have arrived at the expected

conclusion for each investigation.

4) IT – Interactive multimedia

The lesson will be conducted in a computer room to make use of IT. PowerPoint will be used

for face-to-face teaching which includes consolidation of main points. Crocodile Physics will

be used for students’ investigation and aid in their completion of their class activity

(Crocodile Physics file—Series and Parallel D.C. Circuits). The teacher will also use

Crocodile Physics to aid in explanation during the consolidation of main learning points.

Lesson Closure:

There will also be a review of main learning points. Assign the homework (Appendix B--

Homework) which consists of two questions that will test their application of the principle of

current flow and potential difference in series or parallel circuits.

Ask: What if we now have a circuit that consists of a combination of series and parallel

parts? The teacher will return to the trigger activity and mention how classroom lights could

be constructed in a combination of parallel circuits in series. As preparation for the next

lesson, ask students to discuss in groups of 4 (existing pairs to work with another pair) and

draw out a possible circuit diagram involving their classroom lights. They will be asked to

present and explain why they have drawn the circuit in a particular way.

Inform students that we will be looking at circuits consisting of both series and parallel

components in the next lesson. Hint that to solve unknowns in such circuits, they are to

identify sections of the circuit which are in series or parallel and use the earlier principles of

current and potential difference to solve as before. Tell the students that if they feel up to it,

they can try the challenge question which consists of a combination of series and parallel

parts before the next lesson.

Summary of lesson plan

Time

Frame Activities Resources Rationale

5 mins Step into the classroom and turn off all the Classroom Trigger activity to capture

lights except the row nearest to the lights; students’ attention and

whiteboard at the front of the class where PowerPoint

prepare mindset on topic

the teacher is standing. Slide

D.C. Circuits.

Ask students if they think if each row of

classroom lights is connected in series or PowerPoint is used to

parallel. Connect the problem to a picture present a picture that

on the PowerPoint slide where a single enables the teacher to ask

lamp is blown. a pertinent question.

(Authentic scenario)

Introduce the topic on D.C. Circuits and

highlight the importance of the

characteristics of series and parallel circuits

to a person’s everyday life.

5 mins Recall students’ prior knowledge on current PowerPoint Scaffolding students for

electricity. Slide; the lesson and ensuring

Crocodile that they are clear of what

Hand out worksheet; get students in pairs;

explain what the class activities are about Physics; they are investigating.

and how students are supposed open the Class (Scaffolding)

file and go about their investigations using Worksheet

Crocodile Physics. Crocodile Physics is a

useful tool for students’

investigation of electric

circuits as it saves the

hassle of replacement

when students blow any of

the components.

IT is especially useful

compared to traditional

methods of teaching for

this topic because of the

abstract nature of electric

circuits.

15 mins Students engage in collaborative learning PCs; Encourage student

and investigation with their partners in Crocodile participation through

completing Class Activity 1. Physics; hands-on and minds-on

The teacher walks around to monitor and Class inquiry based approach.

facilitate discussion and to clarify and Worksheet The worksheets will lead

queries students may have. students to ‘construct’ their

own knowledge. (Piaget’s

(Appendix B: Class Activity 1—Investigation 1 Constructivism)

& 2)

Collaborative learning also

Faster pairs can go on to construct their

maximises students’

own circuits to validate their conclusions or

attempt the question in Class Exercise 1. learning. (Vygotsky’s

social development

theory)

10 mins Random pairs are selected to share their Whiteboard; Sharing from students

findings. Crocodile provides feedback to

Physics; teachers as a form of

Teacher summarises conclusions from the

first two investigations for series circuits— PowerPoint evaluation.

the current at every point is the same; the Slide; (Feedback and evaluation)

potential difference across the entire circuit Class

is equal to the sum of the potential Worksheet Summary and the

difference in the circuit. example consolidates ‘new

learning’ for students.

