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Sciences journal homepage: www. sciencedirect.com Original article Design, fabrication and implementation of

Original article

Design, fabrication and implementation of HE-OBCU-EGR emission control unit on CI engine and analysis of its effects on regulated gaseous engine emissions

Ali Azam a , c , d , , Asad Naeem Shah a , d , Shoukat Ali b , c , d , Zafar Abbas a , b , d , Ammar Ahmed a , d , Adnan Iqbal c , d , Basit Ali Wajid a , d , Muhammad Sarfraz Ali a , d

a Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

b Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Technology, Multan, Pakistan

c Department of Mechanical Engineering, Swedish College of Engineering and Technology, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan

d Xian Jiaotong University, Shaanxi, China

article info

Article history:

Received 8 May 2019 Accepted 7 October 2019 Available online xxxx

Keywords:

Diesel engine

Exhaust emissions

HE-OBCU-EGR

Emission analysis

abstract

Adverse atmospheric conditions and health hazards originated due to the discharge of particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) are the fundamental chal- lenges to the researchers working on diesel engine. The solution is to develop cleaner technologies to abate emissions from diesel engine exhaust. In this paper, a novel hybrid emission control unit composed of counter flow heat exchanger (HE), oil bath cleaning unit (OBCU) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), the combination abbreviated as HE-OBCU-EGR unit, was designed, fabricated and implemented on the exhaust manifold of Massey Ferguson (MF-260) tractor engine to reduce the regulated gaseous emissions. An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of HE-OBCU-EGR unit on the emissions of a four-stroke, three cylinder diesel engine equipped with an eddy-current dynamometer. The tests were conducted on engine speed of 1400 to 2000 rpm with an interval of 100 rpm at full load. The AVL DiTEST and AVL smoke meter were used to analyze the emissions including soot concentration (SC), pollution level (PL), filter smoke number (FSN), HC, NO x and CO. The results obtained with HE-OBCU-EGR unit revealed 44.9%, 29.2%, 26.3%, 42.9% and 24.8% reduction in SC, PL, FSN, HC and NO x emissions, whereas CO emissions were increased by 14.3% due to limited supply of oxygen from EGR. Results revealed that HE-OBCU-EGR unit may help to minimize the emissions of HC, SC, PL, FSN and NO x but is not suitable to control CO emissions. To minimize the emissions of CO, this technology can be superposed with tur- bocharger or supercharger to enhance the availability of O 2 in the combustion chamber. 2019 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

1. Introduction

For socio-economic development of a country, the major energy requirements today are fulfilled using fossil fuels including petrol,

Corresponding author at: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. E-mail addresses: aliazam@uet.edu.pk (A. Azam), anaeems@uet.edu.pk

(A. Ahmed).

Peer review under responsibility of King Saud University.

Production and hosting by Elsevier
Production and hosting by Elsevier

diesel, coal and natural gas which, being non-renewable resources of energy, are going to be unavailable in coming few years ( Dhinesh et al., 2017b; Nanthagopal et al., 2019 ). A consumption of approximately 11 billion tons of fossil fuels per annum pictur- izes a drastic situation which leads to increased environmental pollution, health hazards and depletion of energy reserves ( Elumalai, 2019 ). At low operating costs and high thermal effi- ciency, diesel engines are considered as the preferred prime movers and are used for powering equipment, bulk movement of goods, agriculture and power generation (G. Chen et al., 2018; Kalghatgi, 2018; Vigneswaran et al., 2018 ). On the other hand, die- sel engines are also responsible for worldwide environmental pol- lution issues including smog, acid rain, greenhouse effect and global warming ( Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha et al., 2018; Lolli, 2018; Wang et al., 2019 ). Furthermore, a number of health

1018-3639/ 2019 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Please cite this article as: A. Azam, A. Naeem Shah, S. Ali et al., Design, fabrication and implementation of HE-OBCU-EGR emission control unit on CI en gine and analysis of its effects on regulated gaseous engine emissions, Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.

