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 Born in decided who will go to Heaven

Eisleben, and who won't.

Germany, in  That all sounds pretty harsh, but
1483, Martin Calvin didn't just want people to be
Luther went on sad all the time. He thought that
to become one real religious belief would help
of Western people with their worries and
history’s most significant figures. fears.
 Luther spent his early years in
relative anonymity as a monk and TULIP
 Total Depravity/Inability
 But in 1517 Luther penned a
document attacking the Catholic o This is saying that man is
Church’s corrupt practice of selling hopelessly sinful. Man is
“indulgences” to absolve sin. incapable of being "good."
 His “95 Theses,” which propounded Any "good" deed is truly
two central beliefs—that the Bible motivated by something evil.
is the central religious authority The rest of the four points rely
and that humans may reach on this point.
salvation only by their faith and
not by their deeds—was to spark  Unconditional Election
the Protestant Reformation. o This is what I find outrageous.
 Although these ideas had been Since man is totally evil,
advanced before, Martin Luther man's salvation is completely
codified them at a moment in history dependant upon God. This
ripe for religious reformation. part is somewhat biblical; God
 The Catholic Church was ever after chooses who he chooses. No
divided, and the Protestantism that matter how hard man tries, his
soon emerged was shaped by actions alone cannot get him
Luther’s ideas. His writings changed into heaven; God is the only
the course of religious and cultural one who has control.
history in the West. However, I believe that God
will save those whose hearts
are totally dedicated to Him,
 Calvin thus granting some influence
believed that to man. Afterall, God is just.
the Bible was However, calvinists see it
the only real otherwise. Calvinists believe
source of truth that man has no free spiritual
about religion. will.
He thought  Limited Atonement
that people might not always
understand God's teachings but o Since God predestined the
we still had to follow them. Calvin elect, Jesus paid only for
also believed in predestination, those few elect.
the idea that God has already
 Irresistible Grace
o The elect have no choice  A group calling themselves the
about being elect. The elect Anabaptists (Re-baptizers) opposed
cannot resist God's grace. the policy of infant baptism and
refused to join Zwingli’s group.
 Perseverence of the Saints
They were ruthlessly silenced and left
o Calvinists believe that once Zurich in 1526.
you're saved, you're always  Gradually Zwingli tried to spread
saved since God had reformation ideas across all the
predestined the elect and the Swiss cantons, but this met with
elect have no choice about mixed success. Eventually civil war
being elect. broke out and in 1531, Zwingli was
killed in battle while defending Zurich.
 Gradually
Zwingli began to
The Catholic Response to the
oppose the
teachings of the
Protestant Reformation
Roman Catholic
Martin Luther's 95 Theses set the Catholic
Church, having
world on fire in 1517, and nearly 25 years
come into contact
after the Catholic Church condemned
with the writings
Luther's theological errors at the Diet of
of Martin Luther.
Worms (1521), Pope Paul III attempted to put
 He began to
out the flames by convening the Council of
attack the doctrines of purgatory,
Trent (1545-63). The Council of Trent
prayers to saints and significantly the
defended important Church doctrines that
doctrine of the real presence of Christ
Luther and later Protestants attacked, such
in the Eucharist.
as transubstantiation (the belief that, during
 The Zwinglian view of the presence of
the Mass, the bread and wine become the
Christ is commonly called
true Body and Blood of Jesus Christ, which
‘Memorialism’ – the idea that the
Catholics then receive in Communion); that
bread and the wine are merely
both faith and the works that flow from that
symbols of Christ’s body and blood.
faith are necessary for salvation; that there
This contrasts with Luther’s view that
are seven sacraments (some Protestants
the body and blood of Christ are truly
had insisted that only Baptism and
present in the bread and the wine and
Communion were sacraments, and others
the view of John Calvin, that Christ is
had denied that there were any sacraments);
spiritually present.
and that the pope is the successor of Saint
 Pope Adrian VI took notice of the
Peter, and exercises authority over all
situation and requested that the
council in Zurich discipline Zwingli
and declare him a heretic. In 1523, a
public hearing was held there. Zwingli But the Council of Trent addressed
defended himself and his defense structural problems within the Catholic
proved persuasive – the council Church as well, many of which had been
backed him and thus endorsed the cited by Luther and other Protestant
reformation. reformers. A series of popes, particularly
from the Florentine Medici family, had
caused grave scandal through their Europe. He founded seminaries and
personal lives (like Cardinal Farnese, schools throughout Northern Italy, and
they often had mistresses and fathered traveled throughout the area under his
children), and their bad example was authority, visiting parishes, preaching,
followed by a significant number of and calling his priests to a life of holiness.
bishops and priests. The Council of Trent
demanded an end to such behavior, and St. Francis de Sales (1567-1622), the
put into place new forms of intellectual bishop of Geneva, in the very heart of
and spiritual training to ensure that future Calvinism, won many Calvinists back to
generations of priests would not fall into the Catholic Faith through his example of
these same sins. Those reforms became "preaching the Truth in charity." Just as
the modern seminary system, in which importantly, he worked hard to keep
prospective Catholic priests are trained Catholics in the Church, not only by
even today. teaching them sound doctrine but by
calling them to the "devout life," making
Through the council's reforms, the prayer, meditation, and the reading of
practice of appointing secular rulers as Scripture a daily practice.
bishops came to an end, as did the sale
of indulgences, which Martin Luther had St. Teresa of Avila (1515-82) and St.
used as a reason to attack the Church's John of the Cross (1542-91), both
teaching on the existence of, and need Spanish mystics and Doctors of the
for, Purgatory. The Council of Trent Church, reformed the Carmelite order
ordered the writing and publishing of a and called Catholics to a greater life of
new catechism to make it clear what the interior prayer and commitment to the will
Catholic Church taught, and called for of God.
reforms in the Mass, which were made by
Pius V, who became pope in 1566 (three
years after the council ended). The Mass
of Pope Pius V (1570), often regarded as
the crown jewel of the Counter-
Reformation, is today known as the
Traditional Latin Mass or (since the
release of Pope Benedict XVI's
Summorum Pontificum) the
Extraordinary Form of the Mass.

Other Chief Figures of the


While there are many important figures

who left their mark on the Counter-
Reformation, four in particular bear
mentioning. St. Charles Borromeo
(1538-84), the cardinal-archbishop of
Milan, found himself on the front lines as
Protestantism descended from Northern