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Jayden B. Lach

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 2

Module 3 is included approximately half-way The school in which this unit will be 5 weeks

through the Year 11 Physics course. delivered is a public school from a low-mid

Throughout the unit, students will study socioeconomic area in western Sydney. The

waves, including the ray model of light. class has a mix of students of average ability,

Students also build upon their introduction to with 2 students that may require additional

thermodynamics from stage 5, including work/resources due to their knowledge of the

studying energy transfer as heat. topics being slightly more advanced than the

rest of the class.

Content Focus

Wave motion involves the transfer of energy without the transfer of matter. By exploring the behaviour of wave motion and examining the

characteristics of wavelength, frequency, period, velocity and amplitude, students further their understanding of the properties of waves. They

are then able to demonstrate how waves can be reflected, refracted, diffracted and superposed (interfered) and to develop an understanding

that not all waves require a medium for their propagation. Students examine mechanical waves and electromagnetic waves, including their

similarities and differences.

Students also examine energy and its transfer, in the form of heat, from one place to another. Thermodynamics is the study of the relationship

between energy, work, temperature and matter. Understanding this relationship allows students to appreciate particle motion within objects.

Students have the opportunity to examine how hot objects lose energy in three ways: first, by conduction, and, second, by convection – which

both involve the motion of particles; and, third, the emission of electromagnetic radiation. An understanding of thermodynamics is a pathway

to understanding related concepts in many fields involving Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics.

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 3

In this module, students focus on conducting investigations, collecting and processing data and information, interpreting trends in data and

communicating scientific ideas about waves and thermodynamics. Students should be provided with opportunities to engage with all the

Working Scientifically skills throughout the course.

PH11/12-3: conducts investigations to collect valid and reliable PH11-10: explains and analyses waves and the transfer of energy by

primary and secondary data and information sound, light and thermodynamic principles

Students:

• employ and evaluate safe work practices and manage risks

(ACSPH031)

• use appropriate technologies to ensure and evaluate accuracy

quantitative data and information using a range of appropriate media

Students:

• select qualitative and quantitative data and information and

represent them using a range of formats, digital technologies

and appropriate media (ACSPH004, ACSPH007, ACSPH064,

ACSPH101)

• apply quantitative processes where appropriate

data, critical thinking skills and scientific processes

Students:

• use modelling (including mathematical examples) to explain

phenomena, make predictions and solve problems using

evidence from primary and secondary sources (ACSPH006,

ACSPH010)

• use scientific evidence and critical thinking skills to solve

problems

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 4

language and terminology for a specific audience or purpose

Students:

• select and use suitable forms of digital, visual, written and/or

oral forms of communication

• construct evidence-based arguments and engage in peer

feedback to evaluate an argument or conclusion (ACSPH034,

ACSPH036)

Topics

• Ray model of light

• Thermodynamics

1. What properties can be demonstrated when using the ray model of light?

2. How are temperature, thermal energy, and particle motion related?

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 5

Assessment Overview

Assessment FOR Learning Assessment AS Learning Assessment OF Learning

Diagnostic testing will be undertaken before Throughout the unit, some practical No formal assessment will be undertaken

starting each new inquiry question (see investigations will be designed by the during the course of this unit. However,

Appendix A for an example). Other strategies students, where they will design a method for content from this unit will be assessable in

will include informal discussions between the their investigation, perform the experiment/s, the yearly examination as assessment task 3.

teacher and students, either individually or in and reflect on their methods and results, and

small groups to establish their understanding make modifications to their method, before

of content, in addition to marking students’ performing the new version/s of their

books (classwork and practical investigation, to improve their results, if time

investigations) throughout the unit, including permits.

leaving feedback, and revisiting concepts if

students have trouble understanding the

concepts. Formative peer assessment can also

be undertaken during group work, where

students discuss their work with the other

members of the group, in order to solidify

their knowledge.