2 A. Azam et al. / Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx

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A. Azam et al. / Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx (xxxx) xxx

problems such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, not only related to human but animals also, are the penalties of diesel engine emissions. The hazardous emissions of diesel engines include hydrocarbons (HC), PM, nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon oxi- des (CO x ), soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ( Azam et al., 2016b; Kasumba et al., 2019; Res itog˘ lu et al., 2015 ). Particu- late matter (PM) are the major causes of asthma and lung cancer ( Karoui et al., 2019; Satsangi and Agarwal, 2019; Schraufnagel et al., 2018 ). The inhalation of CO reduces the supply of oxygen in the bloodstream and 0.3% volumetric concentration of CO in the air can cause death within thirty minutes of inhalation ( Pauluhn, 2016; Sokhansanj et al., 2017 ). The PM, HC and CO emis- sions are produced due to incomplete combustion in diesel engines. PM are soot particles adsorbed with unburnt lubricating oil, carbon elements, sulphates, unburnt fuel, metallic ions and moisture ( Fujitani et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2018 ). Conventionally, three major types of techniques are being employed to reduce hazardous gaseous emissions of diesel engine; (i) fuel enhancement ( El-Seesy et al., 2018a,b; Hoseini et al., 2017; Knothe et al., 2015 ) (ii) engine modification ( Balasubramanian et al., 2018; Dhinesh et al., 2017a; Lalvani et al., 2016 ) and (iii) exhaust gas after-treatment ( Franco et al., 2016; Res itog˘ lu et al., 2015 ). Fuel enhancement is to replace the conventional diesel with renewable fuels or to add combustion catalysts to the liquid fuels to improve their physiochemical properties. The literature review related to these three methods is presented in tabular form in Table 1 . The first method to minimize the harmful emissions of diesel engine is to replace conventional diesel fuel with renewable fuel or biodiesel in small fractions. A large variety of sources are avail- able through which biodiesel can be obtained. Typical biodiesels or renewable fuels are bioethanol, methanol, propanol, n-butanol, ethers, methyl ester and ethyl ester which can be obtained from the transesterification of canola oil, jatropha oil, palm oil, moringa oil, turpentine oil, waste cooking oil, jojoba oil, karanja oil, hazel- nut oil, corn oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil, neem oil, cottonseed oil, calophyllum inophyllum oil, castor raw oil, brassica oil, cardoon oil, rapeseed oil, waste fish oil, mahua oil, coffee oil, cashew nut shell oil, mustard oil, coconut oil, nerium oleander

oil, bauhinia variegate oil, tamarind seed and salvia macrosiphon oil ( Agarwal et al., 2015; Alptekin et al., 2015; Atmanli, 2016; Can et al., 2017; Devarajan et al., 2017; Dhamodaran et al., 2017; Dhinesh and Annamalai, 2018; Dubey and Gupta, 2017; Efe et al., 2018; El-Seesy et al., 2018a,b; Gharehghani et al., 2017; Hoseini et al., 2017; Imtenan et al., 2015; Jaliliantabar et al., 2018; Mahalingam et al., 2018; Ming et al., 2018; Mohamed and Ebtsam, 2018; Østerstrøm et al., 2016; Raju et al., 2018; Rashed et al., 2016; Silitonga et al., 2016; Uyumaz, 2018; Yatish et al., 2018). Biodiesels provide additional oxygen contributing towards complete combustion, improved performance and lower emis- sions. Moreover, physio-chemical properties of biodiesel are very closer to that of conventional diesel due to which it can be used in diesel engine without any modification in design and construc- tion ( Jahirul et al., 2015 ). A previous study described the procedure to improve the oxidation stability of mahua biodiesel and jatropha biodiesel with mineral diesel. A comparison was also made between the storage and oxidation stability of jatropha biodiesel and mahua biodiesel mixtures with neat diesel. The results revealed a higher rate of change of properties of fuel blends in case of jatropha biodiesel ( Acharya et al., 2019 ). In another study, haz- ardous emissions of CI engine were assessed when transesterified Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) based biodiesel blends were used along with Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) in varying concentrations. The results showed that CO emissions were reduced up to 35% when concen- tration of PKO biodiesel was increased ( Shote et al., 2019 ). ( Shahir et al., 2018 ) performed an experimental study to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection CI engine using tyre pyrolytic oil (TPO) in different concentrations with neat diesel. The optimum value of TPO was concluded to be 30% by volume. The second way to reduce the hazardous emissions is to use metallic combustion catalysts as fuel additives in diesel. The com- mon nano particles used as fuel additives include titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), graphite oxide (GO), ferrous picrate (FPC), ferrous thiocyanate, ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ), carbon black, manganese oxide (MnO), copper oxide (CuO), ferrous oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ), zinc oxide (ZnO), alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), silicone oxide (SiO 2 ), magnesium (Mg), cerium oxide (CeO 2 ), zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ),

Table 1 List of papers related to emission control techniques.

