Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5


 is the branch of physics that deals with the relationships

between heat and other forms of energy.
 describes how thermal energy is converted to and from
other forms of energy and how it affects matter.
Thermal energy
 the energy contained within a system that is
responsible for its temperature.
Heat is the flow of thermal energy. A whole branch
of physics, thermodynamics, deals with how
heat is transferred between different systems
and how work is done in the process

 transfer of kinetic energy from one medium or object to another, or
from an energy source to a medium or object.
 Such energy transfer can occur in three ways:
1. radiation
2. conduction and
3. convection.
 is the property of matter which reflects
the quantity of energy of motion of the
component particles. It is a comparative
measure of how hot or cold a material is.
 The coldest theoretical temperature is called absolute zero. It is the
temperature where the thermal motion of particles is at its
Absolute Zero
Kelvin scale = 0 K
Celsius scale =−273.15 C
Fahrenheit scale= −459.67 F

The four laws of thermodynamics

1. Zeroth Law - The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics states that if
two bodies are each in thermal equilibrium with some third body,
then they are also in equilibrium with each other. Thermal
equilibrium means that when two bodies are brought into contact
with each other and separated by a barrier that is permeable to heat,
there will be no transfer of heat from one to the other.
2. First Law of Thermodynamics- heat is a form of energy, and
thermodynamic processes are therefore subject to the principle of
conservation of energy. This means that heat energy cannot be created or
destroyed. It can, however, be transferred from one location to another and
converted to and from other forms of energy.
3. Second Law of Thermodynamics- The Second Law of Thermodynamics is
about the quality of energy. It states that as energy is transferred or
transformed, more and more of it is wasted. The Second Law also states that
there is a natural tendency of any isolated system to degenerate into a more
disordered state.

4. The Third Law of Thermodynamics- is concerned with the limiting

behavior of systems as the temperature approaches absolute zero. Most
thermodynamics calculations use only entropy differences, so the zero point
of the entropy scale is often not important. However, we discuss the Third
Law for purposes of completeness because it describes the condition of zero