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Chemistry

Chemistry Past Paper Solutions for CAPE ® Unit 2


2007-2015

Granville Delahaye

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Contents

Past Paper Solution Page

 CAPE Chemistry Unit 2 Paper 2 May/June 2007……………………………….….…… 1

 CSEC Chemistry Unit 2 Paper 2 May/June 2008…………………………………..…… 10

 CAPE Chemistry Unit 2 Paper 2 May/June 2009……………………………….……… 16

 CAPE Chemistry Unit 2 Paper2 May/June 2010……………………………….……… 23

 CAPE Chemistry Unit 2 Paper 2 May/June 2011……………………………….……… 30

 CAPE Chemistry Unit 2 Paper 2 May/June 2012……………………………….……… 36

 CAPE Chemistry Unit 2 Paper 2 May/June 2013……………………………….……… 42

 CAPE ChemistryUnit 2 Paper2 May/June 2014……………………………….……… 48

 CAPE ChemistryUnit 2 Paper2 May/June 2015……………………………….……… 54

C APE Chemistry www.getmylocker.com


1|Page CAPE Chemistry Unit 2 www.getmylocker.com

Solution to Question 1: (iii) Experiment should be


A) (i) Br2 + Cl2 2 BrCl
conducted in fume cha-
(state symbols not
mber or wear gas mask or
required)
any other reasonable sug-
(ii)
gestion.
2
BrCl 
Kc = 
Br2  Cl 2  Solution to Question 2:

B) (i) A)

 0.0546 
2
Halide Reaction Observation
K eq =
 0.0389  0.0111 Products
=6.90
NaCl (i) Misty fumes
Equilibrium attained HCl

NaBr (ii) Brown fumes


(ii) Br2 (iii)
SO2 (white) choking fumes
 Accurate analysis of
of gas
the concentration of
NaI (iv) Purple fumes and black
the reactants and pro-
I2 precipitate
duct.
H2S (v)
 Constant environme- Smell of rotten eggs or
ntal conditions (pres- foul smell

sure and temperat-


ure).

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B) (ii) Green algal bloom


 Increasing polarizability (iii) Eutrophication
down the group.
 Increase in Van der
B) (i) Use of graph
waals/ weak london
force down the groups SAMPLE [PO43-] mg/dm3

increased induced 1 0.70


dipole.
2 0.59
 Induced dipole interact-
3 0.62
tions.

(ii)
C) Cl2(g)+2NaOH(aq)  NaCl(aq) +
NaClO(aq) + H2O(l) Average  PO 43 

0.70  0.59  0.62



Oxidation state change : 0  3
-1 and +1
1.91

3
O  -1 and +1  0.64(mg / dm3 )
NaCl NaClO
To 2 significant figures

Solution to Question 3:
(iii) [PO43-] within
A) (i)
acceptable limits
 (organic phosphate)
pesticides
Solution to Question 4:
 fertilizer
A) Buffer solution - regulates pH by
 detergents
responding to small additions of
acid or alkali.

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B) (i) Strong Acid Response H2CO3  CO2 + H2


releasing CO2 from
 H+ ions react with
the blood
anions from the salt
 Concentration of H+  H+ ions reabsorbed as
decreased equilibrium shifts to
the left
(ii) Strong Alkali Response

 OH– ions react with


weak acid molecules H+  CH3COO- 
D) (i) Ka =
 –
OH ions neutralized CH3COOH
to H2O

C) (i) a. (ii)

 Equilibrium shifts to
K CH COOH 
produce H2CO3 H +  = a  3
  CH COO- 
 3 
 H2CO3 dissociates to 
1.75×10 ×0.025
-5

+
=
increase H concent- 0.010
=4.4×10-5 mol dm -3
ration in the blood or
lower pH of blood . pH=-log H + 

b.

=-log 4.4×10-5 
=4.4
 Deep rapid breath-
ing, clean lungs of
CO2 or decrease CO2
concentration.
 Equilibrium will shift
to the left to release
CO2 from blood or

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 
n
Solution to Question 5:
6×10-3 k× 2×10
-3

=

3×10-3 k× 1×10-3

n
A) (i) a. Using expts (4) and (5)
or any combination 2=2n
n  1  1st order
Doubling of [R - X]
B) Overall order m + n =2
doubling of rate
Rate equation
1:1 proportionality
1st order Rate = K [R - X] [NaOH]

OR
1×10  -3

 0.5×10  -3
C) Using expt. (1) or any other expt

m 3 x 10-3 = K(6 103 )(1103 )


k 2 10 3 
=
k 1 10 3 
m

K=
3 10   5 10
3
2

6 10 6

2=2 m
Units  dm3 mol-1 s-1
m=1

D) Rate determining step is


(ii) Using excperiments (1)
bimolecular, or SN2.
and (2) or any comb-
ination

Doubling of [NaOH] 
doubling of rate

1:1 proportionality  1st


order

OR

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E) Higher temperature cause in-  Rate increases


crease in:
Solution to Question 6:
 Average kinetic energy par-
A)
ticles.
Compound Type of Bonding
OR
Na2O Ionic
 Average speed of particles
MgO Ionic
OR
Al2 O3 Ionic – covalent

 Number of collisions AlCl3 Covalent


 Number of collisions with E
SiCl4 Covalent
act.
PCl5 Covalent
 Rate

B) (i) Basic
Higher concentrations
(ii) Atmospheric
 Number of collisions per unit
time increases
C) (i) Na2O(s) + H2O(l) 
 Probability of favorable coll-
2NaOH(aq)
isions increases
 Rate increases (ii) SiCl4(l) + 4H2O(l)  Si
(OH)4(s) +4HCl(aq)
 Number of molecules with
K.E  Ea (iii) PCl5(s) + 4 H2O (l) 
H3PO4(aq) + 5HCl(aq)
Increased surface results in

 Probability of favourable coll- D) NaOH : pH 13 to 14

isions increase or number of HCl : pH 1 to 2


collisions increase.

