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DIGITAL MODULATION

AMPLITUDE SHIFT-KEYING

𝑉𝑐
vASK (t) = [1 + vm (t)] [ cos⁡(ωc t)]
2
where
vm (t) = modulating⁡signal⁡(logic⁡1:⁡ + 1V, logic⁡0:⁡ − 1V)
𝑉𝑐 = analog⁡carrier⁡amplitude
ωc = analog⁡carrier⁡radian⁡frequency⁡(2πfc )

ASK Bandwidth, Bit Rate, Baud Rate


(ASK n=1, m=2)
f
Baud = ⁡ b BWmin = (1 + d)Baud
n

fb fb
LSF = fc − USF = fc +
m m
where
fb = bit⁡rate
n = number⁡of⁡bits
m = number⁡of⁡levels
d = 0(half⁡duplex), 1(full⁡duplex)

FREQUENCY SHIFT-KEYING

vFSK (t) = Vc cos{2π[fc + vm (t) ∙ ∆f]t}


where
vm (t) = modulating⁡signal⁡(logic⁡1:⁡ + 1V, logic⁡0:⁡ − 1V)
Vc = analog⁡carrier⁡amplitude
fc = analog⁡carrier⁡frequency⁡
∆f = frequency⁡deviation
|fm − fs |
∆f =
2
fm = mark frequency
fs = space⁡frequency⁡

FSK Bandwidth, Bit Rate, Baud Rate


(FSK n=1, m=2)
f
Baud = ⁡ b BWmin = (1 + d)(Baud + ∆f)
n

fb fb
LSF = fc − USF = fc +
m m
where
fb = bit⁡rate
n = number⁡of⁡bits
m = number⁡of⁡levels
d = 0(half⁡duplex), 1(full⁡duplex)

PHASE SHIFT-KEYING

2Eb
vPSK (t) = √ cos{2πfc t + π[1 − vm (t)]}
Tb
where
vm (t) = modulating⁡signal⁡(logic⁡1:⁡ + 1V, logic⁡0:⁡ − 1V)
Eb =
Tb =
fc = analog⁡carrier⁡frequency

PSK Modulator Output

1 1
𝑣𝐵𝑃𝑆𝐾 (t) = cos[2π(fc − fa )t] − cos[2π(fc + fa )t]
2 2

PSK Bandwidth, Bit Rate, Baud Rate


f fb
Baud = ⁡ b BWmin =
n 𝑛

LSF = fc − fa USF = fc + fa

fb
fa =
2n
where
fb = bit⁡rate
fa = maximum⁡fundamental⁡frequency
n = number⁡of⁡bits (BPSK=1, QPSK=2, 8-PSK=3, 16-PSK=4 etc.)
m = number⁡of⁡levels

QPSK

Dibit Resultant Resultant Phasor Output Phase


I Q Vector
0 0 1.41V −sinωc t − cosωc t -135°
0 1 1.41V −sinωc t + cosωc t 135°
1 0 1.41V +sinωc t − cosωc t -45°
1 1 1.41V +sinωc t + cosωc t 45°

For I balanced modulator: Ex: For a dibit input of Q=1 and I=0,
For logic 1: +sin(ωc t) determine the output phase of QPSK
For logic 0: −sin(ωc t) modulator.
output phasor: −sinωc t + cosωc t
For Q balanced modulator: resultant
For logic 1: +cos(ωc t) vector=√(−1)2 + (1)2 = 1.41
For logic 0: −cos(ωc t) 1
phase=tan−1 ( ) = −45° +
−1
180(2nd⁡quadrant) = 135°
8-PSK

Tribit Resultant Resultant Phasor Output


Q I C Vector Phase
0 0 0 1.41V −0.541sinωc t − 1.307cosωc t -112.5°
0 0 1 1.41V −1.307sinωc t − 0.541cosωc t -157.5°
0 1 0 1.41V +0.541sinωc t − 1.307cosωc t -67.5°
0 1 1 1.41V +1.307sinωc t − 0.541cosωc t -22.5°
1 0 0 1.41V −0.541sinωc t + 1.307cosωc t +112.5°
1 0 1 1.41V −1.307sinωc t + 0.541cosωc t +157.5°
1 1 0 1.41V +0.541sinωc t + 1.307cosωc t +67.5°
1 1 1 1.41V +1.307sinωc t + 0.541cosωc t +22.5°