Students will develop literacy skills through Students will develop numeracy skills Students will develop ICT skills mostly by

recording steps for whole-class practical through solving problems relating to the ray analyzing the data from their investigations

investigations, as well as in the design and model of light and thermodynamics, as well using spreadsheets or other software that is

modifications of their own investigations for as quantitatively predicting the outcome/s of required for certain dataloggers and sensors.

some concepts. This should also include practical investigations and analyzing the Students will also be able to access

recording any results and observations, as results of their investigations. simulations of some experiments to solidify

well as any discussion topics that they find the concepts, or in place of working

interesting. equipment. Other uses of ICT throughout this

unit include researching concepts when

required, as well as writing up practical

reports.

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 6

Inquiry Question: What properties can be demonstrated when using the ray model of light?

K & U Content WS Teaching and Learning Strategies Extension or Adjustment Resources

Descriptor Outcome

Descriptor

Students: PH11/12-3 • Students use “Phet interactive • For extra instruction, • Students will

• conduct a practical PH11/12-4 simulations: Geometric optics” students may wish to need access to

investigation to PH11/12-6 (Version 2.05) simulation to view additional a device that

analyse the PH11/12-7 visualize the effects of changing material from Khan has the Adobe

formation of variables for a concave lens, and Academy – Geometric Flash Player

images in mirrors what happens to the light rays as Optics (n.d.-a), or the plugin installed

and lenses via a result Module 3 series from for the

reflection and • Practical – Students use convex the High School simulation

refraction using and concave lenses to form real Physics Explained

the ray model of images from a phone (or similar) (n.d.) channel on Materials:

light (ACSPH075) onto a white sheet/cardboard, YouTube. • Convex lenses

and observe the changes to the • Concave lenses

image as the lenses, sheet, and • Phone for

image are moved around image

• Practical – Students use a • White

toothpick (or similar) and a sheet/cardboard

mirror to determine the distance • Toothpick

of an object projected on the • Pins

mirror. Refer to Gozzard (2016, • Mirror

October 14) for further • Light box (see

explanation. An alternative for The Physics

more advanced classes would be Classroom,

to provide students with a 2010,

variety of mirrors of differing September 30)

shapes, and asking them to

• Concave mirror

determine which mirror/s to use,

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 7

incidence and reflection.

• Demonstration – The teacher

uses a light box and a mirror to

form a real, inverted image of a

light bulb. Refer to The Physics

Classroom (2010, September 30)

for the setup explanation.

• conduct PH11/12-4 observe the disappearing coin students may wish to need access to

investigations to PH11/12-6 under a beaker due to refraction. view additional a device for the

examine PH11/12-7 The coin is placed under the material from Khan simulation

qualitatively and beaker and the beaker filled with Academy – Geometric • The guided

quantitatively the water. The coin can then be seen Optics (n.d.-a), or the activity (Lees,

refraction and total if placed inside the beaker, or Module 3 series from 2017) will need

internal reflection when placed underneath the the High School to be

of light beaker with water whilst wet. Physics Explained distributed to

(ACSPH075, Refer to mlinnenb (2010, (n.d.) channel on students

ACSPH076) October 20) for reference. YouTube.

• Practical – Students use a laser Materials:

• solve problems or or a ray box to shine light • Students requiring • Coin

make quantitative through different prisms and extension, can be given • Large beaker

predictions in a observe what happens to the ray solids with a ‘mystery’ • Water

variety of of light as it passes through each refractive index, and • Laser

situations by medium. In addition to the asked to determine the • Ray box

applying the prisms, students are able to shine refractive index based • Prisms with

following a laser through jelly to observe on experimentation various

relationships to: the refraction also. refractive

𝑐𝑐

o 𝑛𝑛𝑥𝑥 = for • Students use “Phet interactive • Students requiring indexes

𝑣𝑣𝑥𝑥

simulations: Bending Light” adjustment should be

the

(Version 1.1.16) in conjunction given scaffolded

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 8

refractive with the above practical to show questions, as well as • Jelly (cut into

index of how different mediums change always having the different

medium 𝑥𝑥, the refraction of the light. formulae on hand when shapes)