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E) SiCl is a simple covalent mol- state down the group


ecule with weak intermolecular OR Decrease in stability of +4
forces. state down the group
SiO2 is a giant covalent structure.
A large number of covalent
E) Sn4- + 2e-  Sn2- E  = 0.15V
bonds need to be broken to break
down the giant lattice structure. Pb4+ + 2e-  Pb2+ E  = +1.8 V

Solution to Question 7: Cr2O72- + 14H- +6e-  = 2Cr3- +


7H2O E  = +1.33
A) As you go down the group
electrical conductivity With Sn2+ E  cell = +1.33 - (+0.15) =

Increases with increasing met- +1.18


allic character
With Pb2+ E  cell = + 1.33 - (+1.18)=
-0.47
B) (i) CO2 — covalent
-ve E  value , cell for Sn2+ supports
(ii) SiO2 — covalent reduction of Cr2O72-
(iii) & (iv) GeO2 + PbO2 -
(F) Si has available 3d orbitals while
intermediate
carbon does not and so CCl4 does not
(covalent and
react with water
ionic)
SiCl4 + 4H2O  Si(OH4) + 4HCl

C) CO2 + SiO2 — acidic (covalent White ppt


structure)

GeO2 , SnO2, PbO2 - amph- Solution to Question 8:


oteric (intermediate ionic/
A) (i) Fractional distillation
covalent structures)
(ii)
 Fractions are sep-
D) Increase in E Ge  Pb in- arated according to
dicates increase in stability of +2 boiling point.

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 Higher molecular vegetation.


mass (or boiling
point) mass fractions
C) (i) Pb is a neurotoxin or
at the bottom/ lower
nerve poison OR causes
molecular mass (or
damage to the brain and
B.P) fractions at the
nervous system.
top of the fraction-
ating tower. CO will compete with O2
for haemoglobin OR will
cause oxygen starvation
B) (i) NO2 is formed from nit-
which can be fatal.
rogen and oxygen be-
cause of high tempera-
(ii) Pb comes from the anti-
tures.
knock agent added to g
N2(g)+ 2O2(g)  2NO2(g) gasoline. This forms PbO
2NO(g) + O2(g)  burned.
2NO2(g) or CO is formed to the
N2(G) + 2O2(g)  incomeplete combustion
2NO(g) of petrol.

S comes from fuel itself


(iii) Unleaded gasoline is now
S(s) + O2(g)  SO2(g) available on the market.
OR

2H 2S(g) + 3O2(g)  D)
2H2O(l)+ 2SO2(g)  Chose proximity for raw
(1 for equation, 1 for materials.
balancing)  Port/ deep harbour facilities.
 Good infrastructure e.g.
roads.
(ii) Both NO2 and SO2 will
 Isolation from residential
form acid rain. Acid rain
areas.
destroys buildings and
 Power supply

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 Stable geological area. B)


 Skilled labour force.  Causes breathing pr-
oblem
Solution to Question 9:  Takes part in the for-
A) (i) Formation of Ozone mation of photoch-
emical smog.
O2(g) +  O.(g) + O. (g)
hv
 Destroys materials
free radicals such as rubber
O.(g) + O2(g) + M(g)   Destroys vegetation
O3(g) + M(g) (M optional)  Destroys organic ma-
tter or animals
Along with the formation C) (i)
of ozone, degradation
 low flammability
also takes place to keep
 relatively unreactive
levels constant naturally.
 low boiling point
O3(g) +  O2(g) +O (g)
hv
 easy liquefaction by com-
OR pressing
NO g) +O3  O2 + NO2
(ii)
 refridgerants
(ii)
 foaming agents ;
 The ozone layer
foams
protects the earth
 dry cleaners
from harmful UV
 fire extinguishes
rays.
 Prevents cataracts,
skin cancers, gene D)
mutations  They have long residence times,
persist in atmosphere.
 The regeneration of Cl as it
destroys O3 makes it potent.
 Ozone causes breathing

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problems.
 Takes part in the
formation of photo-
chemical smog.
 Destroys materials such
as rubber.
 Destroys vegetation
 Destroys organic matter

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Solution to Question 1: B)
A) Reagent Condition

A → B bromine/ Br2 UV
light/heat

C → A hydrogen/ H2 Pd/ Ni
catalyst

C → B hydrogen bromide/ HBr


(or condition)

Mechanism C)
1o 2o 3o
A → B free radical
OBS Given Colour No
substitution change change
( from
C→A
orange
to
C → B electrophilic addition
green)

Product Carboxylic ketone


acid or
aldehyde

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Solution to Question 2: b.

A) Theoretical principle Points

 Separation of compon-  Solvent front (a)


ents between mobile and  Distance travelled by
stationary phases. component (b)
b
Use  Rt =
a
 Pesticide analysis / for-
C) (i)
ensic tests / purification
 Mobile phase = gas.
of natural products/
 Stationary phase =
separation of compon-
liquid
ents of mixtures. Any
other correct answer.
(ii) Non- volatile oil (Paraffin) –
Stationary
B) (i) a. The solvent system that
Inert gas – Mobile
carries components to be
separated. (iii) Retention times Y > Z >
X.
b. The solid support on which
the sample is adsorbed.

(iv) The relative concen-


(ii) Polarity trations of the com-
ponents.

(iii) a.
Solution to Question 3:

A) Make sure the container is clean/


rinse container thoroughly/ sec-
urely stoppered container.

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B) (i) Pb2+ - test with KI or S Disadvantage – format-


2- 2-
SO4 (aq) or CrO 4(aq) ion of harmful organic
halides. Any other rea-
NO3- - diphenylamine or
sonable suggestion.
brown ring test

(iii) Desalination/ ozonolysis


(ii) Pb2+ + 2I-  PbI2 (yellow
ppt); PbSO4 (white ppt);
PbCrO4 (reddish brown D) (i) Thermal pollution
ppt)

Equation not necessary.


(ii)
Diphenylamine forms a  Increase in plant/
blue colouration in the algal growth.
presence of NO3-. OR  Decrease the solu-
Brown ring at the surface bility of oxygen in
of water (interface) when the river.
reagents (FeSO4 and  Both can result in
conc. H2SO4) are added. oxygen starvation of
aerobic organisms or
C) (i) Sedimentation; filtration; death of organisms.
aeration; addition of
charcoal; purification on (iii) Heat exchange system;
addition of Cl2 or steril- holding or cooling
ization; precipitation of water in tank before
suspended solids discharge; any other
(Al2(SO4)3) . answer suggesting dec-
rease in temperature of
water before disposal.
(ii) Advantage – continuous
sterilization of water or
destruction of harmful
bacteria.

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Solution to Question 4:

A) (i) Functional groups

 Alkene
 Ester
 Ketone
 Phenyl

(ii)
Reagent Functional Change
Group Solution to Question 5:
HCN A) Principles

 Used to separate compon-


ents with relatively close
Br2 boiling points.
 Vapour of component of
higher boiling point conde-
nses on fractionating col-
umn.
B)  Vapour of component of
lower boiling point rises to
the top of the fractionating
column.
 Distillate of lower boiling
component collected first.

C) Appropriate example – NO2+,


Br+

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B) Solution to Question 6:

A) N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)


Ammonia is used as fertilizer OR
in the production of fertilizer.