Emission-control technique

Author Reference

Type of fuel

Performance

 

Emission

 
 

BSFC

BTE

BMEP

EGT

CO

NO x

HC

PM

Smoke

Fuel enhancement

( Çelik et al., 2015 )

D100 + Mn D100 + Mn D100 + Mn D100 + Mn

(4 ppm)

;

_

;

;

_

;

_

 

(8 ppm)

;

_

;

;

_

;

_

(12 ppm)*

;

_

;

;

_

;

_

(16 ppm)

;

_

;

;

_

;

_

 

( Vigneswaran et al., 2018 )

DWSA5

;

"

_

_

;

_

;

_

;

 

DWSA10*

;

"

_

_

;

_

;

_

;

DWSA15

;

"

_

_

;

_

;

_

;

DWSA20

;

"

_

_

;

_

;

_

;

 

( Shahir et al., 2018 )

D50TO50

"

;

_

_

""

"

_

_

 

D60TO40

"

;

_

_

""

"

_

_

D70TO30*

;

"

_

_

;

"

"

_

_

D80TO20

"

;

_

_

"

"

;

_

_

D90TO10

;

"

_

_

"

"

;

_

_

Engine modification

( Agarwal et al., 2013 )

FIP 500 bars FIP 1000 bars Advanced SOI Retarded SOI Turbulence inducer piston (TIP) Combination of EGR, SCR, DPF EEVO and EGR

;

"

;

;

;;

;

_

_

 

"

;

"

"

""

"

;

_

;

"

_

"

;

;

_

"

;

_

_

_

 

( Joshuaramesh et al., 2015 ) ( Konstandopoulos et al., 2015 ) ( Gosala et al., 2018 )

;

"

_

"

;

"

;

_

;

Exhaust after- treatment

_

_

_

_

;;

;

_

;

"

_

_

;

_

;

_

"

_

FIP – Fuel injection pressure SOI - Start of injection timing EEVO - Early exhaust valve opening * Indicates optimum concentration of fuel additives

Please cite this article as: A. Azam, A. Naeem Shah, S. Ali et al., Design, fabrication and implementation of HE-OBCU-EGR emission control unit on CI en gine and analysis of its effects on regulated gaseous engine emissions, Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.

A. Azam et al. / Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx (xxxx)

A. Azam et al. / Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx (xxxx) xxx

3

palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), water emulsions and carbon nan- otubes (A. F. Chen et al., 2018; Jeyakumar et al., 2018; Khond and Kriplani, 2016; Najafi, 2018; Ogunkoya et al., 2015; Ooi et al., 2016; Patnaik et al., 2017; Venu and Madhavan, 2016; Wamankar and Murugan, 2015; Yashnik et al., 2016; Yuvarajan et al., 2018 ) These nano sized metallic oxides, due to enhanced effective surface area, act as combustion catalysts and provide additional oxygen during fuel burning, leading to more complete combustion. Nano fuel additives are mixed with diesel in very min- ute quantities having negligible effects on physio-chemical proper- ties of the fuel ( Khalife et al., 2017 ). Hence, their usage in conventional diesel engines is justified. Engine modification includes suitable variations in fuel injec- tion timing, injection pressure, geometry of engine combustion chamber and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), whereas, the after- treatment technologies recently available are diesel particulate fil- ter (DPF), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), selective catalytic reduc- tion (SCR) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ( Konstandopoulos et al., 2015; Milovanovic et al., 2016; Shukla et al., 2018 ). ( Milovanovic et al., 2016 ) devised a novel emission after- treatment system consisting of a combination of passive NO x adsorber, SCR and DPF that could store NO x at low temperature and automatically discharges it at high temperature. ( Konstandopoulos et al., 2015 ) used a number of combinations of SCR, EGR and DPF for a 560-kW railway engine to reduce NO x emissions. In this study, a combination of counter flow, shell and tube type heat exchanger (HE), oil bath cleaning unit (OBCU) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was employed on a Massey Ferguson (MF-260) tractor engine. The subsequent assemblage was abbreviated as HE- OBCU-EGR. The design, fabrication and installation of the unit on the tractor is briefly discussed in section 2. To investigate the impact of HE-OBCU-EGR unit, an experimental study was also per- formed on a four-stroke, three-cylinder, water-cooled diesel engine which was coupled to an eddy-current dynamometer. The tests were conducted on engine speed of 1400 to 2000 rpm with an interval of 100 rpm at full load. The regulated gaseous emissions including soot concentration (SC), pollution level (PL), filter smoke number (FSN), HC, NO x and CO were analysed through AVL DiTEST and AVL smoke meter.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. HE-OBCU-EGR unit