𝑣𝑣𝑥𝑥 is the Students should also work attempting questions.

speed of through the guided activity Extra assistance may

light in the (Lees, 2017) that accompanies be required if students’

medium the simulation algebra skills are not at

• Students solve problems using an acceptable standard

• predict given values for the speed of to complete tasks.

quantitatively, light in a medium (𝑣𝑣𝑥𝑥 ) or the

using Snell’s Law, refractive index of an object.

the refraction and Students can also check their

total internal work using “Phet interactive

reflection of light simulations: Bending Light”

in a variety of (Version 1.1.16)

situations • Students predict, and

subsequently test their

• solve problems or predictions of refraction of light

make quantitative using Snell’s law given prisms

predictions in a of different refractive indexes.

variety of Students can also solve problems

situations by given the 3 out of 4 variables in

applying the the Snell’s law equation

following (𝑛𝑛1 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝜃𝜃1 = 𝑛𝑛2 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝜃𝜃2), and draw

relationships to: the diagrams for all problems

o 𝑛𝑛1 sin 𝜃𝜃1 = • Students practice finding the

𝑛𝑛2 sin 𝜃𝜃2 critical angle for total internal

(Snell’s reflection, for different mediums

Law) where values of 𝑛𝑛 are given, and

𝑛𝑛

o sin 𝜃𝜃𝑐𝑐 = 𝑛𝑛2 then complete the worksheet

1

from Bail, Hore, and Joosten

(2018, pp. 111-112)

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 9

• conduct a practical box and a prism to show the needed for this practical • Light box

investigation to dispersion of light through a • Prism

demonstrate and medium AND/OR shining • White

explain the different light sources on CD’s sheet/cardboard

phenomenon of the at different angles to show the • CD’s

dispersion of light spectrum of light from different • Different light

sources sources (LED

globe,

fluorescent

globe, energy

saving globe

etc.)

Students: PH11/12-3 • Practical – Students use a light • For extra instruction, • Students will

• conduct an PH11/12-4 sensor to determine the intensity students may wish to need access to

investigation to PH11/12-6 of light from a source such as a view additional a device that

demonstrate the phone or globe over even material from Khan has spreadsheet

relationship increments. Students then graph Academy – Geometric capabilities

between inverse the Intensity vs Distance to show Optics (n.d.-a), or the

square law, the the inverse square curve. Module 3 series from Materials:

intensity of light Students then show that 𝐼𝐼 ∝ the High School • Light sensor

and the transfer of 1 Physics Explained • Light source

𝑟𝑟2 by showing that the curve for

energy 1 (n.d.) channel on • Ruler

(ACSPH077) Intensity vs 2 is linear. Students YouTube.

𝑟𝑟 • Cardboard

are able to use the video tutorial • For some students, the • Grid paper

• solve problems or (see Appendix B) for further cardboard may need to

make quantitative explanation of how to do this have a hole already cut

predictions in a using a spreadsheet to size if they are

variety of • Practical – Students shine a unable to cut for

situations by light through a small hole in a themselves

applying the piece of cardboard on to a sheet • Students may need

of grid paper. Students can additional help with

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 10

relationships to: by moving the light and equations to find the

o 𝐼𝐼1 𝑟𝑟12 = cardboard further from the grid desired value, and may

𝐼𝐼2 𝑟𝑟22 - to to show the area that is needed to be given scaffolding to

compare ‘catch’ the same amount of light. help achieve the

the Refer to the Exploratorium (n.d.) desired results

intensity of practical for further explanation

light at two • Students solve problems relating

points, 𝑟𝑟1 to the intensity of light, given 3

and 𝑟𝑟2 out of 4 values of the formula

𝐼𝐼1 𝑟𝑟12 = 𝐼𝐼2 𝑟𝑟22 , and show

mathematically how much the

intensity of light changes when

the light source is changed

(doubled, tripled, etc.) such as

from Dommel et al. (2018, pp.

275-276).

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 11

Inquiry Question: How are temperature, thermal energy, and particle motion related?