Students are given about 2 minutes to try Students learn to apply the

out the question on their own. principle of current and

Teacher then guides students through an potential difference in a

example in Class Exercise 1.

series circuit and solve

Possible guiding questions:

What do we know about current in a series related problems.

circuit? (Consolidation)

So what is the current flowing through the

10 ohm resistor?

Use Ohm’s Law…

What do we know about the potential

difference of a series circuit?

You can check your answers by working

backwards!

(e.g. what is the total resistance of the

circuit?)

and investigation with their partners in Crocodile participation through

completing Class Activity 2.

Physics; hands-on and minds-on

The teacher walks around to monitor and Class inquiry based approach.

facilitate discussion and to clarify and The worksheets will lead

queries students may have. Worksheet students to ‘construct’ their

own knowledge. (Piaget’s

(Appendix B: Class Activity 2—Investigation 3 Constructivism)

& 4)

Collaborative learning also

Faster pairs can construct their own circuits

to validate their conclusions or attempt the maximises students’

question in Class Exercise 2. learning. (Vygotsky’s

social development

theory)

10 mins Random pairs are selected to share their Whiteboard; Sharing from students

findings. Crocodile provides feedback to

Physics; teachers as a form of

Teacher summarises conclusions from the

next two investigations for parallel circuits PowerPoint evaluation.

— the current from a source is equal to the Slide; (Feedback and evaluation)

sum of currents in the separate branches; Class

the potential difference across the separate Worksheet Summary and the

branches is the same. example consolidates ‘new

learning’ for students.

Students are given about 2 minutes to try

Students learn to apply the

out the question on their own.

Teacher then guides students through an principle of current and

example in Class Exercise 2. potential difference in a

Possible guiding questions: parallel circuit and solve

What do we know about potential related problems.

difference of a parallel circuit? (Consolidation)

So what is the current flowing through the

20 ohm resistor? The 50 ohm resistor?

Use Ohm’s Law…

What do we know about current in a

parallel circuit?

You can check your answers by using an

alternative method!

(e.g. what is the total resistance of the

circuit?)

10 mins PowerPoint; will test their application of

Ask them to prepare their homework for the

Class the principle of current

next lesson.

Worksheet flow and potential

(Appendix B: Homework) difference in series or

parallel circuits.

Ask: What if we now have a circuit that (Evaluation and Feedback

consists of a combination of series and for the teacher in the next

parallel circuits? Return to trigger activity lesson)

and mention how classroom lights could be

constructed in a combination of parallel Question and hint leads

circuits in series. students to attempt to

extend what they have

As preparation for the next lesson, ask learnt earlier.

students to discuss in groups of 4 (existing

pairs to work with another pair) and draw Students are led to extend

out a possible circuit diagram involving the problem to a real life

their classroom lights. They will be asked to

scenario.

present and explain why they have drawn

the circuit in a particular way. (Problem-Based Learning)

circuits consisting of both series and extension to the next

parallel components in the next lesson. lesson.

circuits, they are to identify sections of the

circuit which are in series or parallel and

use the earlier principles of current and

potential difference to solve as before. Tell

the students that if they feel up to it, they

can try the challenge question which

consists of a combination of series and

parallel parts before the next lesson.

The planned lesson is based on the constructivist approach in learning. Generally high ability

students would be likely to benefit from such an approach as they are challenged to carry

out their own investigations to inquiry and construct their own learning. The teacher’s role is

to guide and scaffold students through Socratic questioning and the use of Class

worksheets. Students may feel more responsible for their own learning this way as opposed

to the teacher using a solely chalk and talk approach. Classroom discussions would also

make the lesson more engaging for them.

Since the setting of the lesson is in the computer lab, the lesson is probably more

constrained in the sense that the usage of computers/hands-on Crocodile Physics activity is

maximized as far as possible. This means that the number of actual examples or problems

the teacher can go through in the class is limited by time. In the following lessons, it may be

helpful for the teacher to go through more problems to review and test students’ application

of their knowledge, (i.e. more practice and drill) in class. This is especially so since the next

lesson will include solving circuits involving series and parallel components which requires

students to have a strong prior understanding of current and potential difference in series or

parallel circuits.