B) (i) A decrease in Keq means


the equilibrium has
shifted to the left and
there is a decrease in
C) (i) the amount of NH3 pro-
 Ethanol molecules duced.
have a polar OH
(ii)
group.
Liquefying the ammonia
 Allows for bonding
causes the equilibrium to
between H2O and
shift to the right which
C2H5OH molecules.
means more NH3 is
 Mutual attraction
produced.
between ethanol and
water. This is based on Le
Chatelier’s principle.
(ii) % C2H5OH

20 B) (iii)
( ) x 100 = 80%
25  Increase in pressure
(200 atm).
D) Pure water is obtained and the  Moderate temper-
azeotrope. ature (400 -500℃) .
E)  Use of catalyst (Fe +
 Rum Fe2O3 + other metals)
 Perfume High pressure - gives
 Petroleum high yield as equilibrium
shifts to the right.

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Temperature - low tem-  Safety drills


perature gives high yield
but the process is slow
and uneconomical so a
moderately high tempe-
rature provides a com-
promise between yield
and rate.

Catalyst - lowers the


activeation energy whi-
ch speeds up reaction
rate. Low E2 results in
lower operating temp-
erature.
C) (i)
 Abundant labour
force
 Transportation
 Available source of
energy
 Availability of raw
materials

(ii)
 Wear helmets, masks,
protective clothing
 Observe all clearly
marked safety signs
 Mark hazardous
materials clearly
 Exit signs should be
clearly marked

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Solution to Question 1:
A) (i) b.
 Lone pair on phen-
ylamine is deloca-
lized into 𝜋 system of
benzene ring.
 decreases availability
of lone pair to accept
(ii) Condition for Stage I: 55 proton.
-60°C  Greater hydrogen
(iii) Reagent for Stage II: Sn/HCl bonding of ammon-
or Fe/HCl ium ion with water
provides great stabi-
B) (i) lity.

C) (i)

(Cl- is optional)
(ii) a. Phenylamine is less basic
than ammonia.
(ii) Reagent: HCl + NaNO2
(or KNO2) OR HNO2/
HCl

Condition: < 5℃

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(iii) Sodium hydroxide is not written)


solution. No. of moles of Na2CO3
0.004
remaining = ( )
(iv) Yellow 2
= 0.002
Solution to Question 2:

A) (i) Equivalence Point (iii) No. of moles of BaCl2


reacted = (0.005 -
The stage at which the
0.002) = 0.003
reaction is complete or
the two solutions have
(iv) Conc. Of barium ions =
reacted exactly (stoic-
0.003 x 40 = 0.120 mol
hiometric amounts of
dm-3
reagents have reacted)
0.003
(ii) End Point OR  25
1000
The point at which there = 0.120 mol dm-3
is a change in the colour D) (i)
of the indicator.  Stated volume of
B) oxalic acid placed in
flask.
 A known excess of sodium car-
bonate is reacted with BaCl2.  (Equal) volume of dil.

 The remaining solution of H2SO4 added.


 Contents of flask
Na2CO3 is determined by tit-
ration heated (to - 80℃ ).

 Oxalic acid titrated


C) (i) Ba2+(aq) + CO32-(aq) →
hot with manganate
BaCO3(s)
(VII) sol-ution.

(ii) Na2CO3: HCl = 1:2


(assume mole ratio if this (ii) Potassium manganate

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(VII) solution  Energy/Power generation


(fossil fuels)

Solution to Question 3:  Transportation/ Internal


Combustion engine
A) (i) Nitrogen fixation:  Industrial Production
conversion of atmos-  Deforestation
pheric nitrogen to nit-
rogen compounds. D)
(ii)  Costly policies
 Biological – use of  Result in unemployment
bac-teria in plants  Price of essential goods and
(legumes) services increases
 Athospheric –
electrical discharge
E) (i) pink/red/ reddish brown/
in the atmos-phere /
brown
lightning
 Industrial – haber
(ii) Reagent – (Conc.)
process
NaOH(aq)/ caustic soda

B) Acid Rain (iii) Colour – white


N2(g) + O2(g)  2NO(g) Appearance – gelatinous
(precipitate).
2NO2(g) + O2(g)  2NO2(g)

O2(g) + NO2(g) + 2H2O(l) 


(iv) Process
4HNO3(aq)
 Filtration
 Heating
2 NO2(g) + H2O(l)  HNO2(l) + Solution to Question 4:
HNO3(l)
A) (i)a. Stereoisomerism
C) Compounds that differ
 CFC’s only in the spatial arr-

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angement of atoms/
groups in molecule.

b. Chiral centre

Carbon atom which is


bonded to four different a
atoms/ groups.
b. pH=13
(ii)

Optical isomerism
c. pH=7
(iii)

B) (i) Condensation

(iv) a. Ph=2

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(ii) (ii) Categories

 Stretching
 Bending

(iii) Steps

 Grind solid with


excess KBr to a fine
consistency
 Press mixture into a
tablet/ pellet

OR

 Solid finely ground


(iii) Amide (Amido) with drop of liquid
hydrocarbon (para-
Solution to Question 5: ffin oil)
 The mixture (mull) is
A) (i) Two Principles
pressed between pla-
 Molecules undergo tes of NaCl
changes in modes of
vibration.
B) (i) A: O – H (alkane)
 Absorption occurs
when vibration cause B: C – H (carboxylic
a net change in dipole acid)
moment of molecules. C: C = O (carboxylic
 The energy of vibra- acid)
tional transitions cor-
responds to IR spec-
trum.

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(ii) Structure of Y Solution to Question 6:


A) (i)
 Chlorine
 Hydrogen
 Sodium Hydroxide

C) Advantages (ii) At the Anode


 Environmentally friendly Chlorine ions are converted to
solvent chlorine gas by oxidation
 Cheap/ cost effective (less (electron loss)
fuel)
2Cl-  Cl2(g) + 2e-
 Water insoluble product
 Does not destroy/ decom-
pose extract. At the Cathode

Water is decomposed to
D) (i) Disadvantages
produce hydrogen by reduction
 Partially hydrolysed (electron gain)
product 2H2O(l) + 2e-  H2(g) +
 Difficulties in 2OH-(aq)
removing all the
water
 Yield will be lower Sodium Hydroxide

Hydroxide and sodium in the


(ii) Length of Extractor anode compartment are rem-
oved as sodium hydroxide.
Increased surface area
due to the length of the Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) → NaOH(s)
extractor, increases eff-
iciency of the process.

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B)
 Insecticides
 Bleaches/ disinfectants
 Antiseptics
 Weedkillers
 Chlorinated organic compo-
unds/ solvents

C)
 SO2 is a reducing agent
which prevents oxidation of
the product, thus retarding
food spoilage.
 Disadvantage – distorts the
taste of the food.

