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Hyperworks Tutorial - JUNE 2010


Flexible bodies are commonly used in multi-body dynamic analysis to
account for the flexibility of bodies during simulation. The technique to
generate a flexible body is called Component Mode Synthesis (CMS).

The CMS technique reduces a finite element model of an elastic body

to the interface degrees of freedom and a set of normal modes. The
objective of the interface nodes is to account for the static deformation
due to constraints or applied forces acting on the interface nodes.

Once the model is reduced, it can be implemented into the multi-body

dynamic analysis.
Fig.1 Finite element representation of the city model
The static equilibrium of a body is given as:
Model Generation and Analysis Implementation
A finite element model of the building will be converted to a flexible body
using MotionView functionality. After full pre-processing in MotionView
the model will be resolved using the MotionSolve solver and then post-
The eigenvalue problem for a normal modes analysis of the body using a processed using HyperView, all applications part of the HyperWorks CAE
diagonal mass matrix represents itself as: suite:

1 - Open MotionView Session.

2 - Open city landscape model.
3 - Generate a flexible body.
The CMS technique finds a set of orthogonal modes Φ that represents 4 - Add the flexible body to the MotionView session.
the displacements u of the reduced structure such that: 5 - Constraint the building to the ground
6 - Implement the loading conditions

Where q is the matrix of modal participation factors which is determined

by the analysis.

There are two methods available in HyperWorks to generate flexible

bodies, the Craig-Bampton and the Craig-Chang methods.

The main difference between the two methods is that the Craig-Bampton
method uses a system constrained in the interface degrees of freedom,
resulting in a diagonal stiffness matrix and the Craig-Chang uses an
unconstraint system providing six rigid body modes. Fig.2 Pre-processing in MotionView

The main advantage of using flexible bodies in finite element modelling 7 - Run the analysis
is their practicality when implementing large models; by reducing a 8 - Post-process the results within HyperView
complete finite element model using the CMS method, the analysis
duration can be noticeably reduced.

Practical Case
An architectural consultancy is designing a building of 400 m in height at
the centre of one of the main cities in UK. Due to its height, the building
will be subjected to wind loading in different directions.

In order to obtain representative values of the building displacement

during high speed winds, the consultancy has decided to reduce an
initial finite element model of the structure using the CMS method.

Since the detailed design is not yet available, this approach will allow the
consultancy to obtain critical values in a short period of time and provide
Fig.3 HyperView Results Post-processing
the base for initial cost of the building itself.

The building will be subjected to two critical loads at opposite corners Further Investigation
in its structure There are many other fields of applications where the flexible body can
be used, for instance suspension arms or aircraft landing gear. The
building model contains different number of points where loads may be
applicable...why not experimenting with different loading conditions.

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