HE-OBCU-EGR unit is a combination of counter flow, shell and tube type, smoke-to-water heat exchanger (HE), oil bath cleaning unit (OBCU) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The schematic diagram of HE-OBCU-EGR is shown in Fig. 2 . Exhaust gas from the engine exhaust manifold is passed through the HE (or EGR cooler) where, it is cooled prior to its recirculation in the combus- tion chamber. The exhaust gases flow inside the tubes and the water acts as a cold medium flowing outside the tubes as depicted in Fig. 2 (a) and (b). Cooled exhaust gas reduces the NO x emissions and thermal stresses by controlling the combustion temperature, and thus increases the engine life ( Evulet et al., 2009 ). The gas from the outlet of HE is bubbled through the lubricant oil inside OBCU in such a way that effective area of contact between gases and oil is enhanced as shown in Fig. 2 (c) and (d). A filter element is put over the oil bath sump to break the large exhaust gas bubbles into smal- ler one and also to reduce the oil splashes due to high speed flow of gases through it. The PM and HC (heavy particles) in smoke are set- tled in the oil during direct contact of smoke with the lube oil and tiny particles are collected with the help of filter element. Finally, a

fraction of cleaner gas is circulated for EGR whose amount is con- trolled by an EGR valve.

2.2. Design of HE or EGR cooler

A layout describing the different components of EGR cooler is shown in Fig. 1 . The diffuser is used to reduce the flow velocity and to enhance the heat characteristics at the inlet of the heat exchanger. Baffles are the walls that provide a specified path for circulation of the cooling water inside the shell. The criteria and thermodynamic parameters required for the selection and design of the EGR cooler were evaluated according to the heat balance and exhaust flow rate of MF-260 diesel engine as per guidelines provided by MTL and are shown in Table 2 . The geometrical parameters were estimated from a number of iterations using a mathematical model ( Sinnott and Towler, 2009 ) as presented below; The baffle spacing B was obtained using eq. (1) ;

B ¼

þ 1 ¼ 0: 406 2 þ 1

L

t

N

b

¼ 0: 1354m

ð 1Þ

where, L t is the length of the tube that is selected according to the availability of space; N b is the number of baffles that depends on number of tube passes. The inner diameter of shell D i was calcu- lated using eq. (2);

D i ¼ d o

N

t

k

1

1

n ¼ 8

170

0: 319

1

2: 142 ¼ 151: 065mm

ð 2Þ

where, d o is the outer diameter of the tube; N t is the number of tubes; k 1 and n are empirical constants depending on the number of tube passes and are selected to be 0.319 and 2.142 respectively

for single tube pass ( Sinnott and Towler, 2009). The rate of heat

_

transfer Q between engine exhaust and cooling water circulating

through the HE is determined by heat balance through eq. (3)

_

Q ¼

_

m

h C p h

T h 1 T h 2 ¼

_

m c C p c

T c 2 T c 1 ¼ 27:447kJ =s

ð 3Þ

where, m h ; C p h and m c , C p c are mass flow rates and heat capacities of exhaust gas and cooling water respectively; T h 1 , T c 1 and T h 2 , T c 2 are the inlet and outlet temperatures of exhaust gas and cooling water respectively as shown in Table 1 . The log mean temperature differ- ence (LMTD) D T m for HE was calculated using eq. (4);

_

_

DT m ¼

T h 1 T c 2 T

h

2

T

c

1

ln T

h

1

T

c

2

=

T h 2 T c 1

¼ 431: 79K

ð 4Þ

The total heat transfer rate for the HE is evaluated using eq. (5);

_

Q ¼ UADT m

ð 5Þ

where, U is the overall heat transfer coefficient, A is the total effec- tive area of contact between exhaust gases and cooling water which is calculated using eq. (6);

A ¼ pd o L t N t ¼ 3: 14 0: 008 0: 4060 170

¼ 1:733m 2

ð 6Þ

The overall heat transfer coefficient U of the heat exchanger is determined using eq. (5);

U ¼

_

Q

27447

158 :79 ¼ 36: 9W=m 2 : K

ADT m

1:733

¼

As per design criteria, for tubular heat exchanger when gaseous fluid is flowing at atmospheric pressure, the value of U should be lying in the range of 15 to 70 W = m 2 : K ( Brunner, 2014; Raju, 2011). The calculated value of U satisfies the criteria and suits well to the problem under consideration.