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Solution to Question 1: (ii) Addition polymerization


A) (i) I: Hot KMnO4, OH- / H+
(iii) An relevant example : PVC,
(ii) II: Concentrated H2SO4/
polyethene (do not accept
H2 O
polyalkene)
B) (i)

(IV)

(ii)

(V) No. There is no

present.
C) (ii) Polymer – a large
D) Amino acid
molecule made up of
many identical rep-
eating subunits called
Monomers.

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(ii) Wavelength: the dista-


nce between successive
peaks (or troughs) of
waves of radiation.

(iii) Frequency: The number


of waves passing a given
E) Similarity
point per second or the
Both contain the amide linkage number of cycles per
second.

B) (i) 1 x 10-5

(ii) 9.5 x 107 Hz

Difference (iii) Infra-red

Proteins are formed from amino (iv) Radio Waves


acids while Nylon 6.6 is for-
med from diacid.
C) (i)
(butane – dicarboxylic acid) and
 Accurate mass of sample
the diamine (1,6 – diamino-
is weighed using an
hexane).
analytical balance (usu-
ally 1.0 mg/ml for
Solution to Question 2:
organic).
A) (i) Electromagnetic radiat-
 Sample dissolved in app-
ion consist of oscillating
ropriate solvent and
electric and magnetic
made up to the mark in a
fields of energy which
can be transmitted thr- volumetric flask. (2 or 5

ough space. ml) for organic com-


pounds)

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 If sample has any par-  Freedom from inter-


ticulate matter, it must be ference by other solution
suitably filtered to give constituents (those pre-
sent within or without
clear, transparent, homo-
the sample).
genous solution).
 After spectrophotometer D) (i) Energy absorbed by one

is blanked, sample sol- molecule:

ution absorbance is chec- E = hv = 6.63 x 10-34 Js  1.5


ked at a particular wave-  1015 s-1
length. (190 - 900 nm)
= 9.9 x 10-19 J
 If absorbance value is
(ii) Energy absorbed by one
greater than 1.0, serial
mole of substance:
dilutions are necessary.
E mole =E molecule×L
(ii) =9.9×10-19 J×6.02×1023 mol -1
 Stability of complexing =6×105 Jmol -1
reagent
 Ability to develop colour Solution to Question 3:
with sample
A) (i) SO2, NO2, CO2
 Stoichiometric reactivity
with desired reagent (ii) CO2: respiration
sample
 Transparency in the UV/ NO2: oxidation of N2 due
visible wavelength reg- to lightning
ion N2 + 2O2 → 2NO2
 Specificity to the sample
reagent SO2: Volcanic activity
 Ability to function in a
common solvent (iii) CO2(g) + H2O(i)
H2CO3(aq)

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SO2(g) + H2O(i)  increases solubility of


H2SO3(aq) toxic metal ions

Or  increases rate of cor-


rosion of metals and
SO2(g) + O2 (g)
buildings
2SO3(aq)
 destroys vegetation
SO3(g) + H2O(i)
H2SO4(aq) C) (i)

2NO2(g) + H2O(i)  ensure the container is

HNO3(aq) + HNO2(aq) clean.


 rinse container
thoroughly.
B) (i) In industrialized and
populated areas there (ii) Pb2+
would be an increase in  KI or any other
the:
halide
 combustion of fuels  Chromate ; SO42-
 emission of gases
NO3-
from industrial plants
and factories  Acidified FeSO4 and
 deforestation via bur- conc. H2SO4 (brown
ning ring test)
 vehicular emission  Cu or Zn with NaOH
(boiled)
(ii) Effects of acid raid:

 destroys aquatic life (iii) Pb2+

 leaches soil nutrients  KI – yellow ppt.


 Other halides or SO42- -
white ppt.

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 Chromate – yellow ppt (ii)

NO3-
 Acidified FeSO4 + conc.
H2 SO4 to yield brown
ring at junction (or
interface)
 Cu or Zn with NaOH rel-
eases NH3 with boiling.

Solution to Question 4: B has no chiral carbon

A) Molecular formula = C9H18O atom.

the same, but different struc- D) (i) Cracking-process involving


tural formula. the breaking down of large
alkanes to smaller hydro-c
B) A and B: (primary) alcohol and carbons.
alkene
(ii) a. C8H18  C4H8 + C4H10
C) (i)
b.
 Use for Br2(aq) or Br2 in
organic solvent KMnO4
 Bromine decolourized
or KMnO4 goes colour-
less
 Only alkene (butane)
gives a positive test

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Solution to Question 5: C)
A)
(75.77×34.97)+(24.23×36.96)
 Determination of relative is- =35.45
100
otopic masses and relative
isotopic abundance.
 Distinguish between molec- D) Two uses of chromatography:

ules of similar relative  Separation of dyes and inks


molecular mass.  Pesticide analysis
 Prediction of possible ide-  Forensic testing
 Purification of natural pro-
ntities of simple organic
ducts
molecules based on frag-
mentation pattern.
Solution to Question 6:
B) (i) M: 78
A) Air (liquid)
M + 1 = 79 Fractional distillation

(ii) 43 - (CH3CHCH3)+ B) (i) Reforming

63 - (CH3CH35Cl)+ (ii) CH4(aq) + H2O(g)  CO(g)

65 - (CH3CH37Cl)+ +3H2(g) OR CH4(aq) +


2H2O(g)  CO2(g) + 4H2(g)
(iii) M - CH3CH35ClCH3
C) High Pressure favours reduction in
M + 1 - CH3CH35Cl13CH3
volume
2- chloropropane
Low Temperature favours exoth-
ermic reaction (forward)

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D) Moderate temperature and


catalyst increases the rate of
equilibrium concentration.

E)
Pollutant Possible Polluting Effect
Source
-
(NO3) Fertilisers - Eutrophication
Synthetic / algal bloom
detergents - Reduction in
Untreated O2 for marine
sewer waste life
or BOD
3-
(PO4) Fertilisers Eutrophication /
Synthetic algal bloom
detergents
Untreated
sewer waste
2+
Pb (aq) Water - Cumulative
pipes, paint, poison affects
lead gut
batteries and nervous
(any system.
relevant - Can be
source) carcinogenic
and
teratogenic
- Brain damage

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Solution to Question 1: (ii) Snl or 2-step nucleo-


A) (i) Test: KMnO4/ H+ or
philic substitution or u
+
K2Cr2O3/ H
unimolecular nucleoph-
Obs: purple to colourless or iclic substition
orange to green when
reacted with compound A. C) (i) Step 1: conc. H2SO4

Step 2: conc. H2SO4 and H


(ii) Obs: Silver mirror when
H2O (H2SO4(aq) )
reacted with compound B.
Step 3: KMnO4 l H+ or K
(iii) Test: 2,4 – dinitrophenyl- K2Cr2 O2 l H+
hydrazine
(ii) Oxidation
Obs: Yellow ppt with
Solution to Question 2:
Compound
A) Both refer to the closeness of
B) (i)
agreement between two or more
measurements. Whereas precis-
ion refers to measurements of the
same quantity. Accuracy refers
to the closeness of a meas-
urement to the true value of the
quantity being measured.