K & U Content WS Teaching and Learning Strategies Extension or Adjustment Resources

Descriptor Outcome

Descriptor

Students: PH11/12-4 • Diagnostic test to be administered to • Students may be • Volume vs

• explain the PH11/12-7 review students’ understanding of given a pre-drawn Temperature

relationship the kinetic theory of matter from graph of volume vs graph of

between the pervious stages temperature for various gases

temperature of an • Demonstration – showing the some known gases, similar to the

object and the effects of heat on balloon (ice vs and asked to find graphs from

kinetic energy of room temp vs boiling)??? – hand- the relationship Chemistry

the particles within boilers etc. could be done as quick between them. LibreTexts

it (ACSPH018) practical Students should be (2015, Figure

• Teacher led introduction to the able to show that 6.2.3) OR for

• explain the concept Kelvin scale, and the concept of the trend is linear a simpler

of thermal absolute zero. A plot of Volume vs. towards absolute version from

equilibrium Temperature of gases to be shown zero Dommel et al.

(ACSPH022) (and drawn by students) that has (2005, p. 304).

been extrapolated linearly to • Students may be

absolute zero to visualize the given a graph with

proportionality of volume and pre-drawn axes if Materials:

temperature of gases. time is an issue, or • Balloons

• In small groups, students should they are not • Ice water

devise a strategy to teach the kinetic confident in • Boiling water

theory of matter to stage 4 students, graphing yet • Trays for

including drawing models of solids, water

liquids, and gases, as well as • For extra • Ice cubes

explaining what happens to the instruction, • Thermal

particles as heat is applied to the students may wish imaging

object/s. to view additional camera

• Demonstration – Students watch material from Khan

ice melt into warm water using a Academy –

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 12

thermal equilibrium (n.d.-b), or the

• Define the zeroth law of Module 3 series

thermodynamics where if two from the High

objects are in thermal equilibrium School Physics

with a third object, then all three Explained (n.d.)

objects are in thermal equilibrium channel on

with each other and objects in YouTube.

thermal equilibrium must be at the

same temperature

• analyse the PH11/12-4 thermodynamics where energy instruction, • Beakers

relationship PH11/12-6 cannot be created nor destroyed students may wish • Water

between the change PH11/12-7 • Practical – Students heat various to view additional • Thermometers

in temperature of an volumes of water for a set period of material from Khan • Bunsen Burner

object and its time (~3-4 minutes each) and record Academy – • Tripod

specific heat the temperature at even increments. Thermodynamics • Cooking oil

capacity through Students should graph the results, (n.d.-b), or the • Graph paper

the equation and deduce that the mass of the Module 3 series

𝑄𝑄=𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚Δ𝑇𝑇 object affects how quickly it is from the High

(ACSPH020) heated School Physics

• Given the specific heat capacity of Explained (n.d.)

water, students are to calculate the channel on

• apply the following change in heat energy for each YouTube.

relationships to volume of water from their practical • For some

solve problems and • Practical – Students heat identical students/classes, it

make quantitative volumes of cooking oil and water may be more

predictions in a and record the temperature at even suitable to perform

variety of increments. Students should then this as a

situations: graph the results, and deduce that demonstration, and

show the results on

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 13

o 𝑄𝑄=𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚Δ𝑇𝑇, water has a higher specific heat the board for class

where c is capacity than cooking oil analysis

the specific • Students solve various problems • Some students may

heat using 𝑄𝑄 = 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚Δ𝑇𝑇 to calculate heat require additional

capacity of a energy, mass, specific heat capacity, assistance with

substance and the change in temperature for manipulating

various given values equations

• Students solve various problems • Students can

related to energy transfer in a closed discuss the

system using (𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚Δ𝑇𝑇)1 = (𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚Δ𝑇𝑇)2 variables that may

affect the accuracy

of the experiment

compared to

theoretical values

(i.e. heat lost to the

environment,

different Bunsen

burner, different

containers etc.)