Please cite this article as: A. Azam, A. Naeem Shah, S. Ali et al., Design, fabrication and implementation of HE-OBCU-EGR emission control unit on CI en gine and analysis of its effects on regulated gaseous engine emissions, Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.

4 A. Azam et al. / Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx

4

A. Azam et al. / Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx (xxxx) xxx

King Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx (xxxx) xxx Fig. 1. Schematic of EGR cooler. Fig.

Fig. 1. Schematic of EGR cooler.

Sciences xxx (xxxx) xxx Fig. 1. Schematic of EGR cooler. Fig. 2. Schematic of HE-OBCU-EGR unit.

Fig. 2. Schematic of HE-OBCU-EGR unit.

Table 2 Design specifications of shell & tube type heat exchanger.

Sr. No.

Description

Specifications

1

Smoke inlet temp. (T h1 )

470 C 3 0 C 7 0 C 6 0 C

2

Water inlet temp. (T c1 )

3

Smoke outlet temp. (T h2 )

4

Water outlet temp. (T c2 )

5

Mass flow rate of exhaust gas ( m h )

_

 

0.068 kg/min

6

Mass flow rate of cooling water ( m c )

_

0.02 kg/min Shell and tube type

7

Type of heat exchanger

8

Number of baffles (N b )

2

9

Outer diameter of tube (d o )

8mm

10

Inner diameter of tube (d i )

7.5 mm

11

Number of tubes (N t )

170

12

Length of tube (L t )

0.406 m

2.3. Fabrication and implementation

The fabrication of HE is shown in Fig. 3 . Total 170 copper tubes were inserted in the holes cut inside the baffles. The shell, provided with the inlet and outlet passages for cooling water, was manufac- tured separately and the assembly of tubes and baffles was placed

separately and the assembly of tubes and baffles was placed Fig. 3. (a) Fabrication and (b)

Fig. 3. (a) Fabrication and (b) Assembly of HE-OBCU-EGR unit.

inside it. At the exit of heat exchanger, the OBCU is provided from which the cleaned gases are circulated towards EGR. The installation of HE-OBCU-EGR unit on a Massey Ferguson (MF-260) tractor engine is shown in Fig. 4 .

The water used to cool down the exhaust gases flowing through

heat exchanger was supplied by the radiator of the engine, so the technique is suitable for moveable as well as stationary engines. However, in stationary engines, an external water source can be used to cool down the EGR gases.

2.4. Experimental set-up

The schematic diagram of the diesel engine test bench is shown in Fig. 5 . A four-stroke, three- cylinder, water-cooled diesel engine was coupled to an eddy-current dynamometer. Tests were con- ducted on engine speed range of 1400 to 2000 rpm with an interval of 100 rpm at full load. The emissions of SC and FSN were mea- sured using AVL smoke meter while, HC, CO and NO x emissions were measured with the help of AVL DiTEST emission analyzer.

Please cite this article as: A. Azam, A. Naeem Shah, S. Ali et al., Design, fabrication and implementation of HE-OBCU-EGR emission control unit on CI en gine and analysis of its effects on regulated gaseous engine emissions, Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.

A. Azam et al. / Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx (xxxx)

A. Azam et al. / Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx (xxxx) xxx

5

Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx (xxxx) xxx 5 Fig. 4. Implementation of HE-OBCU-EGR unit on

Fig. 4. Implementation of HE-OBCU-EGR unit on a 4-stroke diesel engine.

Table 3 Specifications of the equipment used in experimentation.

Test engine

stroke, three cylinders, bore 91.5 mm and stroke 127 mm, capacity of 2.5 L, compression ratio 16.5:1, direct injection (DI), maximum power of 60 hp at 2250 rpm, maximum torque of 212 Nm at engine speed of 1600 rpm Dynamometer Water cooled eddy-current electro brake with a loading capacity of 500 Nm

Massey Ferguson (MF-260) diesel engine, water cooled, 4-

Emission

AVL DITEST for CO, HC and NO x , AVL smoke meter for SC and

analyser

FSN with detection limit of 0.002 (FSN) / 0.02 mg/m 3 (SC)

Accessories

Shell and tube type heat exchanger with OBCU and EGR AVL fuel flow meter

Table 4 Properties of commercial diesel fuel.