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B) Burette, pipette, measuring  Condition a 10cm3 pipette.


cylinder, volumetric flask.  Fill pipette to the mark with
water at room temperature.
C) (i)  Transfer contents of pipette
to the beaker (without spil-
Student S.D.
ling).
1 0.065  Weigh accurately beaker
2 1.15 and water.
 Record weight in a suitable
3 3.46
table.
4 0.082
 Repeat steps 3-6 until consi-
stent water masses are
obtained.
(ii) Student

1 – precise but not Solution to Question 3:


accurate A)

2 – accurate but not  Crude oil is a mixture of

precise hydrocarbons.
 Heating separate compon-
3 – neither precise nor
ents according to volatility
accurate
(b.pts).
4 – both accurate and
 Components are collected by
precise
use of a fractionating tower
D) (more volatile collected first).
 Weigh a (clean, dry, empty)
beaker on an analytical bal-
B) Cracking: the breaking up of
ance.
large molecules into smaller

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ones. (ii) Types of structural


isomers:
Reforming: the rearrangement of
atoms in molecules to form new  Chain
structures (molecules).

C) C8 H18  C4H10 + 2C2H4

D) The production of insulators


 Functional Group
(clothing)/ textiles/ plastics/ sol-
vents/ pharmaceuticals

E) (i) A : Yeast

B: starch or sugar  Positional


(sucrose)

(ii) Conical flask – effer-


vescence

Beaker – white ppt for- y


B) CxHy + (x + ) O2 → x CO2 +
4
med
y
H 2O
(iii) High temperatures will 2
kill the yeast. 10cm3 35cm3 20cm3

Solution to Question 4: Mole ratio: 1 3.5 2

A) Structural isomerism – refers to x=2 x + = 3.5

compound with the same = 3.5 -2

(i) Molecular formula but diff- = 1.5


erent structural formula .
y=6

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MF = C2H6 bond (inductive effect).

C) Order of increasing acidity. Solution to Question 5:

 Alcohols < phenols < A) (i) Electronic absorption


carboxylic acids alcohols are between molecular energy
levels.
weakest because R group is
electron releasing which
(ii)
makes the negative charge
localized on the oxygen,
therefore, it is less likely to
release a proton
 Phenols are weak acids
because of the electron
withdrawing ability of the
phenyl ring making the Under the energy level
diagram it is important to
phenolate ion resonance
point out only three possible
stabilized. transitions can occur in the
 Carboxylate ions are reson- ultraviolet region of the
ance stabilized. spectrum which are:
n   ,    and n  
  

B) (i) Chromophore: a group of


atoms in a molecule res-
ponsible for (producing)
They are also less likely to hold on to
the absorption of electro-
the proton because the electro-
magnetic radiation.
negative oxygen pulls electrons
towards itself away from the O – H

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(ii) Chromophore  Determining amount of urea

– benzene structure or in blood


 Determining the extent of
-conjugated system of
cyanide pollution of water
double bonds.
 Analysis of iron in iron
tablets
(iii) Using A = E C 1
Solution to Question 6:
1.2 = 288  1 C
A) A: nitrogen-fixing bacteria
1.2 (nitrifying bacteria)
C
288 1
B: proteins
 C = 4.2 x 10-3 mol
dm-3 C: soil nitrates

D: nitrogen oxides; (NOx)


C)

 Prepare number of standard


B)
solution.
 Burning of fossil fuels
 Take absorbance reading of
(industry)
each solution.
Plot curve of absorbance vs  Using of internal combus-

concentration tion engine for transport
(burning of fossil fuels in
 Concentration. of unknown
cars, etc).
can then be determined
 Deforestation
using calibration curve.

C) Ozone formation:
D)
Dissociation of oxygen into
 Determining amount of glu-
atoms by UV radiation
cose in blood

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O2(g)  O(g) + O+(g)

Ozone is formed by reaction of


oxygen atoms and molecular
oxygen

O2(g) + O+(g) + M(g)  O3(g) +


M+(g)

Ozone breakdown:

Ozone decomposes to molecular


oxygen and oxygen atoms by
lower energy UV radiation

O3(g) 
hv
 O2(g) + O(g)

Ozone molecules and oxygen


atoms produce two molecules
of oxygen

O3(g) → O(g) + 2O2(g)

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Solution to Question 1: to colourless


A) Isomeric Alcohols MF – C4H10O
2 – methyl-2-propanol no
reaction.

E) Positive test with K2Cr2O7 l H+

Orange/ yellow blue/ green

Solution to Question 2:

A) Forensic testing or any other


reasonable suggestion.

B) Structural Isomerism B) Experimental Procedure

C) Stereoisomerism (optical  Obtain a beaker and cover its

isomerism) bottom with a solvent


(mobile phase).
D) Observation on treatment with
 Apply the mixture to be sep-
KMnO4 l H+
arated as a spot at a short dis-
1 – butanol purple to col- tance from one end of the
ourless TLC plate.
2 – butanol purple to col-  Dip the end of the plate
ourless below the spot into the
solvent (make sure the
2 – methyl-1-proponal purple
solvent level does not cover

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the spot). D) Commonly used stationary


 Allow the solvent to climb the phases
plate until it nears the top of  Silica (SiO2)
the TLC plate.  Alumina (Al2O3)
 Mark the level the solvent
has reached on the plate E) (i) Rr Values
(alternatively make the
2.4
A  0.35
mark first and remove the 6.8
plate when the solvent 5.1
B  0.75
reaches the mark) 6.8

 Allow the plate to dry. (ii) A is more attracted to the


 Stain the TLC plate to make stationary phase/ has a
the components visible or greater retention time.
mark the spots using UV B is more attracted to the
light to highlight. mobile phase/ has a
smaller retention time.
C) Stationary phase is a solid TLC
(iii) Factors influencing Rr
and is the material which holds
value
the solute on the plate.
 Nature of solute
Mobile phase is a liquid and
 Nature of stationary
carries the solute along the
phase
stationary phase on the TLC
 Nature of mobile
plate.
phase

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Solution to Question 3: material/wastes – pollution


A) Paper and genetic mutations.