• Graph paper with

pre-drawn axes

may be provided

for some students

or if time is limited

• investigate energy PH11/12-4 large beaker/bowl, and using three instruction, • Large beaker

transfer by the PH11/12-6 large spoons (metal, plastic, and students may wish • Water

process of: PH11/12-7 wooden) place the spoons into the to view additional • Spoons (metal,

–conduction water handle down. Butter is placed material from Khan plastic,

–convection in the bowl of the spoon, and Academy – wooden)

students observe the conduction of Thermodynamics • Butter

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 14

(ACSPH016) heating a conductivity ring with wax Module 3 series burner/hotplate

drops to observe the conductivity of from the High • Conductivity

• model and predict different materials School Physics ring

quantitatively • Practical – Students model Explained (n.d.) • Wax drops

energy transfer convection by heating water with channel on • Rice

from hot objects by either rice or potassium YouTube. • Potassium

the process of permanganate and observing the • For all practical’s, permanganate

thermal convection current students can predict • Coloured test

conductivity • Practical – Students test radiation the outcome of the tubes or

as a source of energy transfer by experiment, and Aluminium

• apply the following shining heat lamps (or other heat provide a reason for cans

relationships to source) at different coloured test their predictions • Thermometers

solve problems and tubes (or coloured Aluminium cans) before performing

• Heat lamps (or

make quantitative with thermometers inside them. the experiments

other heat

predictions in a Students should take measurements • If there is a lack of source)

variety of at even increments, and graph the equipment, or if

• Ice cubes

situations: results students are unable

• Aluminium

o

𝑄𝑄

=

𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘Δ𝑇𝑇

• Demonstration – Students predict to use the

𝑡𝑡 𝑑𝑑 block

which material (possibly Aluminium equipment, the

where 𝑘𝑘 is • Plastic or glass

block and plastic or glass block)will practicals may be

the thermal block

cause an ice cube to melt the fastest. required to be

conductivity

This demonstration can take a performed as a

of a material

similar form to a video from demonstration

Veritasium (2012, August 24). • Students may • Thermal

require extra conductivity

• Students to solve problems related

scaffolding that is problems

to thermal conductivity, using but

not present on the worksheet (see

not limited to questions from a

worksheet. This Appendix C)

worksheet (see Appendix C).

may include

detailing how to

manipulate

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 15

equations to make

each variable the

subject of the

equation

• For extension,

students may come

up with their own

scenarios for

thermal

conductivity

problems (with

worked answers) to

be completed by

any student willing

to complete

Students: PH11/12-3 • Students are given the graph of the • Students can solve • Heating curve

• conduct an PH11/12-4 heating curve of water, and explain problems of water

investigation to PH11/12-6 that there is no temperature combining the printout

analyse PH11/12-7 increase/decrease during a change of heating and/or • Practical

qualitatively and state cooling of an object worksheet

quantitatively the • Practical – Students determine the to its melting from skills

latent heat involved latent heat of fusion of water using and/or boiling workbook

in a change of state calorimetry, and complete the points, and its (Bail, Hore, &

associated worksheet from the skills latent heat of fusion Joosten, 2018,

workbook (Bail, Hore, & Joosten, and/or pp. 133-135)

2018, pp. 133-135) OR students vapourisation

heat ice over a Bunsen burner until • Students may need Materials:

the ice melts, and subsequently additional • Thermometer

boils, taking temperature readings at assistance • 600mL

every minute, and graphing the manipulating the beakers

results equations to find

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 16

the latent heat of fusion, and answer/s cup

vapourisation of substances using • For extra • Electronic

𝑄𝑄 = 𝑚𝑚𝐿𝐿𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 and 𝑄𝑄 = 𝑚𝑚𝐿𝐿𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣 instruction, balance

students may wish • Hotplate

to view additional • Stirring rod

material from the • Water

Module 3 series • Ice cubes

from the High • Paper towel

School Physics

Explained (n.d.)

channel on

YouTube.

Evaluation (Questions you would ask yourself/students in order to assess your unit of work)

Students:

• Did you find the work too easy/too hard?