Fuel parameters

Diesel fuel

Analytical method

Cetane index Density, g/ml (25 C) Flash point ( o C) Pour point ( o C) Viscosity, cSt (at 40 C)

51

ASTM D613

849.2

ASTM D1298

76

ASTM D93

18

ASTM D97

3.775

ASTM D445

76 ASTM D93 18 ASTM D97 3.775 ASTM D445 Fig. 5. Schematic diagram of the diesel

Fig. 5. Schematic diagram of the diesel engine test bench.

The testing standard BS-AU-141 related to the smoke emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles was used for emission testing ( Lowe, 2002 ). The dynamometer and emission analyzers were con- trolled by a computer and the data was recorded using National Instruments Data Acquisition (DAQ) and lab view software. The specifications of the apparatus used for the study are presented in Table. 3 . The physiochemical properties of the diesel fuel are tabulated in Table 4 .

Table 5 Measurement range, accuracies and uncertainty in the measurements.

Parameters

Measurement range

Accuracy

Uncertainties (%)

Speed

250–8000 rpm

5 rpm 0.2 Nm 0.1 W – 5 g/kWh 1 C 1 ppm 0.01 vol% 1 ppm

0.01

Torque

0–500 Nm

0.01

Power

0–150

Kw

0.1

BTE

0.1

BSFC

– 0–600 g/kWh 0–1000 C 0–4000 ppm 0–10 vol% 0–20000 ppm

0.01

Temperatures

0.1

NO x

0.01

CO

0.001

HC

0.01

FSN

0–10

0.002

0.001

SC

250 mg/m 3

0.02 mg/m 3

0.001

parameters using the following general eq. (7) ( Holman and Gajda, 2001 );

a

E

E ¼

"

X

n

i¼1

1 @ E E @ e

i

a

e

i

2

#1 2

ð

7Þ

In the eq. (7) , E is the dependent variable that is a function of a number of independent parameters e i , whereas, a E and a e i indicate the uncertainties in E and e i respectively. Table 5 shows the percent- age uncertainties in different parameters e i including speed, torque, power and bsfc etc. The total percentage uncertainty of the experi- mental study a Exp came out to be 0.2% which is in satisfactory range.

a Exp ¼

" ð

speed

a

Þ

2

þ torque

þ CO

a Þ

2

ð

ð

ð

a Þ

2

þ power

ð

ð

a Þ

2

þ NO

x

a Þ

2

þ HC

þ BTE

a Þ

ð

2

a Þ

þ SC

ð

2

þ bsfc

ð

a

Þ

2

a Þ

2

ð

þ FSN

a Þ

ð

þ temp:

2

a Þ

#1 2
2

a Exp ¼

h

2

ð 0: 01Þ þ ð0: 01Þ

a Exp ¼ 0: 2%

2

þ ð 0: 1Þ

2

þ ð 0: 1Þ

2

þ ð 0: 01Þ

2

þ ð 0: 1Þ

2

2

þ ð 0: 001Þ þ ð0 :01Þ

2

2

þ ð 0: 01Þ þ ð0 :001Þ

2

þ ð 0: 001Þ

2

i1 2

2.5. Uncertainty analysis

3. Results and discussions

An uncertainty analysis was conducted to identify the extent to which the experimental study was accurately performed. The uncertainty of the experiment was evaluated from measured

The tests were conducted with and without HE-OBCU-EGR unit. The results of HC, SC, PL, FSN, NO x and CO emissions are discussed below.

6 A. Azam et al. / Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx

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A. Azam et al. / Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx (xxxx) xxx

3.1. Hydrocarbon emissions (HC)

HC are one of toxic emissions from diesel engine exhaust result- ing from incomplete combustion or abnormal mixing of air and fuel particles. The variation of HC with speed is shown in Fig. 6 . It can be observed that HC increases with an increase in engine speed. Due to high moving inertia at higher engine speeds, the fuel particles are not properly vaporized and mixed with air molecules. Moreover, the fuel particles trapped in the cold crevices of the combustion zone are not completely burned leading to the formation of HC emissions. From the Fig. 6 , it can be concluded that HC emissions are reduced with HE-OBCU-EGR unit. Exhaust gases from the engine are passed through high-density lubricant oil due to which heavy unburnt particles of fuel and engine lube oil are entrapped in OBCU. The average HC emissions were decreased from 32.5 ppm without HE-OBCU-EGR to 19.5 ppm with HE-OBCU-EGR unit. A percentage decrease of 37.8–42.9% was observed in HC emissions when HE- OBCU-EGR unit was implemented on the diesel engine.

