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Abstract— Motor vehicles are the modified by Nickel (Ni) metal as

primary transportation that is currently in catalytic converter, which can convert


use began to be out of control. Increased CO gas into CO2 gas in the form of pore
motor vehicles user provides a variety of ceramic so it can be cleaned after occur
negative impacts, one of which is the CO gas absorption for several time.
emissions gas from motor vehicles that ECOLY Exhaust also uses a sensor-
are harmful to the environment. Motor based automatic alarm which can
vehicles exhaust emissions contribute provide a sound signal if the pore
60% of air pollution, while industrial ceramic has absorbed the exhaust gases
sector 25%, households 10% and waste in large quantities so that the rider can
5%. The content of harmful compounds clean the pore ceramics by installing a
in vehicle exhaust emissions such as toluene spray tube in the exhaust hole
sulfur oxide (SOx), nitrogen oxide that has been provided for the
(NOx), carbon oxides (COx), regeneration process. The expected
hydrocarbons (HC), heavy metals (Pb) result of this research is the production of
and particulates have harmful effects on ECOLY Exhaust can reduce the exhaust
human health, breathing, internal organ emissions of motor vehicles with
disorders such as the lungs and liver, relatively cheap production cost.
neurological disorders, reproductive Keywords : Exhaust, Gas Emission,
disorders, decrease intelligence in Catalytic Converter, Smart Technology
children and even causes death. Carbon 1. INTRODUCTION
monoxide is one of the most widely 1.1 Background
produced emissions and has a direct The increasing public demand for motor
impact on human health. Developed vehicles makes motor vehicles as the
countries have made various alternatives primary means of public transportation
to reduce the number of motor vehicle for Indonesians whose usage begins
exhaust emissions, one of which is by uncontrollably. The latest data from
catalytic converter method using pure 2012-2015 from the central statistical
metals such as Platinum (Pt), Palladium agency shows the development of the
(Pd) and Rhodium (Rh) as catalyst. This number of motor vehicles by type (Table
method is quite good in reducing exhaust 1). The increasing use of motor vehicles
emissions of motor vehicles but this provides various negative impacts for
method is less efficient because the raw both the Indonesian people and the
materials used can not absorb heavy environment caused by exhaust
metals perfectly and the cost is relatively emissions generated by motor vehicles.
expensive. In this study, we will develop Motor vehicle exhaust emissions
an innovation in suppressing motor contribute 60% of air pollution, while the
vehicle exhaust using “ECOLY industrial sector 25%, 10% households
Exhaust” which is based on smart and waste 5% (Saepudin and Admono,
technology. The working principle of 2005). Motor vehicle exhaust
this tool is to adsorb emission gas by contributions that exceed 50% of air
using adsorbents made from zeolites that pollution make it a complicated problem
to solve. The results of previous studies have shown the content of derived from natural materials such as rice husk ash (Sembodo,
motor vehicle exhaust compounds including sulfur oxide (SOx), 2006), zeolites (Handayani and sulistiyono, 2009), guava stems
nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon oxides (COx), hydrocarbons (HC), (Lestari, 2010), Palm Kernel Shell (Gultom, 2014) and some other
heavy metals (Pb) and particulates has a harmful impact on human natural ingredients. Handayani and sulistiyono 2009 have done
health such as respiratory disorders, internal organ disorders such research in lowering content of chromium iv (Cr (iv)) using zeolite
as lung and liver, neurological disorders, reproductive disorders, adsorbent gives good result, this is because of zeolite surface area
decreased intelligence in children and causes of death. maximum and large pores so that absorption occurs in maximum
addition besides zeolit also adsorbents are environmentally
Table 1.Data on the development of motor vehicles from 2012-2015 friendly and inexpensive.
Type of Motor Year
Vehicles 2012 2013 2014 2015 1.2 Problem Formulation and Project Scope
Passenger car 10.432.259 11.484.514 12.599.038 13.480.973 Based on the previous analysis, the purpose of this research
Bus 2.273.821 2.286.309 2.398.846 2.420.917 is to develop an innovation process in suppressing motor vehicle
Freight cars 5.286.061 5.615.494 6.235.136 6.611.028 exhaust by using adsorbent derived from Ni modified zeolite which
Motorcycle 76.381.183 84.732.652 92.976.240 98.881.267 is packaged in the form of "ECOLY Exhaust" pore ceramic based
Total 94.373.324 104.118.969 114.209.260 121.394.185 on smart technology. The working principle of this tool is the
adsorption of emissions of motor vehicle emissions by using
Several studies have been conducted to reduce motor adsorbents derived from Nickel modified metal zeolite (Ni) as
vehicle exhaust emissions one of them by making Catalityc catalytic converter which can convert CO gas to CO2 gas in the
Converter. The working principle of this method is to reduce the form of pore ceramic so it can be cleaned after absorption of
metal from exhaust emissions by using a metal catalyst such as exhaust gas. ECOLY Exhaust also uses a sensor-based automatic
platinum (Pt). This method is quite effective in reducing exhaust alarm which can provide a sound signal if the pore ceramic has
emissions but because the raw materials used have a relatively high absorbed the exhaust gases in large quantities so that the rider can
cost and not all metals can be reduced with this catalyst like lead. clean the pore ceramics by installing a toluene spray tube in the
The lead metal can only be derived using the principle of exhaust hole that has been provided for the regeneration
adsorption. The metal adsorption process can use adsorbents process.The expected result of this research is the production of