• What topic/s do you feel you learnt the best?

• What topic/s do you feel you know the least?

• What would you have liked to learn more about?

• Do you feel comfortable with the amount you learnt during this unit?

• If there was a depth study to be made from this unit, what part/s would you like to study deeper?

Teacher:

• What part/s could be improved for future classes?

• What part/s did the students seem to enjoy the most?

• Are you comfortable with the amount your students learned throughout the unit?

• What resources need to be changed for the future?

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 17

(Cornell University Physics Teacher Education Coalition [PhysTEC], 2011; NSW Education

Standards Authority [NESA], 2018). With the shift in focus of the physics curriculum toward

an inquiry style approach (NESA, 2018), students are provided more freedom in their

learning, with teachers aiding them to find meaning in the concepts (Krajcik, 2015). This

approach, when combined effectively with direct, and guided instruction strategies, has been

suggested to benefit students’ learning (Mayer, 2004), and allows students to explore and

Although the physics curriculum has moved toward an inquiry approach to learning,

in order for the content to be accessible to students, the learning experiences must be

authentic and relatable for the students (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Lee & Songer,

demonstrations, and carefully prepared experiments that seldom test students’ scientific skills

such as planning investigations, as well as devising and conveying their conclusions from

experimentation (Lee & Songer, 2003). In the past, creating opportunities for these science

skills has been difficult, since real-world science problems are often too broad, and

necessitate deeper content knowledge that students are expected to possess (Edelson, 1998).

Although this unit does not include a depth study, the inclusion of depth studies in the new

syllabus will allow students to explore concepts of interest to a greater depth than they would

have previously, and apply their knowledge to novel experiences (NESA, n.d.-c, n.d.-b). By

allowing students to develop their own learning (NESA, n.d.-c), depth studies allow students

to transform the abstract concepts and skills of physics, into meaningful inquiry (Lee &

Songer, 2003) to consolidate their learning (NESA, n.d.-c). However, an issue with teaching

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 18

(Rutherford, 1964, p. 84), such is not the case for determining the angles of incidence and

reflection using mirrors and Snell’s law by traditional school experiments. Stage 6 students,

with some guidance from the teachers, should develop their investigation skills by developing

their own methods to discover phenomena for themselves, allowing students to experience

what science ‘is’ (Edelson, Gordin, & Pea, 1999; Lee & Songer, 2003; Rutherford, 1964).

Despite, the many benefits of learning science through pure inquiry, a combination of

direct instruction, and guided inquiry has been suggested to benefit students more than pure

inquiry (Mayer, 2004). The blending of these pedagogies allows shallow levels of knowledge

to develop, whilst promoting deeper learning (Hattie & Donoghue, 2016) through the

Rawson Mead, 1997). Although not explicitly stated in the program, this unit achieves this

combination through direct instruction of new concepts, as well as providing guidance for the

Affairs, 2008) is the increased use of ICT as a tool for students’ learning. The above unit of

study lends itself to the use of ICT through the use of simulations for students understanding,

as well as student research, and the capturing and analysis of data. Through the use of ICT,

students may be more motivated to learn associated content than by studying using more

traditional pedagogies (Campbell, Wang, Hsu, Duffy, & Wolf, 2010). To achieve the added

engagement from ICT, activities and pedagogies must meet the increased ICT literacy skills

of the students as digital natives (Campbell et al., 2010; Clarke & Besnoy, 2009). The use of

simulations throughout the unit as an interactive visualisation tool allows for students to

consolidate their theoretical and experimental knowledge, and to better see the phenomena

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 19

Further, simulations can be used where there is insufficient or failing equipment to perform

Ensuring students are learning at the desired rate, formative assessment will be

employed throughout the unit in various forms. Students will also be required to reflect upon

the design of their experimental procedures, and make modifications to their experiment to

into the unit, encourages students to take accountability for their own success as learners,

inspires self-reflection, and provides a platform for growth by achieving learning goals set by

the teacher and student (NESA, n.d.-a). To encourage student growth through formative

assessment activities, corrective feedback must be provided to the student, and should be

delivered in a way that students find meaningful (Suurtamm et al., 2016), in order to

maximise student achievement. Further increasing the efficacy of the feedback to students,