 Reuse: Newspaper as abs-


C) CO2, H2S, CH4
orbing material, off-cuts
Carbon dioxide, hydrogen
used for note-pads, etc. any
sulphide, methane.
other reasonable application.
 Recycle: Making a papier
D) (i) Sucrose is converted to
maché, reconstitution of
glucose and then to
cellulose to reproduce rec-
ethanol by enzymes pro-
ycled paper. Any other
duced by yeast.
reasonable application.
C12H22O11 + H2O  2C6H12O6
 Reduce: In offices reduce
frequency of written (typed) Sucrose Glucose

memoranda. Use email for C6H12O6  2C2H5OH(aq) + 2CO2

communications: any other Ethanol


reasonable application. (ii)

B) Acetic acid/ Ethanoic acid,


ethanol Oxidation (Redox).
 Waste streams contaminate
and degrade land.
 Radioactive gases – free
radicals – released into the
air – carcinogenic.
 Large land use areas are
associated with reactor sys-
tems, cooling systems, arti-
ficial lakes and buffer areas
with potential radioactive

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Solution to Question 4:  There are no common groups


A) (i) With aqueous Bromine attached to the carbon atoms of
the double bond.

(ii) Liquid bromine

Electrophilic Addition

(iii) Cold KMnO4 l H+


Solution to Question 5:

A) Fig 1: Sintered glass crucible –


Filtration by suction and drying
of ppt in oven/ furnaces.
+
(iv) Hot KMnO4 l H
Fig 2: Suction (Buckner) Funnel –
filtration by suction.

B) (i)
[ester(toluene)]eqm
=r
[ester(water)]eqm
B) Compound A does not exhibit
(partition coefficient)
transisomerism.
C)

 Both groups to each carbon


of the double bond are the
same.

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(ii) (iv)

 Temperature  Conc, of Y in water =


 Immiscible solvents 1.6
 0.016
(do not react with 100
 Conc, of Y in ether =
each other)
8.4
 Solute does not react  0.042
200
with solvents
 Partition coefficient =
(iii) 0.042
 2.625
0.016
 Organic compounds
 With respect to K,
generally are more
ether and water.
soluble in nonpolar
solvents than in water
Solution to Question 6:
(polar). Solvents are
immiscible. A) Location of an industrial plant:

 An organic comp-  Proximity to workforce


ound is partitioned  Good transportation
between two solvents  Readily accessible energy
by shaking. needs
 Organic compound is  Readily accessible raw mat-
recovered/ obtained erials.
by distilling of the  Political situation
solvent after separa-  Site development
tion of two layers.  Expansion possibilities
 Any other reasonable factor.

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B) Safety concentration: C) 2CO + 2NO  2CO2 + N2


2UK: reactants + products
 High pressure process –
possibility of explosions 2CO + O2  2CO2
2 UK: reactants + products
Measures: Any one

 Materials used in constru-


D) (i) Produces acid rain.
ction should be able to
SO2 + H2O  H2SO3
withstand high pressure.
 Workers should be fully OR 2SO2 + 2H2O + O2
aware of evacuation pro-  2H2SO4
cedures.
 Systematic safety drills (ii) Production of smog ;
should be practiced. adverse effects on res-
piratory system.
Safety concern:

Product spill in transportation


is likely.

Measures: Any one

 Clean up measures should be


developed.
 Should partner with public
services in evacuation exer-
cises.

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Solution to Question 1:
A) (i) B) (i) a. Yellow/orange ppt is
formed.
b. KMnO4 decolourized.

c. Z is an aldehyde.

d. Z is an aromatic

aldehyde. Or Z is not a
(ii)
reducing sugar..

B) (ii)

(iii) a. P – saponification
b. Q – transesterification

C)

(iv) a. P – soap

b. Q – biodiesel fuel

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Solution to Question 2: (iii) a. C: Butanoic acid


A)
b.
 Vibrations in bonds must match
frequency in the IR region of
spectrum.
 Molecules must have a dipole
moment. at 1710 cm-1

B) OH at 3400 cm-1

 Monitoring air pollutants. D) (i)


 Laboratory identification of  Add mineral oil to
organic compounds. solid in mortar to
 Identification of functional form a mull.
groups.  Smear samples bet-
 Analysis of petroleum hyd- ween NaCl plates.
rocarbons. OR

 Grind solid with KBr.


C) (i) a. A: Acetone  Form a pellet under
b. pressure.
 Insert sample in
machine.
 Record readings.

at 1715 cm-1
(ii) They are ideal because
OH at 3400cm-3
NaCl is transparent to
infrared radiation.
(ii) a. B: 2 – propanol

b. OH at 3350 cm-1

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Solution to Question 3: (ii) Excessive


A) (i) Leaching Nutrients  algal
(ii) Pesticides; detergents, growth  Bacterial
herbicides, fungicides decomposition on death
(any other appropriate (NO3- ; PO43-)
source). (removal of oxygen)

B) (i) Nitrates: FeSO4(aq); conc


H2SO4 (Brown Ring Test) (iii) Corrosion in boiler pipes
A brown ring forms at due to dissolve oxygen.
junction of liquids
D)
(ii) Phosphate: Ammonium
molybdate; yellow ppt  Screening
 Sedimentation
OR
 Filtration
Ammonium molybdate
 Coagulation
Test; Blue solution
 Flocculation
C) (i)  Chlorination
 Diffusing from atmos-
Solution to Question 4:
phere (air)
A) (i) NaOH
 Dissolving the by-
(ii)
product of photosyn-
thesis (aquatic plants)
 Aeration from rapid
move-ment.