The use of Crocodile Physics also enables students to carry out their investigations in a

shorter span of time as opposed to actually constructing their own circuits. However,

students should also be given opportunities for hands-on construction of their own circuits,

using the voltmeter and ammeter to measure current and potential difference across the

circuits during their practical laboratory sessions later on. This would benefit the more

kinestatic learners and students may be more familiar with the actual experiments after

having done similar investigations using Crocodile Physics.

References

Ace Electric Co., Inc. (n.d.). Lighting. Retrieved October 30, 2008, from

www.aceelectriconline.com/lighting.htm

Chew, C., Leong, S. C., & Chow, S. F. (2000). Physics: A Course for 'O' Level. Singapore:

Federal Publications.

Fong, H. F., & Kwen, B. H. (2007). Cooperative learning: Exploring its effectiveness in the

Physics classroom. Singapore: Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching.

Quah, J. (2008). Physics Expression: An inquiry approach 'O' Level Science (Physics).

Singapore: Panpac Education.

Examination. Retrieved October 20, 2008, from GCE 'O' Levels Physics Syllabus

(5057): http://www.seab.gov.sg/SEAB/oLevel/syllabus/private/2009_GCE_O.html

Yong, L. W., & Wai, L. K. (2007). Science in Focus: Physics 'O' Level (Teacher's Resource

File)`. Singapore: Pearson Longman.

Appendix B: Class Worksheet

Class Activity 1

In this activity, you will be investigating the characteristics of current and potential difference

in series circuits.

Access the Crocodile Physics File entitled ‘Series and Parallel Circuits D.C. Circuits’ under

shared folder on the desktop. Under ‘Series Circuits’ Tab (Section A), complete the following

investigations:

Investigation 1

c) What about the ammeter readings A3, A4 and A5?

Investigation 2

a) Record down and tabulate the voltmeter readings for circuits 4, 5 and 6.

b) For each of the circuits, what do you notice about the voltmeter reading of V and the other

respective voltmeter readings?

The sum of potential differences is equal to the potential difference across the whole circuit.

Summary:

Characteristics

Class Exercise 1

The circuit below comprises a 3 V cell of negligible internal resistance. The ammeter

registers a current of 0.1A.

V2 V1

a) Find the p.d. across the 10 Ω resistor.

This is a series circuit, so a current of 0.1 A also passes through the 10 Ω resistor.

From Ohm’s Law,

V1 = IR

= 0.1 x 10

=1V

E = V1 + V2

Then V2 = E – V1

= 3 – V1

=3–1

=2V

Class Activity 2

Now proceed to ‘Parallel Circuits’ Tab in Crocodile Physics to continue your investigations

for current and potential difference in parallel circuits.

Investigation 3

b) For each of the circuits, what do you notice about the ammeter reading of A and the other

ammeter readings?

__A gives the sum of the other respective ammeter readings for each circuit.____________

_The current in the main branch is equal to the sum of the currents in the parallel branches._

Investigation 4

b) For each of the circuits, what do you notice about the voltmeter reading of V compared to

the other voltmeter readings?

_The potential difference across the terminals of the source is equal to the potential

difference across all the other respective resistors arranged in a parallel circuit.___________

Summary:

Characteristics

Class Exercise 2

The circuit shown below comprises a 5.0 V battery of negligible internal resistance. Calculate

the currents and .

Notice that the lower current flows through the branch that has a larger resistance.

Homework (To be completed by next lesson)

Q1) Calculate the current flow through each of the resistors and p.d. across each resistor.

Total resistance =

The p.d. across each resistor is as follows:

Check:

The same!

Q2) The circuit below comprises a 2 V battery of negligible resistance. The current flowing

through resistor R is 0.2 A. Calculate the value of the resistor and currents and .

Also,

Now,

In the circuit below, we have three identical bulbs of resistance 10 Ω each, which are

connected to a 12 V battery of negligible resistance.

b) Calculate the total resistance of the circuit.

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