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Taxonomy of Objectives in the Three Domains:

Psychomotor Domain
* ** Written Report ***

Talamor, Nelson Jr. B.


Worwor, Myla
Espineli, Jan Emary
Paredes, Regine
Rodelas, Ginaly
Psychomotor Domain is a learner’s ability to use motor skills to learn. It involves acquiring
skills that require integration of mental and muscular ability. Harlow (1972) defined it as an
organization according to the degree of coordination including involuntary responses as well as
learned capabilities.
The Figure 1 below shows the Harlow’s taxonomy of objectives in the psychomotor
domain.

Figure 1. Harlow’s taxonomy of objectives in the psychomotor domain

This model has six levels where the students would apply in the teaching-learning process.

1. Reflex movement – the actions that are not learned in response to some stimuli. It shows
natural reactions of the body as response to some stimuli.

Examples: flexion, extension, stretch and postural adjustments

2. Basic fundamental movements – inherent movement patterns which formed by


combining reflexes.

Examples: pushing, crawling, walking, jumping


3. Perception – it is concerned with the use of sense organs to obtain cues that guides
motor activity. It ranges from awareness of stimulus, selection of cues to translating
cues to action in a performance.

Examples: coordinated movements such as jumping rope and catching

4. Physical abilities – require endurance, strength, vigor and agility which produces a
sound and efficient functions of the body.

Examples: All activities that require exert effort for long period of time and muscular
exertion

5. Skilled movements – result of the acquisition of a degree of efficiency when performing


a complex task. The student has advanced movement capabilities.

Examples: All skilled activities such as sports, recreation and dance

6. Non-discursive communication – it is a complete body language which communicates


through body movements ranging from posture to gestures, creative movements facial
expressions, act a part in a play through sophisticated choreographic.

Example: body postures, gestures, and facial expressions efficiently executed in skilled
dance movement and choreographic.

Additionally, Figure 2 shows the three levels of learning given by Moore. The first level is
imitation (model skills), where the students acquire knowledge with the support from instructions
and action of the teachers. The second level is manipulation, where the students perform
independently without the supervision of the teacher, however, the accuracy and efficiency has not
been able to meet. The third level is precision, where the students perform or exhibit the highest
level of skills with accuracy, effortlessly and efficiency.
Figure 2. Three levels of learning

Bloom and Harrow Psychomotor Domain


1. PERCEPTION: the first level is concerned with the use of the sense organs to obtain cues
that guide motor activity. This category ranges from sensory stimulation (awareness of a
stimulus), through cue selection (selection task relevant cues) to translation (relating cue
perception to action in performance).
Descriptive Activities:
 Recognizes malfunction by sound of machine
 Relates taste of food to need for seasoning
 Relates music to a particular dance movement
Question/Statement Verbs:
Chooses, describes, detects, differentiates, distinguishes, identifies, isolates, relates, selects,
separates

2. SET: refers to readiness to take a particular type of action. This category includes mental set
(mental readiness to act), physical set (physical readiness to act), and emotional set (willingness
to act). Perception of cues serves as an important prerequisite for this level.
Descriptive Activities:
 Knows mechanical sequence of steps in varnishing wood
 Demonstrates proper bodily stance for batting a ball
 Show desire to type efficiently by placement of hands and body
Question/Statement Verbs:
Begins, displays, explains, moves, proceeds, reacts, responds, shows, starts, volunteers
3. GUIDED RESPONSE: is concerned with the early stages in learning a complex skill. It
includes imitation (repeating an act demonstrated by the instructor) and trial and error (using a
multiple response approach to identify an appropriate response). Adequacy of performance is
judged by an instructor or by a suitable set of criteria.

Descriptive Activities:
 Performs a golf swing as demonstrated
 Applies first aid bandage as demonstrated
 Determines best physical manipulation of objects in a sequence for preparing a meal
Question/Statement Verbs:
Assembles, builds, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, dissects, fastens, fixes, grinds,
heats, manipulates, measures, mends, organizes, sketches

4. MECHANISM: is concerned with performance acts where the learned responses have
become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency.
Learning outcomes at this level are concerned with performance skills of various types, but the
movement patterns are less complex than at the next higher level.
Descriptive Activities:
 Writes smoothly and legibly
 Sets up laboratory equipment
 Operates a slide projector
 Demonstrates a simple dance step

Question/Statement Verbs:
Assembles, builds, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, dissects, fastens, fixes, grinds,
heats, manipulates, measures, mends, organizes, sketches

5. COMPLEX OVERT RESPONSE: is concerned with the skillful performance of motor acts
that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, smooth, accurate
performance, requiring a minimum of energy. The category includes resolution of uncertainty
(performs without hesitation) and automatic performance (movements are made with ease and
good muscle control). Learning outcomes at this level include highly coordinated motor
activities.
Descriptive Activities:
 Operates a power saw skillfully
 Demonstrates correct form in swimming
 Demonstrates skill in driving an automobile
 Performs skillfully on the violin
 Repairs electronic equipment quickly and accurately
Question/Statement Verbs:
Assembles, builds, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, dissects, fastens, fixes, grinds,
heats, manipulates, measures, mends, organizes, sketches

6. ADAPTATION: is concerned with skills that are so well developed that the individual can
modify movement patterns to fit special requirements or to meet a problem situation.
Descriptive Activities:
 Adjusts tennis play to counteract opponent’s style
 Modifies swimming strokes to fit the roughness of the water
Question/Statement Verbs:
Adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, reorganizes, revises, varies

7. ORIGINATION: refers to the creating of a new movement pattern to fit a particular situation
or specific problem. Learning outcomes at this level emphasize creativity based upon highly
developed skills.
Descriptive Activities:
 Creates a dance step
 Creates a musical composition
 Designs a new dress style
Question/Statement Verbs:
Arranges, combines, composes, constructs, creates, designs, originates
References:
Bloom, B. (2013). Retrieved October 18, 2019, from
https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Benjamin_Bloom.
Czarinavernikom. (2015). Harlow's taxonomy of objectives in the psychomotor domain.
Retrieved October 18, 2019, from
https://www.slideshare.net/czarinavernnokom/harlows-taxonomy-of-objectives-in-
the-psychomotor-domain.
Salandanan, G. G., & Corpuz, B. B. (2015). Principles of Teaching 1 (4th ed.). Quezon City,
Metro Manila: Lorimar Publishing, Inc. doi: ISBN 971-685-749-8
Harrow, A.J. (1972). A taxonomy of the psychomotor domain. New York: David McKay
Co.K