3.2. Nitrogen oxides ð NO x Þ

NO x emissions are produced due to the oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen N 2 in the presence of excessive O 2 at elevated temperature. The method to reduce the concentration of NO x emissions is to con- trol the combustion temperature using EGR since low combustion temperatures and controlled supply of O 2 reduceNO x formation. In this technique exhaust gases are cooled down by EGR cooler and are mixed with fresh intake air going to the combustion cham- ber. In this way a considerable fraction of fresh air is replaced with burned gases leading to a reduced concentration of oxygen avail- able for combustion. The peak temperature inside the combustion chamber is decreased owing to limited supply of fresh air due to implementation of EGR, hence NO x emissions are minimized. The similar arrangement is made in the design of HE-OBCU-EGR unit. It can be observed from Fig. 7 that average NO x emissions were decreased from 3337 ppm without HE-OBCU-EGR to 2512 ppm with HE-OBCU-EGR unit. A percentage decrease of 24.6–24.8% was observed in the concentration of NO x emissions with emission control unit. The controlled supply of fresh air helps to reduce the combustion temperature leading to reduced NO x emissions.

3.3. Soot concentration (SC)

Soot is a term used for black smoke composed of soluble organic compounds. Smoke is nothing but solid soot particles suspended in

Smoke is nothing but solid soot particles suspended in Fig. 6. Variation of HC with speed

Fig. 6. Variation of HC with speed with and without HE-OBCU-EGR unit.

of HC with speed with and without HE-OBCU-EGR unit. Fig. 7. Variation of NO x with

Fig. 7. Variation of NO x with speed with and without HE-OBCU-EGR unit.

the exhaust gas ( Nagarajan et al., 2002 ). Internal combustion engi- nes produce soot as a result of incomplete fuel combustion. Ideally, complete combustion would only produce carbon dioxide and water, but no engine is completely efficient ( Kanakraj et al., 2017). The variation of SC with engine speed is shown in Fig. 8 . The average SC was decreased from 122.1 mg/m 3 without HE- OBCU-EGR to 75.8 mg/m 3 with HE-OBCU-EGR unit. This is due to the collection of unburnt carbon or soot particles in OBCU. A per- centage decrease of 26.8–44.9% was observed in SC level, when emission control unit was employed to the engine exhaust mani- fold. Lube oil in OBCU collects the heavy particles of solid soot while tiny particles are entrapped in the filter element.

3.4. Filter smoke number (FSN)

FSN is an index which specifies the number of black particles in the smoke of diesel engine. Value of FSN is 10 for the pure black smoke and 0 for colourless smoke. The variation of FSN with engine speed is shown in Fig. 9 . The average FSN was decreased from 3.3 without HE-OBCU-EGR to 2.7 with HE-OBCU-EGR unit. The maxi- mum percentage decrease of 26.3% was observed in FSN, when emission control unit was utilized. The reduction in FSN is due to the accumulation of black smoke particles in OBCU.

is due to the accumulation of black smoke particles in OBCU. Fig. 8. Variation of soot

Fig. 8. Variation of soot concentration with speed with and without HE-OBCU-EGR unit.

Please cite this article as: A. Azam, A. Naeem Shah, S. Ali et al., Design, fabrication and implementation of HE-OBCU-EGR emission control unit on CI en gine and analysis of its effects on regulated gaseous engine emissions, Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.

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Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx (xxxx) xxx 7 Fig. 9. Variation of filter smoke number

Fig. 9. Variation of filter smoke number with speed with and without HE-OBCU- EGR unit.

smoke number with speed with and without HE-OBCU- EGR unit. Fig. 10. Filter paper showing number

Fig. 10. Filter paper showing number of black smoke particles (FSN) (a) without HE-OBCU-EGR unit (b) with HE-OBCU-EGR unit.

The filter papers indicating significant decrease in the number of particles with HE-OBCU-EGR unit are shown in Fig. 10 .

