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11/15/2019 Boeing 767 - Wikipedia

Boeing 767
The Boeing 767 is a mid- to large-size, mid- to long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner developed and manufactured by
Boeing 767
Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was Boeing's first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit. The
aircraft has two turbofan engines, a conventional tail, and, for reduced aerodynamic drag, a supercritical wing design. Designed as
a smaller wide-body airliner than earlier aircraft such as the 747, the 767 has a seating capacity for 181 to 375 people, and a design
range of 3,850 to 6,385 nautical miles (4,431 to 7,348 mi; 7,130 to 11,825 km), depending on variant. Development of the 767
occurred in tandem with a narrow-body twinjet, the 757, resulting in shared design features which allow pilots to obtain a
common type rating to operate both aircraft.

The 767 is produced in three fuselage lengths. The original 767-200 entered service in 1982, followed by the 767-300 in 1986 and
the 767-400ER, an extended-range (ER) variant, in 2000. The extended-range 767-200ER and 767-300ER models entered
service in 1984 and 1988, respectively, while a production freighter version, the 767-300F, debuted in 1995. Conversion programs
have modified passenger 767-200 and 767-300 series aircraft for cargo use, while military derivatives include the E-767
surveillance aircraft, the KC-767 and KC-46 aerial tankers, and VIP transports. Engines featured on the 767 include the General A Boeing 767-300 of Delta Air Lines, the largest
Electric CF6, Pratt & Whitney JT9D and PW4000, and Rolls-Royce RB211 turbofans. operator of the 767
Role Wide-body jet airliner
United Airlines first placed the 767 in commercial service in 1982. The aircraft was initially flown on domestic and
transcontinental routes, during which it demonstrated the reliability of its twinjet design. The 767 became the first twin-engined National origin United States
airliner to be used on extended overseas flights in 1985. The aircraft was then used to expand non-stop service on medium- to Manufacturer Boeing Commercial Airplanes
long-haul intercontinental routes. In 1986, Boeing initiated studies for a higher-capacity 767, ultimately leading to the First flight September 26, 1981
development of the 777, a larger wide-body twinjet. In the 1990s, the 767 became the most frequently used airliner for
Introduction September 8, 1982, with
transatlantic flights between North America and Europe.
United Airlines
The 767 is the first twinjet wide-body type to reach 1,000 aircraft delivered. As of August 2019, Boeing has received 1,254 orders Status In service
for the 767 from 74 customers with 1,161 delivered.[1] A total of 742 of these aircraft were in service in July 2018.[3] The most
Primary users Delta Air Lines
popular variant is the 767-300ER with 583 delivered. Delta Air Lines is the largest operator with 77 aircraft. Competitors have
FedEx Express
included the Airbus A300, A310, and A330-200. Non-passenger variants of the 767 remain in production as of 2019 while the
UPS Airlines
passenger variant's successor, the 787, entered service in 2011.
United Airlines
Produced 1981–present
Number built 1,168 as of 31 October 2019[1]
Contents
Unit cost (2019 US$ million) -300ER:
Development 217.9, -300F: 220.3[2]
Background
Design effort
Variants Boeing E-767
Production and testing Boeing KC-46 Pegasus
Service entry and operations
Boeing KC-767
Stretched derivatives
Dreamliner introduction Northrop Grumman E-10
Continued production MC2A
Re-engined 767-XF
Design
Overview
Flight systems
Interior
Variants
767-200
767-2C
767-200ER
767-300
767-300ER
767-300F
767-400ER
Military and government
Undeveloped variants
767-X
767-400ERX
E-10 MC2A

Operators
Orders and deliveries
Model summary
Accidents and notable incidents
Retirement and display
Specifications
See also
References
Notes
Citations
Bibliography
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External links

Development

Background
In 1970, Boeing's 747 became the first wide-body jetliner to enter service.[4] The 747 was the first passenger jet wide enough to feature a twin-aisle cabin.[5] Two years later, the
manufacturer began a development study, code-named 7X7, for a new wide-body aircraft intended to replace the 707 and other early generation narrow-body jets.[6][7] The aircraft
would also provide twin-aisle seating, but in a smaller fuselage than the existing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar wide-bodies.[6] To defray the high cost of
development, Boeing signed risk-sharing agreements with Italian corporation Aeritalia and the Civil Transport Development Corporation (CTDC), a consortium of Japanese aerospace
companies.[8] This marked the manufacturer's first major international joint venture, and both Aeritalia and the CTDC received supply contracts in return for their early participation.[8]
The initial 7X7 was conceived as a short take-off and landing airliner intended for short-distance flights, but customers were unenthusiastic about the concept, leading to its redefinition
as a mid-size, transcontinental-range airliner.[6] At this stage the proposed aircraft featured two or three engines, with possible configurations including over-wing engines and a T-
tail.[4]

By 1976, a twinjet layout, similar to the one which had debuted on the Airbus A300, became the baseline configuration.[9] The decision to use
two engines reflected increased industry confidence in the reliability and economics of new-generation jet powerplants.[9] While airline
requirements for new wide-body aircraft remained ambiguous,[9] the 7X7 was generally focused on mid-size, high-density markets.[4] As
such, it was intended to transport large numbers of passengers between major cities.[10] Advancements in civil aerospace technology,
including high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines, new flight deck systems, aerodynamic improvements, and lighter construction materials were
to be applied to the 7X7.[6][11] Many of these features were also included in a parallel development effort for a new mid-size narrow-body
airliner, code-named 7N7, which would become the 757.[11] Work on both proposals proceeded through the airline industry upturn in the late
1970s.[12][13]
The 7X7 made its Farnborough
In January 1978, Boeing announced a major extension of its Everett factory—which was then dedicated to manufacturing the 747—to Airshow debut in 1982 as the 767-
200.
accommodate its new wide-body family.[14] In February 1978, the new jetliner received the 767 model designation,[15] and three variants were
planned: a 767-100 with 190 seats, a 767-200 with 210 seats, and a trijet 767MR/LR version with 200 seats intended for intercontinental
routes.[9][16] The 767MR/LR was subsequently renamed 777 for differentiation purposes.[17][18] The 767 was officially launched on July 14, 1978, when United Airlines ordered 30 of the
767-200 variant, followed by 50 more 767-200 orders from American Airlines and Delta Air Lines later that year.[17] The 767-100 was ultimately not offered for sale, as its capacity was
too close to the 757's seating,[17] while the 777 trijet was eventually dropped in favor of standardizing around the twinjet configuration.[9]

Design effort
In the late 1970s, operating cost replaced capacity as the primary factor in airliner purchases.[7] As a result, the 767's design process emphasized fuel efficiency from the outset.[6] Boeing
targeted a 20 to 30 percent cost saving over earlier aircraft, mainly through new engine and wing technology.[7] As development progressed, engineers used computer-aided design for
over a third of the 767's design drawings,[7] and performed 26,000 hours of wind tunnel tests.[17] Design work occurred concurrently with the 757 twinjet, leading Boeing to treat both as
almost one program to reduce risk and cost.[11][13] Both aircraft would ultimately receive shared design features, including avionics, flight management systems, instruments, and
handling characteristics.[19] Combined development costs were estimated at $3.5 to $4 billion.[7]