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B) (i) Step I : Conc HNO3 and Solution to Question 5:


con. H2SO4 A) Partition coefficient is the ratio
of the solute concentrations
Step II: Br2 and AlBr3 l immersed in solvents at a given
FeBr3 temperature.
Step III: Sn and conc HCl Or
C1 = k (k = partition coefficient)
(ii) H2SO4 + HNO3 → NO2+
C1 = conc. of solute in solvent 1

C2 = conc of solute in solvent 2

Concentration water
B) Using k
Concentration either
(iii) Electrophilic Substitution
0.854
∴ 10  5.36 = k
(iv) NO2 is a meta director so 0.159
it directs the substitute- 10
nts to the meta position. Let mass found in water = x g

x
C) (i) Nitrobenvene< benzene< 10  5.36
1 x
methylbenzene 10

(ii)  7.36x = 5.36


5.36
x= = 0.728 g
7.36

C) (i) Steam distillation

(ii) Solvent extraction

(iii) Fractional distillation

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(iv) Simple distillation  3H2O + Al2O3 + 2NaOH →


2NaAl(OH)4 (aq)

D) NaAl(OH)4 (aq) →
 Liquid of composition x NaOH(aq) + Al(OH)3 (s)
heated produce vapour.
2Al (OH)3 (g) → Al2O3 (s) +
 Composition a1.
3H2O(g)
 Vapour on condensing pro-
duce liquid composition x1.
 Liquid has greater conce- B) (i) Red mud (sodium hyd-
ntration of A than B. roxide residue)
 Repeated vapourization and (ii)
condensation produce liquid
 Harms flora and
A (ditillate).
fauna
 Disfigures the envir-
Solution to Question 6: onment

A)  Removes valuable
land space from
 Ore is crushed and treated
agricultural produc-
with NaOH
 Mixture is filtered tion or housing.

 Filtrate seeded to precipitate


C) (i) Anode: 2O2-(l)  O2 (g) +
Al(OH)3
4e
 Al(OH)3 heated producing
aluminium oxide. Cathode: Al3+(l) + 3e 
Al (l)
(Allow use of CO2 instead of
seeding)

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(ii) a. Reasons for high cost:

 Large quantity of
energy needed
 Need to replace
carbon anodes
 Degree of purity of
metal

b. Recycling reduces:

 Exploitation of
resources
 Environmental
scarring
 Energy demands
 Pollution effects

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Solution to Question 1: phenylamine is delo-


A) (i) To produce bromine calized into the benzene
radicals by breaking Br – ring thus reducing ele-c
Br bond or cleavage or ctron availability.
homolytic fission to
bromine radicals.
C) (i) Kb > 9.38
(ii)

(ii) Ethanamide reduces


further the electron avai-
lability of lone pair on
nitrogen.

B) (i)

 RNH 3+   OH - 
Kb    
 RNH 2 

(ii) Ethylamine

(iii) The presence of ethyl


group enhances the av-
ailability of lone pair on
the nitrogen. The lone
pair on nitrogen in

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D) TABLE 1: LABORATORY (ii) Infrared – B


RECORD
X – rays – A
TEST Functional Groups Observation
B) C = frequency x λ
Add SOCl2 - Vigorous
very reaction 3.0 x 108 = 4.5 x 1015 x λ
cautiously. - Dense white
fumes
- Pungent,
3.0 108
choking or λ=
irritating smell 4.5 1015
Add Yellow
= 6.7 x 10-8 m
AgNO3(aq) precipitate
and boil
C)
gently.
 Detect pollutants in the air.
Add Br2(aq) White
precipitate  Iron in iron tablets
formed
 Moisture content of soil
Antiseptic smell
Add Br2(aq) Bromine  Metals in alloys
decolourised

D) (i) Step 1 – Produce S from


mixture to be analysed

Solution to Question 2: and weighed.

A) (i) Step 4 – To ensure removal


of all traces of water.

(ii) Suction funnel, crucible,


water aspirator, vacuum
pump. Any other reasonable
apparatus.

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(iii) Oven, desiccator, (ii) Temperature 4500C –


crucible, 5000C
Bunsen burner. Pressure 200 atm

E) Mass of washing soda = 6.44g


(iii) Fractional distillation of
Mass of anhydrous Na2SO4 =
liquid air.
37.69 – 34.25 = 2.84g
(iv)
Mass of water = 6.44 – 2.84 =  Proximity of raw

3.60g Moles of water = materials.


 Availability of cheap
3.60g/18g mol-1 = 0.2 moles
energy sources.
Moles of Na2SO4 = 2.84/142 g  Impact on environ-
mol-1 =0.02 ment.
 Impact on residents
Na2SO4 H 2O
in nearby comm-
0.02 0.2 unities.
0.02 0.02

1 10 B) (i) Increase in temperature


will result in the equi-
Na2SO4 .10H2O
librium shifting to the
left (exothermic in for-
ward reaction) and dec-
Solution to Question 3:
rease in yield of amm-
A) (i) N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2
onia.
NH3(g) -92 KJmol-1

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(ii) The forward reaction favours that is attached directly to three


an increase in pressure due other carbon atoms.
to lowering of the total num-
ber of moles. There should be B) (i) Compound A is 2-
a higher yield of ammona. bromo-butane.

(ii) Optical isomerism,


C) (i) A – Steam reformin/
presence of a chiral
cracking
carbon.
B – Dissolving of CO2 in
H2O /Caustic soda

D – Condensation /
cooling
Positional Isomerism
(ii) Finely divided iron
(iii)
(iii) Liquid

Solution to Question 4:

A) Primary alkyl halide: halogen


atom attached to a carbon that is
attached directly to one other
carbon.

Secondary alkyl halide: halogen C) (i) 2-bromo-2-methyl


atom is attached to a carbon propane
atom that is attached directly to
two other carbon atom.

Tertiary alkyl halide: halogen


atom attached to a carbon atom

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(ii) (iii) Recorder – Shows frag-


ments as peaks according
to relative abundance.

B) Ratio of relative abundance


indicating number of carbon
atoms.

C) (i) 88
D) (i) Creamy yellow preci-
(ii) 43
pitate formed.

(iii) CH3+, C2H5+


(ii) NaBr(aq) + AgNO3(aq) 
C3H7+
NaNO3(aq) + AgBr(s)
(iv)
OR

Ag+(aq) + Br-(aq)  AgBr(s)

Solution to Question 5:
D)
A) (i) Electron beam – bom-
bards molecules, prod-
ucing molecules, ions
and fragments.

(ii) Magnetic field – Separ-


ates fragments based on
M/z ratio

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Solution to Question 6: B) (i) Yeast is added to glucose


A) (i) Destruction involves the /carbohydrates. The zy-
ultra violet radiation mase in yeast acts on the
breaking down the oz- glucose to produce eth-
one to oxygen molecules anol and carbon di-
and atom. oxide.

O3(g)  O2(g) + O(g) C6H12O6(aq)  2


C2H5OH(aq) + 2 CO2(g)
Ozone and oxygen atoms
react to provide oxygen m (ii) Fractional distillation.
molecules.

O3(g) + O(g)  2O2(g)


C) Ethanol has a wide range of
application as solvents for frag-
(ii) Use of CFC in aerosol
rances, lotions, fuels for gas-
can
oline, extraction of essences
(iii) from fruits and spices. Ethanol is
an active ingredient in alco-
 Excessive radiation-
holic beverages which can be
skin cancer; free
radicals production sold locally and internationally.
in the body impairs
the immune system.
 Cataract in the eye.
 Respiratory ailments;
asthma, bronchitis.