3.5. Carbon monoxide (CO)

CO are one of the most dangerous emissions of diesel engine which are formed due to an insufficient supply of O 2 for oxidation of carbon atoms. Turbocharger can be utilized to increase the volu- metric efficiency of the diesel engine resulting in increased avail- ability of oxygen to reduce CO emissions. The variation of CO with engine speed is shown in Fig. 11 . Generally, CO increases when engine speed is increased. This is due to the fact that when engine parts are moving at high inertia, time is insufficient for proper mix- ing of fuel and air molecules and relatively larger fraction of fuel particles exit from the combustion chamber after incomplete reac- tion with oxygen. Also, the air–fuel ratio decreases at high rpm of the engine due to which oxygen available for complete oxidation of carbon is insufficient which leads to higher production of CO ( Khalife et al., 2017 ). The average CO emissions are increased from 750 ppm without HE-OBCU-EGR to 858 ppm with HE-OBCU-EGR unit. Overall, the CO emissions were increased by 14.3% when emission control unit was implemented. Due to installation of EGR, the availability of oxy- gen from the fresh air is reduced resulting in a deficiency of oxygen for complete combustion. This is the major reason of increased CO emissions.

3.6. Pollution level (PL)

PL describes the net emissions of the CI engine. The variation of PL with engine speed is shown in Fig. 12 . The average PL was

with engine speed is shown in Fig. 12 . The average PL was Fig. 11. Variation

Fig. 11. Variation of CO with speed with and without HE-OBCU-EGR unit.

of CO with speed with and without HE-OBCU-EGR unit. Fig. 12. Variation of pollution level with

Fig. 12. Variation of pollution level with speed with and without HE-OBCU-EGR unit.

decreased from 29.7% without HE-OBCU-EGR to 22.6% with HE- OBCU-EGR unit. The results show that the PL is higher at low speeds and decreases, when speed is increased. A percentage decrease of 16.8–29.2% was observed in PL with the application of HE-OBCU-EGR unit.

4. Conclusions

A novel hybrid emission control unit having a combination of a counter flow shell and tube type heat exchanger (HE), oil bath cleaning unit (OBCU) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was designed and fabricated followed by its installation on the exhaust manifold of MF-260 tractor diesel engine. The unit, being a combi- nation of three techniques, was entitled as HE-OBCU-EGR unit. An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of this emission control unit on the exhaust emissions of a four-stroke three-cylinder water cooled CI engine coupled to an eddy-current dynamometer. The testing standard BS-AU-141 was used for smoke emissions from heavy-duty diesel engine. The tests were performed on a speed range of 1400 to 2000 rpm with an interval

Please cite this article as: A. Azam, A. Naeem Shah, S. Ali et al., Design, fabrication and implementation of HE-OBCU-EGR emission control unit on CI en gine and analysis of its effects on regulated gaseous engine emissions, Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.

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A. Azam et al. / Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx (xxxx) xxx

King Saud University – Engineering Sciences xxx (xxxx) xxx Fig. 13. Effects of HE-OBCU-EGR on engine

Fig. 13. Effects of HE-OBCU-EGR on engine emissions.

of 100 rpm under full load to examine the effects of HE-OBCU-EGR unit on HC,NO x , CO, SC, FSN and PL emissions. The emission anal- yses were performed on AVL DiTEST and AVL smoke meter. Fig. 13 briefly describes the effects of HE-OBCU-EGR unit on engine emissions. The results showed that with the implementation of HE-OBCU- EGR unit on the engine, HC emissions were reduced by 42.9%, the reduction observed in SC was 44.9%, the FSN was decreased by 26.3%, NO x emissions were diminished up to 24.8%, PL was reduced up to 29.2%, and CO emissions were increased by 14.3%. Finally, it is concluded that HE-OBCU-EGR unit may help to minimize the emissions of HC, SC, PL, FSN and NO x but is not suitable to control CO emissions. However, by implementing this technology on supercharged or turbocharged engines and optimizing the amount of EGR, the availability of O 2 can be enhanced to control the emis- sions of CO.

Acknowledgment

The authors would gratefully acknowledge financial support from Swedish College of Engineering and Technology, Rahim Yar Khan. We would thank Engr. Humera Zulfiqar (Millat Tractors Limited), Muhammad Shakeel Riaz (Riaz Engineering Lahore), Shahbaz Ahmed (Breeze Frost Industry Lahore), Habib Ur Rehman Zahid (Rahman Engineering Consultants, Rahim Yar Khan) and Mr. Muhammad Anwar for helping in design and fabrication of the project. We are also thankful to Millat Tractors Limited for providing us testing facilities for experimentation.

Funding

This work was supported by the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Swedish College of Engineering and Technology, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan.

Conflict of interest

It is to specifically state that ‘‘No Competing interests are at stake and there is No Conflict of Interest” with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence or bias the con- tent of the paper.

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