Early 767 customers were given the choice of Pratt & Whitney JT9D or General Electric CF6 turbofans, marking the first time that Boeing had
offered more than one engine option at the launch of a new airliner.[20] Both jet engine models had a maximum output of 48,000 pounds-
force (210 kN) of thrust.[10] The engines were mounted approximately one-third the length of the wing from the fuselage, similar to previous
wide-body trijets.[7] The larger wings were designed using an aft-loaded shape which reduced aerodynamic drag and distributed lift more
evenly across their surface span than any of the manufacturer's previous aircraft.[7][21] The wings provided higher-altitude cruise
performance, added fuel capacity, and expansion room for future stretched variants.[17] The initial 767-200 was designed for sufficient range
to fly across North America or across the northern Atlantic,[22] and would be capable of operating routes up to 3,850 nautical miles
(7,130 km).[23]
Forward view of a Continental
Airlines 767-400ER, showing The 767's fuselage width was set midway between that of the 707 and the 747 at 16.5 feet (5.03 m).[6] While it was narrower than previous
fuselage profile, wing dihedral, and wide-body designs, seven abreast seating with two aisles could be fitted, and the reduced width produced less aerodynamic drag.[10][20] The
CF6 engines
fuselage was not wide enough to accommodate two standard LD3 wide-body unit load devices side-by-side,[24][25] so a smaller container, the
LD2,[26] was created specifically for the 767.[27] Using a conventional tail design also allowed the rear fuselage to be tapered over a shorter
section,[20] providing for parallel aisles along the full length of the passenger cabin, and eliminating irregular seat rows toward the rear of the aircraft.[7][20]

The 767 was the first Boeing wide-body to be designed with a two-crew digital glass cockpit.[19] Cathode ray tube (CRT) color displays and new
electronics replaced the role of the flight engineer by enabling the pilot and co-pilot to monitor aircraft systems directly.[19] Despite the
promise of reduced crew costs, United Airlines initially demanded a conventional three-person cockpit, citing concerns about the risks
associated with introducing a new aircraft.[28] The carrier maintained this position until July 1981, when a US presidential task force
determined that a crew of two was safe for operating wide-body jets.[28][29] A three-crew cockpit remained as an option and was fitted to the
first production models.[30] Ansett Australia ordered 767s with three-crew cockpits due to union demands; it was the only airline to operate
767s so configured.[30][31] The 767's two-crew cockpit was also applied to the 757, allowing pilots to operate both aircraft after a short
conversion course,[21] and adding incentive for airlines to purchase both types.[32] Although nominally similar in control design, flying the 767
The first 767-200 built, N767BA, in
feels different from the 757. The 757's controls are heavy, similar to the 727 and 747; the control yoke can be rotated to 90 degrees in each
flight near Mount Rainier in the
direction. The 767 has far lighter control feel in pitch and roll, and the control yoke has approximately 2/3 the rotation travel.[33]
1980s.

Production and testing


To produce the 767, Boeing formed a network of subcontractors which included domestic suppliers and international contributions from Italy's Aeritalia and Japan's CTDC.[8] The wings
and cabin floor were produced in-house, while Aeritalia provided control surfaces, Boeing Vertol made the leading edge for the wings, and Boeing Wichita produced the forward
fuselage.[7] The CTDC provided multiple assemblies through its constituent companies, namely Fuji Heavy Industries (wing fairings and gear doors), Kawasaki Heavy Industries (center

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fuselage), and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (rear fuselage, doors, and tail).[8] Components were integrated during final assembly at the Everett factory.[7] For expedited production of
wing spars, the main structural member of aircraft wings, the Everett factory received robotic machinery to automate the process of drilling holes and inserting fasteners.[7] This method
of wing construction expanded on techniques developed for the 747.[7] Final assembly of the first aircraft began in July 1979.[4]

The prototype aircraft, registered N767BA and equipped with JT9D turbofans, rolled out on August 4, 1981.[34] By this time, the 767 program
had accumulated 173 firm orders from 17 customers, including Air Canada, All Nippon Airways, Britannia Airways, Transbrasil, and Trans
World Airlines (TWA).[7] On September 26, 1981, the prototype took its maiden flight under the command of company test pilots Tommy
Edmonds, Lew Wallick, and John Brit.[35] The maiden flight was largely uneventful, save for the inability to retract the landing gear because
of a hydraulic fluid leak.[35] The prototype was used for subsequent flight tests.[36]

The 10-month 767 flight test program utilized the first six aircraft built.[4][36] The first four aircraft were equipped with JT9D engines, while
the fifth and sixth were fitted with CF6 engines.[10][37] The test fleet was largely used to evaluate avionics, flight systems, handling, and
performance,[37] while the sixth aircraft was used for route-proving flights.[38] During testing, pilots described the 767 as generally easy to fly,
Final assembly of a 767-300F at
Boeing's Everett factory, which was with its maneuverability unencumbered by the bulkiness associated with larger wide-body jets.[38] Following 1,600 hours of flight tests, the
expanded for 767 production in JT9D-powered 767-200 received certification from the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA)
1978 in July 1982.[35][36] The first delivery occurred on August 19, 1982, to United Airlines.[35] The CF6-powered 767-200 received certification in
September 1982, followed by the first delivery to Delta Air Lines on October 25, 1982.[10]

Service entry and operations


The 767 entered service with United Airlines on September 8, 1982.[39] The aircraft's first commercial flight used a JT9D-powered 767-200 on the Chicago-to-Denver route.[39] The CF6-
powered 767-200 commenced service three months later with Delta Air Lines.[4] Upon delivery, early 767s were mainly deployed on domestic routes, including US transcontinental
services.[40] American Airlines and TWA began flying the 767-200 in late 1982, while Air Canada, China Airlines, and El Al began operating the aircraft in 1983.[41] The aircraft's
introduction was relatively smooth, with few operational glitches and greater dispatch reliability than prior jetliners.[42] In its first year, the 767 logged a 96.1 percent dispatch rate,
which exceeded the industry average for new aircraft.[42] Operators reported generally favorable ratings for the twinjet's sound levels, interior comfort, and economic performance.[42]
Resolved issues were minor and included the recalibration of a leading edge sensor to prevent false readings, the replacement of an evacuation slide latch, and the repair of a tailplane
pivot to match production specifications.[42]

