Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

QUIZ 1

Solution Manual
Review Simple Harmonic Motion and Oscillation

Lecturer: Iwan Cony Setiadi Course Learning Outcomes:


Course: Wave Phenomena Students are able to build mathematical models of various
Duration: 90 minutes types of vibrations and oscillation.

Concept Question:
1. Explain why Q (quality factor) is a useful quantity in the study of damped oscillations.
[10 marks]
Q does a number of things; it quantifies the rate of energy loss of the damped oscillation.

True or False Question:


2. Determine which of the statements are true and which are false! Please give the reason
for answers.
a. For a simple harmonic oscillator, the period is proportional to the square of the
amplitude [5 marks]
False. In simple harmonic motion, the period is independent of the amplitude.
b. For a simple harmonic oscillator, the frequency does not depend on the
amplitude. [5 marks]
True. In simple harmonic motion, the frequency is the reciprocal of the period
which, in turn, is independent of the amplitude.
c. If the net force on a particle undergoing one-dimensional motion is proportional
to, and oppositely directed from, the displacement from equilibrium, the motion
is simple harmonic. [5 marks]
True. This is the condition for simple harmonic motion.
d. The mechanical energy of a damped, undriven oscillator decreases exponentially
with time. [5 marks]
True. Because the energy of an oscillator is proportional to the square of its
amplitude, and the amplitude of a damped, undriven oscillator decreases
exponentially with time.
e. Resonance for a damped, driven oscillator occurs when the driving frequency
exactly equals the natural frequency. [5 marks]
True. Objects which are free to vibrate will have one or more natural frequency
at which they vibrate, If an object is being forced to vibrate at its natural
frequency, resonance will occur and you will observe large amplitude vibrations.
f. If the Q factor of a damped oscillator is high, then its resonance curve will be
narrow. [5 marks]
True. The ratio of the width of a resonance curve to the resonant frequency equals
the reciprocal of the Q factor. Hence, the larger Q is, the narrower the resonance
curve.
g. The decay time τ for a spring-mass oscillator with linear damping is independent
of its mass. [5 marks]
False. The decay time for a damped but undriven spring-mass oscillator is directly
proportional to its mass.
h. The Q factor for a driven spring-mass oscillator with linear damping is
independent of its mass. [5 marks]
True. From its formula one can see that Q is independent of m.
Problem Question:
3. A damped harmonic oscillator consists of a block (m = 2.72 kg), a spring (k = 10.3 N/m),
and a damping force (F = -bv). Initially, it oscillates with an amplitude of 28.5 cm;
because of the damping, the amplitude falls to 0.721 of the initial value at the completion
of 7 oscillations. (a) What is the value of b? (Hint: Assume that b2 << km.) (b) How much
energy has been lost during these 7 oscillations? [30 marks]

a. According to question,
The amplitude falls to 0.721 of the initial value at the completion of 7 oscillations.

When 𝑡 = 7𝑇, with 𝑇 = 2𝜋/𝜔 ≈ 2𝜋+𝑚/𝑘

𝑒 /01/23 = 0.721

3 2.92
Thus, 𝑇 ≈ 2𝜋7 8 = 2𝜋7:;.< = 20.26

and we find

𝑏(7𝑇)
= ln 0.721 = 0.32
2𝑚

2 (2.72)(0.32)
𝑏= = 0.0122 𝑘𝑔/𝑠
7(20.26)

b. Initially,
:
The energy is 𝐸; = 𝑘𝑥 2
2

At t = 7T
:
The energy is 𝐸9 = 𝑘(0.721𝑥)2
2

Therefore, the lost energy is equal to 𝐸; − 𝐸;

4. An 80 kg student hangs from a bungee cord with spring constant 200 N/m. The student
is pulled down to a point where the cord is 5.0 m longer than its unstretched length, then
released. Where is the student, and what is his velocity 2 seconds later? [20 marks]

According the question,


𝑚 = 80𝑘𝑔
𝑘 = 200𝑁/𝑚

The cord is 5.0 m longer than its unstretched length,


5 = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝐿 + 𝐴
𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎 = 𝑘𝑥
(80)( 9.81) = (− 200) 𝑥
𝑥 = − 3.92 𝑚
𝐴 = 5.0 𝑚 − 3.92 𝑚 = 1.08 𝑚

𝑥(𝑡) = 𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝜔𝑡)


𝑥(𝑡) = 1.08 𝑚 . 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (2𝜔)
𝑥(𝑡) = 1.08 𝑚 . 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (2+𝑘/𝑚 )
𝑣(𝑡) = − 𝐴𝜔 sin (𝜔𝑡)
𝑣(𝑡) = − 𝐴𝜔 sin Z2𝑡+𝑘/𝑚[

Hooke's Law is used to find x (object's position) before using kinematics of SHM
to solve the questions.

5. Two simple pendulums are related as follows. Pendulum A has a length LA and a bob of
mass mA; pendulum B has a length LB and a bob of mass mB. If the period of A is twice
that of B, then determine the relationship between LA and LB ! [10 marks]

The period of a simple pendulum is independent of the mass of its bob and is
given by
𝐿\
𝑇\ = 2𝜋]
𝑔

𝐿^
𝑇^ = 2𝜋]
𝑔

𝐿\ 𝑇\ 2
= _ ` 𝐿^
𝐿^ 𝑇^

2𝑇^ 2
𝐿\ = _ ` 𝐿^
𝑇^

𝐿\ = 4𝐿^