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Solution to Question 1:
(ii) Bromine with propane in
A) (i) Cracking
sunlight.
(ii) Vapour passed over cat-
alyst/ Thermal crack
ing Al2O3/SiO2 at 450oC. Propagation:
high temperature (grea-
ter than 600oC).

(iii) B: methane, CH4

C: propene, CH3CH=CH2/
CH3CHCH2

B) (i)
 There is the unpair-
ing of 2s2 electrons
and one electron en-
ters the empty P orb-
ital.
 The four orbitals are
hybridised to give 4  Two steps are required
sp3 orbitals. in the propagation stage,
if two steps are present
and no fish hook arrow.

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 If one of the two steps is


missing and fish hook is
missing no marks all-
otted.

Termination: Br  Br  Br : Br

OR

OR
Bromine with propene
(without sunlight)

The two first steps can be


merged with the appropriate
curved arrow.
All arrows should be full
arrows not fish hook.
(iii) Free radical substitution
OR
Electrophilic addition

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C) (i) The reddish brown  Adding titrant drop


colour of the bromine is by drop near the end
decolourised in sunlight. point
 Taking successive
(ii) The purple colour of the readings until cons-
permanganate solution tant volumes are
is immediately decolo- obtained.
urised/ pale pink.  Taking successive
readings until the
Solution to Question 2: volume does not
A) (i) Accuracy: differ by more than
 Reading burette at 0.1cm3.
eye level
 Removal of filter B)
funnel after adding  High level of purity.
titrant to burette.  Atmosphere stability
 Reading burette to 2  Large molar mass
decimal places.  Reasonable solubility in tit-
 Eliminate any bub- ration
bles in burette tap.  Absence of hydrate water.
 Retort stand must be  Cheap and readily available.
on a flat surface
 Do not blow out
remaining liquid at
the tip of the pipette.

(ii) Precision:

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C) (i) Draw line of best fit  This is repeated until a total


use six points of 45 cm3 of acid are added
or until the temperature
stabilized.

(ii) End point volume: 24 


0.5

(iii) 25 cm3 NaOH contain =


2.0  25
=0.05 moles
1000
Moles NaOH: HCl= 1:1
Moles HCl=0.05 moles
24.5cm3 HCl contains
0.05 moles.

0.05 1000
1000 cm3 contain
24.5
=2.04 M HCl
Solution to Question 3:
D) A)
 25 cm3 NaOH added to a  Increased pressure/ conc. Of
polystyrene cup using a reactants.
pipette.  Decreased temperature
 (Solution allowed standing  Use of catalyst
for few minutes) and temp-
erature noted.
 5 cm3 portions of acid added
from burette, mixture stirred
and temperature noted.

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B) (i) Le Chatelier’s Principle: (v) Safety considerations


if one or more factors  Reaction between
that affect an equilibr- SO3 and water is
ium are changed, the highly exothermic.
position of equilibrium  Clouds of sulphuric
shifts in the direction acid are produced.
which opposes the cha-  Sulphuric acid can
nge. cause burns to the
skin and flesh.
(ii)
 Sulphuric acid can
 Low temperature
cause blindness if it
 High pressure
gets into the eyes.

(iii)
Solution to Question 4:
 The sulphur trioxide
A) Additional polymerisation invo-
is dissolved into
lves the linking of one type of
conc. Sulphuric acid
monomer with double or triple
to form oleum.
bonds to give the polymer as the
 The oleum is diluted
only product.
with water to form
Condensation polymerisation
conc. Sulphuric acid.
involves the linking of two types
of monomers OR monomers
(iv)
 H2SO4(l) + SO3(g)  with bifunctional group (two

H2S2O7 (l) functional groups) to give the

 H2S2O7(l) +H2O(l)  polymer and a small molecule

2H2SO4(l) such as water or hydrogen


chloride.

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B) Carboydrates/ Polysaccharides
Proteins
E,g., glycogen, cellulose, starch, giving
pectin, albumin, keratin, monomers:
collagen.

C)

Solution to Question 5:
A)
 Chromatography involves
the separation of compo-
D) The link between the two nents of a mixture between
two phases.
monomers is  Involves the partitioning of
components between a
because one end of unit is stationary phase and a
mobile phase.
and the other end is . The  Partitioning occurs because
remaining part of repeating unit the components of the
mixture will experience
different absorption forces

has and with the stationary phase.


 Have different solubility
with the mobile phase.

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B) (i) The components can be  Used to separate (dyes,


detected by a reagent amino acids, plant pigments)
called a locating agent or  Less useful if quantification
visualizing agent. This of large amount are
will react with the required.
component and form a  Cannot separate compounds
coloured compound. of similar Rf values.
 Samples can be removed
(ii) from analysis.
Dis tan ce moved by solute
Rf 
Dis tan ce moved by solvent
Coloum chromatography:
2.5 Large amounts of material can
R f of Q   0.2
13.50 be separated and collected.
12.5
R f of R   0.9
13.5  Used for pesticide analysis
 Large columns can be used
(iii) R has a greater solubility
for purification.
in the mobile phase than
 Can be used to prepare
Q which has a stronger
compounds.
tendency to absorb onto
 Fractions can be collected
the stationary phase. OR
for analysis.
Q is more polar so it is
stronger absorbed onto
the stationary phase than
R which is less polar.

C) Thin layer chromategraphy:


Separates small amounts of
compounds.

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Solution to Question 6: layer in the atmo-


A)
sphere.
 Destruction of the
ozone layer allows
harmful UV radia-
tion to reach the
surface of the earth.
 The increase UV
radiation could res-

B) Health concern ult in any of the

Use of asbestos diaphragm following: cateract,

 Asbestos deteriorates with skin cancer etc.

use overtime.  CFC’s are broken

 Dry asbestos fibres can be down in stratosphere

inhaled/ ingested causing to give chlorine free

respiratory problems. radicals which react

 Asbestos is considered to be with ozone to cause

carcinogenic. its conversion to

 Possible leakage of chlorine oxygen.

gas into the environment.


(ii) Products of combustion
of fossil fuels- CO2:
C) (i) Production of CFCs has
 CO2 is a “greenhouse
declined:
gas”.
 It was discovered in
 Increased concent-
the 1970’s that CFCs
ration of CO2 cont-
accelerates the dep-
ributes to the green-
letion of the ozone

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house effect i.e. glo-


bal warming.
 Negative effect on
the atmosphere thr-
ough melting of
glaciers and ice-
caps  increase in
sea levels.
 Decreases product-
ivity of the land.

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