Seeking to capitalize on its new wide-body's potential for growth, Boeing offered an extended-range model, the 767-200ER, in its first year of
service.[43] Ethiopian Airlines placed the first order for the type in December 1982.[43][44] Featuring increased gross weight and greater fuel
capacity, the extended-range model could carry heavier payloads at distances up to 6,385 nautical miles (11,825 km),[45] and was targeted at
overseas customers.[10] The 767-200ER entered service with El Al Airline on March 27, 1984.[44] The type was mainly ordered by
international airlines operating medium-traffic, long-distance flights.[10]

In the mid-1980s, the 767 spearheaded the growth of twinjet flights across the northern Atlantic under extended-range twin-engine
operational performance standards (ETOPS) regulations, the FAA's safety rules governing transoceanic flights by aircraft with two
engines.[43] Before the 767, overwater flight paths of twinjets could be no more than 90 minutes away from diversion airports.[46] In May TWA began operating the first
1985, the FAA granted its first approval for 120-minute ETOPS flights to 767 operators, on an individual airline basis starting with TWA, 767-200 ETOPS flights in May
provided that the operator met flight safety criteria.[46] This allowed the aircraft to fly overseas routes at up to two hours' distance from 1985.
land.[46] The larger safety margins were permitted because of the improved reliability demonstrated by the twinjet and its turbofan
engines.[46] The FAA lengthened the ETOPS time to 180 minutes for CF6-powered 767s in 1989, making the type the first to be certified under
the longer duration,[40] and all available engines received approval by 1993.[47] Regulatory approval spurred the expansion of transoceanic 767 flights and boosted the aircraft's
sales.[43][48]

Stretched derivatives
Forecasting airline interest in larger-capacity models, Boeing announced the stretched 767-300 in 1983 and the extended-range 767-300ER in 1984.[43][49] Both models offered a
20 percent passenger capacity increase,[26] while the extended-range version was capable of operating flights up to 5,990 nautical miles (11,090 km).[50] Japan Airlines placed the first
order for the 767-300 in September 1983.[43] Following its first flight on January 30, 1986,[49] the type entered service with Japan Airlines on October 20, 1986.[44] The 767-300ER
completed its first flight on December 9, 1986,[44] but it was not until March 1987 that the first firm order, from American Airlines, was placed.[49] The type entered service with
American Airlines on March 3, 1988.[44] The 767-300 and 767-300ER gained popularity after entering service, and came to account for approximately two-thirds of all 767s sold.[43]

After the debut of the first stretched 767s, Boeing sought to address airline requests for greater capacity by proposing larger models, including a partial double-deck version informally
named the "Hunchback of Mukilteo" (from a town near Boeing's Everett factory) with a 757 body section mounted over the aft main fuselage.[51][52] In 1986, Boeing proposed the 767-X,
a revised model with extended wings and a wider cabin, but received little interest.[52] By 1988, the 767-X had evolved into an all-new twinjet, which revived the 777 designation.[52]
Until the 777's 1995 debut, the 767-300 and 767-300ER remained Boeing's second-largest wide-bodies behind the 747.[49]

Buoyed by a recovering global economy and ETOPS approval, 767 sales accelerated in the mid-to-late 1980s; 1989 was the most prolific year
with 132 firm orders.[43][48] By the early 1990s, the wide-body twinjet had become its manufacturer's annual best-selling aircraft, despite a
slight decrease due to economic recession.[43] During this period, the 767 became the most common airliner for transatlantic flights between
North America and Europe.[53] By the end of the decade, 767s crossed the Atlantic more frequently than all other aircraft types combined.[54]
The 767 also propelled the growth of point-to-point flights which bypassed major airline hubs in favor of direct routes.[22][55] Taking
advantage of the aircraft's lower operating costs and smaller capacity, operators added non-stop flights to secondary population centers,
thereby eliminating the need for connecting flights.[22] The increased number of cities receiving non-stop services caused a paradigm shift in
the airline industry as point-to-point travel gained prominence at the expense of the traditional hub-and-spoke model.[22][55]
A JAL 767-300 lands in front of an
ANA 767-300ER at Kansai Airport. In February 1990, the first 767 equipped with Rolls-Royce RB211 turbofans, a 767-300, was delivered to British Airways.[56] Six months later,
The −300 and −300ER variants the carrier temporarily grounded its entire 767 fleet after discovering cracks in the engine pylons of several aircraft.[57] The cracks were
account for almost two-thirds of all related to the extra weight of the RB211 engines, which are 2,205 pounds (1,000 kg) heavier than other 767 engines.[57] During the grounding,
767s sold. interim repairs were conducted to alleviate stress on engine pylon components, and a parts redesign in 1991 prevented further cracks.[57]
Boeing also performed a structural reassessment, resulting in production changes and modifications to the engine pylons of all 767s in
service.[58]

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In January 1993, following an order from UPS Airlines,[59] Boeing launched a freighter variant, the 767-300F, which entered service with UPS
on October 16, 1995.[44] The 767-300F featured a main deck cargo hold, upgraded landing gear, and strengthened wing structure.[60] In
November 1993, the Japanese government launched the first 767 military derivative when it placed orders for the E-767, an Airborne Early
Warning and Control (AWACS) variant based on the 767-200ER.[61] The first two E-767s, featuring extensive modifications to accommodate
surveillance radar and other monitoring equipment, were delivered in 1998 to the Japan Self-Defense Forces.[62][63]

In November 1995, after abandoning development of a smaller version of the 777, Boeing announced that it was revisiting studies for a larger
767.[64][65] The proposed 767-400X, a second stretch of the aircraft, offered a 12 percent capacity increase versus the 767-300,[26] and
featured an upgraded flight deck, enhanced interior, and greater wingspan.[64] The variant was specifically aimed at Delta Air Lines' pending The Boeing 767-400ER was publicly
replacement of its aging Lockheed L-1011 TriStars, and faced competition from the A330-200, a shortened derivative of the Airbus A330.[64] unveiled on August 26, 1999.[44]
In March 1997, Delta Air Lines launched the 767-400ER when it ordered the type to replace its L-1011 fleet.[44][64] In October 1997,
Continental Airlines also ordered the 767-400ER to replace its McDonnell Douglas DC-10 fleet.[66][67] The type completed its first flight on
October 9, 1999, and entered service with Continental Airlines on September 14, 2000.[44]