For I balanced modulator: Ex: For a tribit input of Q=0, I=1 and
For logic 1: +sin(ωc t) C=0, determine the output phase of
For logic 0: −sin(ωc t) QPSK modulator.
output phasor: +0.541sinωc t −
For Q balanced modulator: 1.307cosωc t
For logic 1: +cos(ωc t) resultant
For logic 0: −cos(ωc t) vector=√0.5412 + 1.3072 =1.41V
−1.307
phase=tan−1 ( ) = −67.5°
For C balanced modulator: 0.541
For logic 1: 1.307
For logic 0: 0.541

16-PSK
Code Phase
0000 11.25°
0001 33.75°
0010 56.25°
0011 78.75°
0100 101.25°
0101 123.75°
0110 146.25°
0111 168.75°
1000 191.25°
1001 213.75°
1010 236.25°
1011 258.75°
1100 281.25°
1101 303.75°
1110 326.25°
1111 348.75°
8-QAM

Tribit Resultant Resultant Phasor Output


Q I C Vector Phase
0 0 0 0.765V −0.541sinωc t − 0.541cosωc t -135°
0 0 1 1.848V −1.307sinωc t − 1.307cosωc t -135°
0 1 0 0.765V +0.541sinωc t − 0.541cosωc t -45°
0 1 1 1.848V +1.307sinωc t − 1.307cosωc t -45°
1 0 0 0.765V −0.541sinωc t + 0.541cosωc t +135°
1 0 1 1.848V −1.307sinωc t + 1.307cosωc t +135°
1 1 0 0.765V +0.541sinωc t + 0.541cosωc t +45°
1 1 1 1.848V +1.307sinωc t + 1.307cosωc t +45°

For I balanced modulator: Ex: For a tribit input of Q=0, I=1 and
For logic 1: +sin(ωc t) C=0, determine the output phase of
For logic 0: −sin(ωc t) QPSK modulator.
output phasor: +0.541sinωc t −
For Q balanced modulator: 0.541cosωc t
For logic 1: +cos(ωc t) resultant
For logic 0: −cos(ωc t) vector=√0.5412 + −0.5412 =0.765V
−0.541
phase=tan−1 ( ) = −45°
For C balanced modulator: 0.541
For logic 1: 1.307
For logic 0: 0.541

16-QAM
Tribit Resultant Resultant Phasor Output
Q Q’ I I’ Vector Phase
0 0 0 0 0.311V −0.22sinωc t − 0.22cosωc t -135°
0 0 0 1 0.850V −0.821sinωc t − 0.22cosωc t -165°
0 0 1 0 0.311V +0.22sinωc t − 0.22cosωc t -45°
0 0 1 1 0.850V +0.821sinωc t − 0.22cosωc t -15°
0 1 0 0 0.850V −0.22sinωc t − 0.821cosωc t -105°
0 1 0 1 1.161V −0.821sinωc t − 0.821cosωc t -135°
0 1 1 0 0.850V +0.22sinωc t − 0.821cosωc t -75°
0 1 1 1 1.161V +0.821sinωc t − 0.821cosωc t -45°
1 0 0 0 0.311V −0.22sinωc t + 0.22cosωc t 135°
1 0 0 1 0.850V −0.821sinωc t + 0.22cosωc t 165°
1 0 1 0 0.311V +0.22sinωc t + 0.22cosωc t 45°
1 0 1 1 0.850V +0.821sinωc t + 0.22cosωc t 15°
1 1 0 0 0.850V −0.22sinωc t + 0.821cosωc t 105°
1 1 0 1 1.161V −0.821sinωc t + 0.821cosωc t 135°
1 1 1 0 0.850V +0.22sinωc t + 0.821cosωc t 75°
1 1 1 1 1.161V +0.821sinωc t + 0.821cosωc t 45°
BANDWIDTH EFFICIENCY

fb
Bn =
BWmin
where
fb = bit⁡rate
BWmin = minimum⁡bandwidth