"ECOLY Exhaust" based on smart 2.1.2 Sulfur Oxide and Particulate
technology that can reduce motor vehicle The inhaled SO2 will hydrate to
exhaust emissions and can convert CO produce sulfuric acid in the respiratory
gas into CO2 gas with relatively cheap tract, which then dissociates into its
production cost. derivatives, bisulfites and sulfites.
Project Scope Bisulfite and sulfite can be absorbed into
Product Reducing Emissions Disposal of the blood or other body fluids, which will
Motor Vehicles with Porous cause tissue damage through free radical
Ceramics as a catalytic converter mechanisms. Increased SO2
Timing Available MEI 2018 concentration, causing rainwater pH to
be lower than the baseline scenario,
Market Motorcycle Accessories Shop
reaching 5.12 in 2060, when SO2
Constraints The location of raw materials is concentration in Indonesia reaches the
difficult to reach highest value. Besides impacting
Stackholders Motor Vehicle Manufacturer, End rainwater pH reduction, SO2 emission
Users increase also affects global temperature
reduction (Dewi and Susandi, 2000).
2. LITERATURE RIVIEW
2.1.3 Lead (Pb)
2.1 Danger of Exhaust Emission
Pb metal contained in gasoline
Exhaust emissions are pollutant
will emit 0.09 grams of lead per 1 km.
gases produced by motor vehicles, as
The lead gas is mainly derived from the
well as some emissions of exhaust gases
combustion of gasoline additive
produced by motor vehicles as follows:
materials from motor vehicles consisting
carbon monoxide (CO), various
of tetraethyl Pb and tetramethyl Pb. The
hydrocarbon compounds, Sulfur (SOx),
Pb particles in the air come from other
and dust particles including lead (Pb).
sources such as the alkyl Pb and Pb-
oxide factories, charcoal burning and so
2.1.1 Carbon monoxide
on. The largest Pb pollution comes from
WHO states that patients with
the combustion of gasoline, which is
heart or lung disease should not be
produced by various Pb components,
exposed to CO gas with a level that can
especially PbBrCl and PbBrCl.2PbO
form COHb levels above 2.5% because
(Fardiaz, 1992). Pb emissions into the air
the patients is a group that is sensitive to
can be a gas or particle as a less than
CO exposure. Exposure of CO of 35
perfect result in a motor vehicle. If the
mg/m3 for 1 hour and 20 mg/m3 for 8
combustion process in a motor vehicle is
hours was equivalent in COHb formation
less than perfect, so that more the amount
above 2.5%. So that WHO sets CO
of Pb to be emitted into the air.
exposure standards should not exceed 25
Compounds contained in motor vehicles
ppm (29 mg / m3) for 1 hour and 10 ppm
are PbBrCl, PbBrCl.2PbO, PbCl2, Pb
(11.5 mg / m3) for 8 hours (Aprilia,
(OH) Cl, PbBr2, and PbCO3.2PbO,
Devita Nur et al., 2017).
among these compounds PbCO3.PbO is
a compound that is harmful to health. 0,15 N and NaOH 0,5 N solutions with a
Effect of Pb on health, especially on the ratio of 1 g zeolite: 10 ml of H2SO4
synthesis of hemoglobin and the system solution and 1 g zeolite: 10 ml NaOH
of the central nervous and peripheral solution for 3 hours while stirring. After
nerves. Influence on blood Hb forming that, do filtering and washing with
system that can cause anemia. Humans aquades which then in the heat at a
absorb lead through the air, dust, water temperature of 150 0C for 3 hours to
and food. Tetraethyl lead (TEL), which reduce the water content in the zeolite
is a lead metal material (lead) is added to that can cover the pore surface. The
low-quality fuel to decrease octane results obtained in this study is the
values. Organic Pb is absorbed primarily decrease of Cr3+ metal.
through the gastrointestinal and
respiratory tract and this is the primary 2.2 Catalytic Converter Application
source of Pb in the body. Besides of that The catalytic reaction
manganese in MMT and karsiogenik on mechanism of the catalytic converter
MTBE (additive material on gasoline proceeds according to the Langmuir-
other than TEL that produces harmful Hinshelwood type between the adsorbed
substances for the body) (Anonymous, oxygen and CO adsorbed with the
2010). catalyst, and it is unclear whether the two
react individually or are a combination of
2.2 Zeolite Application as Metal both (Cole et al., 2010).
Adsorbent Irawan, 2012 has conducted
Handayani and Sulistiyono, 2009 research in the design of catalytic
have conducted research by absorbing converters using copper to reduce carbon
chromium metal using zeolite. The monoxide exhaust emissions resulting in
zeolite is activated by heating 150 0C so Catalytic Converter various models of
that the pore size reaches 50 mesh, it catalyst materials that are ready to be
aims to get a tight zeolite pore making it used to reduce Carbon Monoxide
difficult to enter by other ions. This is exhaust emissions from gasoline-
due to the presence of water molecules powered motors. In addition, Manunggal
that close the pores of the zeolite so that (2013) has also conducted research on
it can cover the surface of the pores. By copper catalytic converter applications
heating it is expected that water with the addition of Secondary Air
molecules can come out to create Supply System (SASS) produces good
intermolecular cavities. From the results results in reducing pollution of air
of experiments that have been done, pollution due to exhaust gas and noise
good absorption of chromed metal by pollution by motor vehicles.
zeolite is proved by the langmuir 3. PRODUCT DESIGN
method. 3.1 Product Spesification
Emelda et al., 2013 has also The product specifications of
studied the absorption of Cr3+ metals by Ecolly Exhaust can be shown in Figure 1.
using zeolite with activation of H2SO4
And product for regeneration can be 4. PRODUCT MANUFACTURING
shown in Figure 2. 4.1 Market Analysis
Marketing This product will be
started in one of the sales of motorcycle
accessories located in Yogyakarta and
seen the interest of consumers for one
month, after which will be the
development of distribution to several
manufacturers of motorcycle accessories
located in Yogyakarta with minimum
production capacity of 30 pcs / month.