Dreamliner introduction
In the early 2000s, cumulative 767 deliveries approached 900, but new sales declined during an airline industry downturn.[68] In 2001,
Boeing dropped plans for a longer-range model, the 767-400ERX, in favor of the proposed Sonic Cruiser, a new jetliner which aimed to fly
15 percent faster while having comparable fuel costs to the 767.[69][70] The following year, Boeing announced the KC-767 Tanker Transport, a
second military derivative of the 767-200ER.[71] Launched with an order in October 2002 from the Italian Air Force, the KC-767 was intended
for the dual role of refueling other aircraft and carrying cargo.[71] The Japanese government became the second customer for the type in
March 2003.[71] In May 2003, the United States Air Force (USAF) announced its intent to lease KC-767s to replace its aging KC-135
tankers.[72][73] The plan was suspended in March 2004 amid a conflict of interest scandal,[72] resulting in multiple US government
investigations and the departure of several Boeing officials, including Philip Condit, the company's chief executive officer, and chief financial
Austrian Airlines 767-300ER with
officer Michael Sears.[74] The first KC-767s were delivered in 2008 to the Japan Self-Defense Forces.[75]
blended winglets, which reduce lift-
induced drag
In late 2002, after airlines expressed reservations about its emphasis on speed over cost reduction,[76] Boeing halted development of the Sonic
Cruiser.[76] The following year, the manufacturer announced the 7E7, a mid-size 767 successor made from composite materials which
promised to be 20 percent more fuel efficient.[77] The new jetliner was the first stage of a replacement aircraft initiative called the Boeing Yellowstone Project.[76] Customers embraced
the 7E7, later renamed 787 Dreamliner, and within two years it had become the fastest-selling airliner in the company's history.[77] In 2005, Boeing opted to continue 767 production
despite record Dreamliner sales, citing a need to provide customers waiting for the 787 with a more readily available option.[78] Subsequently, the 767-300ER was offered to customers
affected by 787 delays, including All Nippon Airways and Japan Airlines.[79] Some aging 767s, exceeding 20 years in age, were also kept in service past planned retirement dates due to
the delays.[80] To extend the operational lives of older aircraft, airlines increased heavy maintenance procedures, including D-check teardowns and inspections for corrosion, a recurring
issue on aging 767s.[81] The first 787s entered service with All Nippon Airways in October 2011, 42 months behind schedule.[82]

Continued production
In 2007, the 767 received a production boost when UPS and DHL Aviation placed a combined 33 orders for the 767-300F.[83][84] Renewed
freighter interest led Boeing to consider enhanced versions of the 767-200 and 767-300F with increased gross weights, 767-400ER wing
extensions, and 777 avionics.[85] Net orders for the 767 declined from 24 in 2008 to just three in 2010.[86] During the same period, operators
upgraded aircraft already in service; in 2008, the first 767-300ER retrofitted with blended winglets from Aviation Partners Incorporated
debuted with American Airlines.[87] The manufacturer-sanctioned winglets, at 11 feet (3.35 m) in height, improved fuel efficiency by an
estimated 6.5 percent.[87] Other carriers including All Nippon Airways and Delta Air Lines also ordered winglet kits.[88][89]

On February 2, 2011, the 1,000th 767 rolled out, destined for All Nippon Airways.[90] The aircraft was the 91st 767-300ER ordered by the
Japanese carrier, and with its completion the 767 became the second wide-body airliner to reach the thousand-unit milestone after the UPS, the largest 767-300F operator,
placed additional orders in 2007.
747.[90][91] The 1,000th aircraft also marked the last model produced on the original 767 assembly line.[92] Beginning with the 1,001st aircraft,
production moved to another area in the Everett factory which occupied about half of the previous floor space.[92] The new assembly line
made room for 787 production and aimed to boost manufacturing efficiency by over twenty percent.[92]

At the inauguration of its new assembly line, the 767's order backlog numbered approximately 50, only enough for production to last until 2013.[92] Despite the reduced backlog, Boeing
officials expressed optimism that additional orders would be forthcoming.[92] On February 24, 2011, the USAF announced its selection of the KC-767 Advanced Tanker, an upgraded
variant of the KC-767,[93] for its KC-X fleet renewal program.[92] The selection followed two rounds of tanker competition between Boeing and Airbus parent EADS, and came eight years
after the USAF's original 2003 announcement of its plan to lease KC-767s.[72] The tanker order encompassed 179 aircraft and was expected to sustain 767 production past 2013.[92]

In December 2011, FedEx Express announced a 767-300F order for 27 aircraft to replace its DC-10 freighters, citing the USAF tanker order and Boeing's decision to continue production
as contributing factors.[94] FedEx Express agreed to buy 19 more of the −300F variant in June 2012.[95][96] In June 2015, FedEx said it was accelerating retirements of planes both to
reflect demand and to modernize its fleet, recording charges of $276 million.[97] On July 21, 2015 FedEx announced an order for 50 767-300F with options on another 50, the largest
order for the type.[98] With the announcement FedEx confirmed that it has firm orders for 106 of the freighters for delivery between 2018 and 2023.[97] In February 2018, UPS
announced that they were ordering 4 more 767-300Fs, increasing their total order to 63.[99] Deliveries are scheduled from 2017 through 2022.

With its successor, the Boeing New Midsize Airplane, planned for at least a 2025 introduction, and the 787 being much larger, Boeing could restart a passenger 767-300ER production to
bridge the gap.[100] A demand for 50 to 60 aircraft could have to be satisfied.[101] Having to replace its 40 767s, United Airlines requested a price quote for other widebodies.[102] In
November 2017, Boeing CEO Dennis Muilenburg cited interest beyond military and freighter uses. Boeing Commercial Airplanes VP of marketing Randy Tinseth stated in early 2018 that
the company did not intend to resume passenger variant production.[103][104]

In its first quarter of 2018 earnings report, Boeing plan to increase its production from 2.5 to 3 monthly beginning in January 2020 due to increased demand in the cargo market, as
FedEx had 56 on order, UPS has four, and an unidentified customer has three on order. This rate could rise to 3.5 per month in July 2020 and 4 per month in January 2021, then would
come down to 3 per month in January 2025 and 2 per month in July.[105]

Re-engined 767-XF

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Boeing is studying a re-engined 767-XF for around 2025, based on the 767-400ER with an extended landing gear to accommodate General Electric GEnx turbofans. The cargo market is
the main target, but a passenger version could be a cheaper alternative to the proposed New Midsize Airplane.[106]

Design

Overview
The 767 is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit featuring a single fin and rudder. The wings are swept at 31.5 degrees
and optimized for a cruising speed of Mach 0.8 (533 mph or 858 km/h).[20] Each wing features a supercritical airfoil cross-section and is
equipped with six-panel leading edge slats, single- and double-slotted flaps, inboard and outboard ailerons, and six spoilers.[7][107] The
airframe further incorporates Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composite material wing surfaces, Kevlar fairings and access panels, plus
improved aluminum alloys, which together reduce overall weight by 1,900 pounds (860 kg) versus preceding aircraft.[7]

To distribute the aircraft's weight on the ground, the 767 has a retractable tricycle landing gear with four wheels on each main gear and two
for the nose gear.[7] The original wing and gear design accommodated the stretched 767-300 without major changes.[43] The 767-400ER
The nose assembly of a Boeing features a larger, more widely spaced main gear with 777 wheels, tires, and brakes.[108] To prevent damage if the tail section contacts the
767, also known as fuselage section runway surface during takeoff, 767-300 and 767-400ER models are fitted with a retractable tailskid.[108][109] The 767 has left-side exit doors
41 near the front and rear of the aircraft.[26]