Baird, Hopfenbeck, Newton, Stobart, and Steen-Utheim (2014) suggest aligning all feedback

to the syllabus outcomes, which provides students greater access to improved learning

experiences. Gioka (2006) also suggests providing both strengths and weaknesses to students

regarding their work, as well as guiding students towards areas of improvement, which

should be the focus of all formative strategies throughout this unit. In addition to formative

assessment, each activity can be adjusted for a broad range of learners, by offering extra

explanations or assistance for students that are slower to understand the content, as well as

extension activities for students that grasped the concepts to a high standard, and would like

an extra challenge.

scientific inquiry, the above unit should satisfy a broad range of learners, and allow for

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 20

sufficient and sustained deep learning of the ray model of light and elementary

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 21

References

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Brown, J. S., Collins, A., Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/1176008

Campbell, T., Wang, S. K., Hsu, H.-Y., Duffy, A. M., & Wolf, P. G. (2010). Learning with

Chemistry LibreTexts. (2015). 6.3: Relationships among pressure, temperature, volume, and

https://chem.libretexts.org/Courses/University_of_California_Davis/UCD_Chem_002

A/UCD_Chem_2A/Text/Unit_III%3A_Physical_Properties_of_Gases/06.03_Relation

ships_among_Pressure%2C_Temperature%2C_Volume%2C_and_Amount

Clarke, L. W., & Besnoy, K. D. (2009). Introduction: Technology and the evolving

step-by-step guide to using innovative technology in your classroom (pp. 2-18). Waco,

Cornell University Physics Teacher Education Coalition. (2011). Why physics? [Web log

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doi:10.1177/002221949703000611

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Dommel, A., Dommel. N., Hamilton, M., Hebden, K., Madden, D., & Stanger. J. (2018).

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Edelson, D. C., Gordin, D. N., & Pea, R. D. (1999). Addressing the challenges of inquiry-

based learning through technology and curriculum design. Journal of the Learning

Exploratorium. (n.d.) Science snacks: Inverse-square law [Web log post]. Retrieved from

https://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/inverse-square-law

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doi:10.1088/0031-9120/41/4/009

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Hattie, J. A. C., & Donoghue, G. M. (2016). Learning strategies: A synthesis and conceptual

High School Physics Explained. (n.d.). Playlists [YouTube Channel]. Retrieved from

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFtAsDXpzJVpvgTxnlhHbQA/playlists

Khan Academy. (n.d.-a). Physics: Geometric optics [Online course]. Retrieved from

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/geometric-optics

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 23

Krajcik, J. (2015). Three-dimensional instruction: Using a new type of teaching in the science

https://www.jstor.org/stable/43683343

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doi:10.1080/09500690305023

Lees, S. (2017). Critical angle and total internal reflection. Retrieved from

https://phet.colorado.edu/en/contributions/view/4501

Mayer, R. E. (2004). Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning?:

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MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 24

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MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 25

Appendix A

The following is a screenshot of the diagnostic test that may be administered at the beginning

of the ray model of light inquiry question. This pre-test should form some understanding of

https://forms.gle/QvAA2jZy1Tm4czwc7

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 26

Appendix B

Video Tutorial – Analysing Experimental Data to Show the Inverse Square Law

The following is a screenshot of a video tutorial made to show students how to use

spreadsheets to show the inverse square law for light intensity. This method can then be used

in the following lesson for students to analyse their data and show the inverse proportionality

Figure 2: Screenshot of a video tutorial for the visual analysis of the inverse square law

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 27

Appendix C

The following is a screenshot of a worksheet that was developed for the topic of thermal

conductivity. Some of the questions and information has been adapted from various sources,

MODULE 3: WAVES AND THERMODYNAMICS 28

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