Figure 1. Design of Ecoly Exhaust 4.2 Materials


The main materials used in this
product include Zeolite, NH4NO3 2 M,
Ni(NO3)2.6H2O as well as additives are
Aquades, Clay, Poly Vinyl Acid (PVA),
HCl and Toluene.

4.2.1 Natural Zeolite


Natural zeolite is a material that
has many uses. Zeolites have been
widely applied as adsorbents, ion
Figure 2. Design of tube sprayers for exchangers, and as catalysts. Zeolite is a
regeneration
crystalline alumina silica tetrahydric
3.1 Concept Creation porous crystalline having a three-
The product created is a catalytic dimensional skeletal structure. Natural
converter made from metal NiCl2 mixed zeolite is formed because of complex
with zeolite adsorbents and supported by chemical and physics process of rocks
clay then mixed with PVA as agent which undergoing various changes in
Foam. The product is hollowed as much nature (Lestari, 2010).
as 19 holes with a diameter of 2 mm
holes and the distance between holes 3 4.2.2 Catalyst from Nickel (Ni)
mm. In this product is installed sensors Nickel metal catalysts have good
that identify when the catalyst has activity and selectivity in a reaction, but
expired life (lifetime) which is then the active phase of the nickel catalyst
connected with an automatic alarm so itself does not have a large surface, so the
that the vehicle users know that the reaction becomes ineffective and
catalyst is out of service. Then we inefficient because not all of the active
provide a cleanser with toluene material centers can make contact with the
as regeneration of the catalyst in order to reactants. Therefore nickel metal needs
re-use the catalyst. to be distributed on a surface of a buffer
solid having a large surface area (Bakri 4.3.4 Compressive Strength Instrument
et al., 2008). The compressive strength
instrument is used to find out the
4.3 Instrumentation maximum compressive strength in the
Instrumentation used in the pore ceramics.
manufacture of this product is X-Ray
Diffraction (XRD), Gas Sorption 4.3.5 Burn Test Instrument
Analyzer (GSA), Scanning Electron Burn Test Instrument is used to
Microscope-Electron Diffraction X-ray determine the maximum temperature of
(SEM-EDX), and compressive strength the pore ceramics to be burned.
and burn test.
4.4 Manufacturing Process
4.3.1 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
XRD is an instrumentation used to
characterize the crystalline structure
and crystal size of the Ni-modified
Zeolite ceramic pore, the higher the
crystallinity of a material the better the
material is used as the adsorbent.