In addition to shared avionics and computer technology, the 767 uses the same auxiliary power unit, electric power systems, and hydraulic
parts as the 757.[32] A raised cockpit floor and the same forward cockpit windows result in similar pilot viewing angles.[110] Related design and functionality allows 767 pilots to obtain a
common type rating to operate the 757 and share the same seniority roster with pilots of either aircraft.[19][111]

Flight systems
The original 767 flight deck uses six Rockwell Collins CRT screens to display
Electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) and engine indication and crew alerting
system (EICAS) information, allowing pilots to handle monitoring tasks previously
performed by the flight engineer.[19][112] The CRTs replace conventional
electromechanical instruments found on earlier aircraft.[19] An enhanced flight
management system, improved over versions used on early 747s,[19] automates
navigation and other functions, while an automatic landing system facilitates CAT
IIIb instrument landings in low visibility situations.[7][113] The 767 became the first The early two-crew 767 glass The upgraded 767-400ER The upgraded glass cockpit
aircraft to receive CAT IIIb certification from the FAA for landings with 980 feet cockpit with CRT displays. cockpit with 6 LCDs of a 767-300F with 3 large
787-style LCDs.
(300 m) minimum visibility in 1984.[114] On the 767-400ER, the cockpit layout is
simplified further with six Rockwell Collins liquid crystal display (LCD) screens,
and adapted for similarities with the 777 and the Next Generation 737.[115] To retain operational commonality, the LCD screens can be programmed to display information in the same
manner as earlier 767s.[60] In 2012, Boeing and Rockwell Collins launched a further 787-based cockpit upgrade for the 767, featuring three landscape-format LCD screens that can
display two windows each.[116]

The 767 is equipped with three redundant hydraulic systems for operation of control surfaces, landing gear, and utility actuation systems.[117] Each engine powers a separate hydraulic
system, and the third system uses electric pumps.[118] A ram air turbine provides power for basic controls in the event of an emergency.[119] An early form of fly-by-wire is employed for
spoiler operation, utilizing electric signaling instead of traditional control cables.[7] The fly-by-wire system reduces weight and allows independent operation of individual spoilers.[7]

Interior
The 767 features a twin-aisle cabin with a typical configuration of six abreast in business class and seven across in
economy.[26] The standard seven abreast, 2–3–2 economy class layout places approximately 87 percent of all seats at
a window or aisle.[120] As a result, the aircraft can be largely occupied before center seats need to be filled,[7] and each
passenger is no more than one seat from the aisle.[120] It is possible to configure the aircraft with extra seats for up to
an eight abreast configuration,[26] but this is less common.[121]

The 767 interior introduced larger overhead bins and more lavatories per passenger than previous aircraft.[122] The
An early 767-300 economy A newer 767-300ER cabin
bins are wider to accommodate garment bags without folding, and strengthened for heavier carry-on items.[122] A
class cabin in 2–3–2 layout, with the 777-style Signature
single, large galley is installed near the aft doors, allowing for more efficient meal service and simpler ground showing the original interior Interior
resupply.[122] Passenger and service doors are an overhead plug type, which retract upwards,[26] and commonly used design
doors can be equipped with an electric-assist system.[7]

In 2000, a 777-style interior, known as the Boeing Signature Interior, debuted on the 767-400ER.[123] Subsequently, adopted for all new-build 767s, the Signature Interior features even
larger overhead bins, indirect lighting, and sculpted, curved panels.[124] The 767-400ER also received larger windows derived from the 777.[125] Older 767s can be retrofitted with the
Signature Interior.[123] Some operators have adopted a simpler modification known as the Enhanced Interior, featuring curved ceiling panels and indirect lighting with minimal
modification of cabin architecture,[126] as well as aftermarket modifications such as the NuLook 767 package by Heath Tecna.[127]

Variants
The 767 has been produced in three fuselage lengths.[26] These debuted in progressively larger form as the 767-200, 767-300, and 767-400ER.[26][129] Longer-range variants include the
767-200ER and 767-300ER,[129] while cargo models include the 767-300F, a production freighter,[130] and conversions of passenger 767-200 and 767-300 models.[131]

When referring to different variants, Boeing and airlines often collapse the model number (767) and the variant designator, e.g. –200 or –300, into a truncated form, e.g. "762" or
"763".[132] Subsequent to the capacity number, designations may append the range identifier,[132][133] though -200ER and -300ER are company marketing designations and not
certificated as such.[131] The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aircraft type designator system uses a similar numbering scheme, but adds a preceding manufacturer
letter;[134] all variants based on the 767-200 and 767-300 are classified under the codes "B762" and "B763"; the 767-400ER receives the designation of "B764".[134]

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767-200
The 767-200 was the original model and entered service with United Airlines in 1982.[4] The type has been used primarily by mainline U.S.
carriers for domestic routes between major hub centers such as Los Angeles to Washington.[4][54] The 767-200 was the first aircraft to be used
on transatlantic ETOPS flights, beginning with TWA on February 1, 1985 under 90-minute diversion rules.[46][54] Deliveries for the variant
totaled 128 aircraft.[1] There were 52 passenger and freighter conversions of the model in commercial service as of July 2018.[3] The type's
competitors included the Airbus A300 and A310.[135]

The 767-200 was produced until 1987 when production switched to the extended-range 767-200ER.[43] Some early 767-200s were
subsequently upgraded to extended-range specification.[54] In 1998, Boeing began offering 767-200 conversions to 767-200SF (Special
Freighter) specification for cargo use,[136] and Israel Aerospace Industries has been licensed to perform cargo conversions since 2005.[137] The
Planform view of a 767-300,
conversion process entails the installation of a side cargo door, strengthened main deck floor, and added freight monitoring and safety
showing its 156 ft 1 in (47.57 m)
equipment.[131] The 767-200SF was positioned as a replacement for Douglas DC-8 freighters.[136] wide wing with a 3,050 ft² (283.3 m²)
area and a 31.5° sweepback,[128] for
a 7.99:1 aspect ratio
767-2C
A commercial freighter version of the Boeing 767-200 with wings from the -300 series and an updated flightdeck was first flown on 29
December 2014.[138] A military tanker variant of the Boeing 767-2C is being developed for the USAF as the KC-46.[138] Boeing is building two aircraft as commercial freighters which will
be used to obtain Federal Aviation Administration certification, a further two Boeing 767-2Cs will be modified as military tankers.[138] As of 2014, Boeing does not have customers for the
freighter.[138]

767-200ER
The 767-200ER was the first extended-range model and entered service with El Al in 1984.[44] The type's increased range is due to an
additional center fuel tank and a higher maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of up to 395,000 lb (179,000 kg).[43][45] The type was originally
offered with the same engines as the 767-200, while more powerful Pratt & Whitney PW4000 and General Electric CF6 engines later became
available.[43] The 767-200ER was the first 767 to complete a non-stop transatlantic journey, and broke the flying distance record for a twinjet
airliner on April 17, 1988 with an Air Mauritius flight from Halifax, Nova Scotia to Port Louis, Mauritius, covering 8,727 nmi (16,200 km;
10,000 mi).[4] The 767-200ER has been acquired by international operators seeking smaller wide-body aircraft for long-haul routes such as
New York to Beijing.[4][45] Deliveries of the type totaled 121 with no unfilled orders.[1] As of July 2018, 21 examples of passenger and freighter
conversion versions were in airline service.[3] The type's main competitors of the time included the Airbus A300-600R and the A310-300.[49] An American Airlines 767-200ER
departing Los Angeles International
Airport
767-300
The 767-300, the first stretched version of the aircraft, entered service with Japan Airlines in 1986.[44] The type features a 21.1-foot (6.43 m)
fuselage extension over the 767-200, achieved by additional sections inserted before and after the wings, for an overall length of 180.25 ft (54.9 m).[43] Reflecting the growth potential
built into the original 767 design, the wings, engines, and most systems were largely unchanged on the 767-300.[43] An optional mid-cabin exit door is positioned ahead of the wings on
the left,[26] while more powerful Pratt & Whitney PW4000 and Rolls-Royce RB211 engines later became available.[49] The 767-300's increased capacity has been used on high-density
routes within Asia and Europe.[139] The 767-300 was produced from 1986 until 2000. Deliveries for the type totaled 104 aircraft with no unfilled orders remaining.[1] As of July 2018, 34
of the variant were in airline service.[3] The type's main competitor was the Airbus A300.[49]

767-300ER
The 767-300ER, the extended-range version of the 767-300, entered service with American Airlines in 1988.[44] The type's increased range
was made possible by greater fuel tankage and a higher MTOW of 407,000 lb (185,000 kg).[49] Design improvements allowed the available
MTOW to increase to 412,000 lb (187,000 kg) by 1993.[49] Power is provided by Pratt & Whitney PW4000, General Electric CF6, or Rolls-
Royce RB211 engines.[49] the 767-300ER comes in three exit configurations: the baseline configuration has four main cabin doors and four
over-wing window exits, the second configuration has six main cabin doors and two over-wing window exits; and the third configuration has
six main cabin doors, as well as two smaller doors that are located behind the wings.[26] Typical routes for the type include Los Angeles to
Frankfurt.[50] The combination of increased capacity and range offered by the 767-300ER has been particularly attractive to both new and
existing 767 operators.[129] It is the most successful version of the aircraft, with more orders placed than all other variants combined.[140] As
An Air Canada Rouge 767-300ER
of November 2017, 767-300ER deliveries stand at 583 with no unfilled orders.[1] There were 376 examples in service as of July 2018.[3] The
type's main competitor is the Airbus A330-200.[141]

At its 1990s peak, a new 767-300ER was valued at $85 million, dipping to around $12 million in 2018 for a 1996 build.[142]

767-300F
The 767-300F, the production freighter version of the 767-300ER, entered service with UPS Airlines in 1995.[143] The 767-300F can hold up to 24 standard 88-by-125-inch (220 by
320 cm) pallets on its main deck and up to 30 LD2 unit load devices on the lower deck,[26] with a total cargo volume of 15,469 cubic feet (438 m3).[144] The freighter has a main deck
cargo door and crew exit,[130] while the lower deck features two port-side cargo doors and one starboard cargo door.[26] A general market version with onboard freight-handling systems,
refrigeration capability, and crew facilities was delivered to Asiana Airlines on August 23, 1996.[59] As of August 2019, 767-300F deliveries stand at 161 with 61 unfilled orders.[1] Airlines
operated 222 examples of the freighter variant and freighter conversions in July 2018.[3]

In June 2008, All Nippon Airways took delivery of the first 767-300BCF (Boeing Converted Freighter), a modified passenger-to-freighter model.[145] The conversion work was performed
in Singapore by ST Aerospace Services, the first supplier to offer a 767-300BCF program,[145] and involved the addition of a main deck cargo door, strengthened main deck floor, and
additional freight monitoring and safety equipment.[131] Since then, Boeing, Israel Aerospace Industries, and Wagner Aeronautical have also offered passenger-to-freighter conversion
programs for 767-300 series aircraft.[146]

767-400ER

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The 767-400ER, the first Boeing wide-body jet resulting from two fuselage stretches,[147] entered service with Continental Airlines in
2000.[44] The type features a 21.1-foot (6.43-metre) stretch over the 767-300, for a total length of 201.25 feet (61.3 m).[148] The wingspan is
also increased by 14.3 feet (4.36 m) through the addition of raked wingtips.[59] The exit configuration uses six main cabin doors and two
smaller exit doors behind the wings, similar to certain 767-300ER's.[26] Other differences include an updated cockpit, redesigned landing
gear, and 777-style Signature Interior.[149] Power is provided by uprated General Electric CF6 engines.[131]

The FAA granted approval for the 767-400ER to operate 180-minute ETOPS flights before it entered service.[150] Because its fuel capacity was
not increased over preceding models, the 767-400ER has a range of 5,625 nautical miles (10,418 km),[151] less than previous extended-range
767s.[68] No 767-400 version was developed. The 767-400ER entered service
with Continental Airlines in 2000
The longer-range 767-400ERX was offered in July 2000.[152] It was cancelled a year later,[69] leaving the 767-400ER as the sole version of the
largest 767.[60] Boeing dropped the 767-400ER and the -200ER from its pricing list in 2014.[153] A total of 37 aircraft were delivered to the
variant's two airline customers, Continental Airlines (now merged with United Airlines) and Delta Air Lines, with no unfilled orders.[1] All 37 examples of the -400ER were in service in
July 2018.[3] One additional example was produced as a military testbed, and later sold as a VIP transport.[154] The type's closest competitor is the Airbus A330-200.[155]

Military and government


Versions of the 767 serve in a number of military and government applications, with responsibilities ranging from airborne surveillance and refueling to cargo and VIP transport. Several
military 767s have been derived from the 767-200ER,[156][157] the longest-range version of the aircraft.[45][130]

Airborne Surveillance Testbed – the Airborne Optical Adjunct (AOA) was modified from the prototype 767-200 for a United States Army program, under a contract signed with the
Strategic Air Command in July 1984.[158] Intended to evaluate the feasibility of using airborne optical sensors to detect and track hostile intercontinental ballistic missiles, the
modified aircraft first flew on August 21, 1987.[159] Alterations included a large "cupola" or hump on the top of the aircraft from above the cockpit to just behind the trailing edge of
the wings,[158] and a pair of ventral fins below the rear fuselage.[159] Inside the cupola was a suite of infrared seekers used for tracking theater ballistic missile launches.[160] The
aircraft was later renamed as the Airborne Surveillance Testbed (AST).[161] Following the end of the AST program in 2002, the aircraft was retired for scrapping.[162]