4.3.2 Gas Sorption Analyzer (GSA)


GSA is an instrument used to
determine the pore surface area, pore
volume and pore distribution of the
pore ceramics used as the adsorbent.
The larger surface area of the pore
ceramic, the better the likelihood of
the interaction between the adsorbent
and the exhaust gas, and the larger the
pore volume the more exhaust gas that
can be adsorbed and the better the pore
distribution the better the material is
used as the adsorbent.
Figure 3. Manufacturing Process
4.3.3 Scanning Electron Microscope- Block Diagram
Electron Diffraction X-ray (SEM-EDX) 4.4.1 Zeolite Dealumination
SEM-EDX is an instrument used Zeolite Dealumination is
to see the morphological differences of conducted by mixing 400 grams of
pore ceramics and compounds found in zeolite plus 50 mL of HCl 6 N and
pore ceramics after modification with Ni boiled for 3 hours. After that it is
metal. neutralized with aquades. This process
aims to obtain SiO2 in zeolites.
4.4.2 Synthesis of Zeolite Catalysts furnace at a temperature of 500 oC
modified by Ni metal with a heating rate of 50 oC/minute
The synthesis process of Ni metal and holding time of 2 hours.
modified zeolite catalyst refers to a
study that has been done by 4.4.4 Pore Ceramic Regeneration
Septiansyah, 2011. The Nickel-Zeolite Process with Toluene through Sensor
catalyst is obtained from impregnation CO
between nickel chloride (NiCl2) and The regeneration process is carried
zeolite in liquid medium. Zeolite out by using the CO MQ7 sensor to
samples weighed as much as 120 detect the remaining CO gas that has
grams were fed into a round bottom not been converted by the catalyst on
flask containing 100 mL of 0.4 M the pore ceramics. Sensor CO MQ7
NiCl2 solution then refluxed at 80-90 will send data to Arduino as data
°C for 24 hours. After the reflux processor. Data from Arduino is sent
process is complete, the sample is then to Piezo Speaker as indicator and
washed with aquades until it reaches produced a sound signal indicating
the wash pH (pH = 5). Dryed at oven that the pore ceramic has reached life
at 110 oC for 4 hours, after dry sample time and must be regenerated so that
then calcined in kiln at 500 - 600 oC the adsorption and catalytic converter
for 2 - 3 hours. Calcination time is process goes maximum. After the
calculated after reaching a constant alarm sounds, the toluene spray tube is
temperature. The calcined samples mounted on the pipe provided on the
were then analyzed by GSA (Gas exhaust body, and the waste of this
Sorption Analyzer) to determine the regeneration process will be
surface area of Ni metal modified accommodated at the pre-installed
zeolite catalyst. container at exhaust mouth, this
process is conducted manually.
4.4.3 Manufacture of Pore Ceramics
As Catalytic Converter 5. FEASIBILITY STUDY
Manufacture of pore ceramics as 5.1 Raw Materials
Catalytic Converter is conducted by 5.1.1 Availability of Natural Zeolite
mixing clay material with Ni-Zeolite Zeolite is a group of minerals
catalyst and Foaming Agent in the which in the sense / naming of minerals
form of PVA with respectively is one type of non-metallic minerals or
composition ratio of 60%, 30%, and mineral industry. Geologically, zeolite is
10%. In stirring with rotation 64 rpm first found in tuff rocks formed from
for 2 hours then ceramic body in press sedimentation, volcanic dust that has
with pressure 25 MPa and pore made undergone alteration process. Indonesia
with 19 holes with size 3 mm. While is in the area of a series of volcanoes
the size of material that is made is 70 ranging from Sumatra, Java,
mm long and 50 mm diameter. After Nusatenggara, to Sulawesi. Various
that the ceramic body heated in the types of volcanic rocks are produced,
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