E-767 – the Airborne Early Warning and Control (AWACS) platform for the Japan Self-Defense Forces; it is essentially the Boeing E-3
Sentry mission package on a 767-200ER platform.[61] E-767 modifications, completed on 767-200ERs flown from the Everett factory to
Boeing Integrated Defense Systems in Wichita, Kansas, include strengthening to accommodate a dorsal surveillance radar system,
engine nacelle alterations, as well as electrical and interior changes.[63] Japan operates four E-767s. The first E-767s were delivered in
March 1998.[62]

KC-767 Tanker Transport – the 767-200ER-based aerial refueling platform operated by the Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare),[163]
and the Japan Self-Defense Forces.[75] Modifications conducted by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems include the addition of a fly-by-
wire refueling boom, strengthened flaps, and optional auxiliary fuel tanks, as well as structural reinforcement and modified avionics.[71] Japan Self-Defense Forces E-767
The four KC-767Js ordered by Japan have been delivered.[75] The Aeronautica Militare received the first of its four KC-767As in January AWACS
2011.[164]
KC-767 Advanced Tanker – the 767-200ER-based aerial tanker developed for the USAF KC-X tanker competition.[73] It is an updated
version of the KC-767, originally selected as the USAF's new tanker aircraft in 2003, designated KC-767A,[165] and then dropped amid
conflict of interest allegations.[73] The KC-767 Advanced Tanker is derived from studies for a longer-range cargo version of the 767-
200ER,[157][166] and features a fly-by-wire refueling boom, a remote vision refueling system, and a 767-400ER-based flight deck with LCD
screens and head-up displays.[93] Boeing was awarded the KC-X contract to build a 767-based tanker, to be designated KC-46A, in
February 2011.[92]
Tanker conversions – the 767 MMTT or Multi-Mission Tanker Transport is a 767-200ER-based aircraft operated by the Colombian Air
Force (Fuerza Aérea Colombiana) and modified by Israel Aerospace Industries.[167] In 2013, the Brazilian Air Force ordered two 767-
300ER tanker conversions from IAI for its KC-X2 program.[168]

Italian Air Force KC-767A tanker


Undeveloped variants

767-X
In 1986, Boeing announced plans for a partial double-deck Boeing 767 design. The aircraft would have combined the Boeing 767-300 with a Boeing 757 cross section mounted over the
rear fuselage. The Boeing 767-X would have also featured extended wings and a wider cabin. The 767-X did not get enough interest from airlines to launch and the model was shelved in
1988 in favor of the Boeing 777.[169][170]

767-400ERX
In March 2000, Boeing was to launch the 259-seat 767-400ERX with an initial order for three from Kenya Airways with deliveries planned for 2004, as it was proposed to Lauda Air.
Increased gross weight and a tailplane fuel tank would have boosted its range by 1,110 to 12,025 km (600 to 6,490 nmi), and GE could offer its 65,000–68,000 lbf (290–300 kN) CF6-
80C2/G2.[171] Rolls-Royce offered its 68,000–72,000 lbf (300–320 kN) Trent 600 for the 767-400ERX and the Boeing 747X.[172]

Offered in July, the longer-range -400ERX would have a strengthened wing, fuselage and landing gear for a 15,000 lb (6.8 t) higher MTOW, up to 465,000 lb (210.92 t). Thrust would
rise to 72,000 lbf (320 kN) for better takeoff performance, with the Trent 600 or the General Electric/Pratt & Whitney Engine Alliance GP7172, also offered on the 747X. Range would
increase by 525 nmi (950 km) to 6,150 nmi (11,390 km), with an additional fuel tank of 2,145 gallons (8,120 l) in the horizontal tail. The 767-400ERX would offer the capacity of the
Airbus A330-200 with 3% lower fuel burn and costs.[152] Boeing cancelled the variant development in 2001.[69] Kenya Airways then switched its order to the 777-200ER.[173]

E-10 MC2A
The Northrop Grumman E-10 MC2A was to be a 767-400ER-based replacement for the USAF's 707-based E-3 Sentry AWACS, Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint STARS, and RC-135
SIGINT aircraft.[174] The E-10 MC2A would have included an all-new AWACS system, with a powerful active electronically scanned array (AESA) that was also capable of jamming
enemy aircraft or missiles.[175] One 767-400ER aircraft was produced as a testbed for systems integration, but the program was terminated in January 2009 and the prototype was sold
to Bahrain as a VIP transport.[154]

Operators
In July 2018, 742 aircraft were in airline service: 73 -200s, 632 -300 and 37 -400 with 65 -300F on order; the largest operators are Delta Air Lines (77), FedEx (60; largest cargo
operator), UPS Airlines (59), United Airlines (51), Japan Airlines (35), All Nippon Airways (34).[3] The type's competitors included the Airbus A300 and A310.[135]

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The largest customers are Delta Air Lines with 117 orders, FedEx Express (125), All Nippon Airways (96), American Airlines (88) and United
Airlines (82).[1] Delta and United are the only customers of all -200, -300 and -400 passenger variants.[1] In July 2015, FedEx placed a firm
order for 50 Boeing 767 freighters with deliveries from 2018 to 2023.[176]

Orders and deliveries

LAN Airlines 767-300ER in


anniversary scheme at Madrid–
Barajas Airport in 2009

Year Total 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 200

Orders 1,270 26 40 15 26 49 4 2 22 42 3 7 24 36 10 19 8 11

Deliveries 1,168 35 27 10 13 16 6 21 26 20 12 13 10 12 12 10 9 24 3

Year 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 197

Orders 79 43 22 17 54 21 65 52 100 83 57 23 38 15 20 2 5 11 4

Deliveries 42 43 37 41 51 63 62 60 37 53 37 27 25 29 55 20 — — —

Boeing 767 orders and deliveries (cumulative, by year):

Orders

Deliveries

Data through October 31, 2019.[1][86][177][178][179]

Model summary

Model Series ICAO code[134] Orders Deliveries Unfilled orders

767-200 B762 128 128 —

767-200ER B762 121 121 —

767-2C (KC-46) B762 73 29 44

767-300 B763 104 104 — Ukraine International Airlines 767-


767-300ER B763 583 583 — 300ER at Ben Gurion Airport with
optional winglets
767-300F B763 223 165 58

767-400ER B764 38 38 —

Total 1,270 1,168 102

Data through October 2019.[1][99]

Accidents and notable incidents


As of February 2019, the Boeing 767 has been in 46 aviation occurrences,[180] including 17 hull-loss accidents.[181] Seven fatal crashes, including three hijackings, have resulted in a total
of 854 occupant fatalities.[181][182]

The 767's first incident was Air Canada Flight 143, a 767-200, on July 23, 1983. The airplane ran out of fuel in-flight and had to glide with both engines out for almost 43 nautical miles
(80 km) to an emergency landing at Gimli, Manitoba, Canada. The pilots used the aircraft's ram air turbine to power the hydraulic systems for aerodynamic control. There were no
fatalities and only minor injuries. This aircraft was nicknamed "Gimli Glider" after its landing site. The aircraft, registered C-GAUN, continued flying for Air Canada until its retirement
in January 2008.[183]

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The airliner's first fatal crash, Lauda Air Flight 004, occurred near Bangkok on May 26, 1991, following the in-flight deployment of the left
engine thrust reverser on a 767-300ER; none of the 223 aboard survived; as a result of this accident all 767 thrust reversers were deactivated
until a redesign was implemented.[184] Investigators determined that an electronically controlled valve, common to late-model Boeing
aircraft, was to blame.[185] A new locking device was installed on all affected jetliners, including 767s.[186]

On October 31, 1999, EgyptAir Flight 990, a 767-300ER, crashed off Nantucket, Massachusetts, in international waters killing all 217 people
on board.[187] The United States National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) concluded "not determined", but determined the probable
cause to be due to a deliberate action by the first officer; Egypt disputed this conclusion.[188]
The "Gimli Glider" parked at Mojave
On April 15, 2002, Air China Flight 129, a 767-200ER, crashed into a hill amid inclement weather while trying to land at Gimhae International
Air and Space Port in February
Airport in Busan, South Korea. The crash resulted in the death of 129 of the 166 people on board, and the cause was attributed to pilot 2008
error.[189]

The 767 has been involved in six hijackings, three resulting in loss of life,[180] for a combined total of 282 occupant fatalities.[182] On November 23, 1996, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961, a
767-200ER, was hijacked and crash-landed in the Indian Ocean near the Comoro Islands after running out of fuel, killing 125 out of the 175 persons on board;[190] survivors have been
rare among instances of land-based aircraft ditching on water.[191][192] Two 767s were involved in the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001, resulting in the collapse of
its two main towers. American Airlines Flight 11, a 767-200ER, crashed into the North Tower, killing all 92 people on board, and United Airlines Flight 175, a 767-200, crashed into the
South Tower, with the death of all 65 on board. In addition, more than 2,600 people were killed in the towers or on the ground.[193] A foiled 2001 shoe bomb attempt that December
involved an American Airlines 767-300ER.[194][195]

On November 1, 2011, LOT Polish Airlines Flight 16, a 767-300ER, safely landed at Warsaw Chopin Airport in Warsaw, Poland after a mechanical failure of the landing gear forced an
emergency landing with the landing gear retracted. There were no injuries, but the aircraft involved was damaged and subsequently written off.[196][197][198] At the time of the incident,
aviation analysts speculated that it may have been the first instance of a complete landing gear failure in the 767's service history.[199] Subsequent investigation determined that while a
damaged hose had disabled the aircraft's primary landing gear extension system, an otherwise functional backup system was inoperative due to an accidentally deactivated circuit
breaker.[197][198]

In January 2014, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration issued a directive that ordered inspections of the elevators on more than 400 767s beginning in March 2014; the focus was on
fasteners and other parts that can fail and cause the elevators to jam. The issue was first identified in 2000 and has been the subject of several Boeing service bulletins. The inspections
and repairs are required to be completed within six years.[200] The aircraft has also had multiple occurrences of "uncommanded escape slide inflation" during maintenance or
operations,[201] and during flight.[202][203] In late 2015, the FAA issued a preliminary directive to address the issue.[204]

On October 28, 2016, American Airlines Flight 383, a 767-300ER with 161 passengers and 9 crew members, aborted takeoff at Chicago O'Hare Airport following an uncontained failure
of the right GE CF6-80C2 engine.[205] The engine failure, which hurled fragments over a considerable distance, caused a fuel leak, resulting in a fire under the right wing.[206] Fire and
smoke entered the cabin. All passengers and crew evacuated the aircraft, with 20 passengers and one flight attendant sustaining minor injuries using the evacuation slides.[207][208]

On February 23, 2019, Atlas Air Flight 3591, a Boeing 767-300ERF air freighter operating for Amazon Air, crashed into Trinity Bay near Houston, Texas, while on descent into George
Bush Intercontinental Airport; both pilots and the single passenger were killed.[209]

Retirement and display


As new 767s roll off the assembly line, older models have been retired and stored or scrapped. One complete aircraft, N102DA—the first 767-
200 to operate for Delta Air Lines and the twelfth example built, is currently on display.[210][211] It was withdrawn from use and stored at
Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport in 2006.[212] The exhibition aircraft, named "The Spirit of Delta" by the employees who
helped purchase it in 1982, underwent restoration at the Delta Flight Museum in Atlanta, Georgia. The restoration was completed in 2010.[211]

"The Spirit of Delta" at the Delta Air


Lines Air Transport Heritage
Museum

Specifications

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767 Airplane Characteristics
Variant 767-200(ER) 767-300(ER/F) 767-400ER
Cockpit crew Two

3-class[213] 174 (15F, 40J, 119Y) 210 (18F, 42J, 150Y) 243 (16F, 36J, 189Y)

2-class[213] 214 (18J, 196Y) 261 (24J, 237Y) 296 (24J, 272Y)

1-class[213] (limit[214]) 245Y (290) 290Y (351) 409Y (375)

Cargo[215] 3,070 ft³ / 86.9 m³ 4,030 ft³ / 114.1 m³[a] 4,905 ft³ / 138.9 m³

ULD[26](pp32–36) 22 LD2s 30 LD2s 38 LD2s

Length[217] 159 ft 2 in / 48.51 m 180 ft 3 in / 54.94 m 201 ft 4 in / 61.37 m

Wingspan[217] 156 ft 1 in / 47.57 m 170 ft 4 in / 51.92 m

Wing 3,050 ft² / 283.3 m², 31.5° sweepback[128] 3,130 ft² / 290.7 m²[218]

Fuselage Exterior: 17 ft 9 in / 5.41 m height, 16 ft 6 in / 5.03 m width;[217] Cabin width: 186 in/ 4.72 m[26](p30)
std: 315,000 lb / 142,882 kg std: 350,000 lb / 158,758 kg
MTOW[215] 450,000 lb / 204,116 kg
ER: 395,000 lb / 179,169 kg ER/F: 412,000 lb / 186,880 kg

73,350 lb (33,271 kg) 88,250 lb (40,030 kg)


Max. payload[215] 101,000 lb (45,813 kg)
ER: 78,390 lb (35,557 kg) ER: 96,560 lb (43,799 kg)[b]

176,650 lb / 80,127 kg 189,750 lb / 86,069 kg


OEW[215] 229,000 lb / 103,872 kg
ER: 181,610 lb / 82,377 kg ER: 198,440 lb / 90,011 kg[c]

Fuel capacity[215] std: 16,700 US gal / 63,217 L (111,890 lb / 50,753 kg ), ER: 24,140 US gal / 91,380 L (161,740 lb / 73,364 kg)

std: 3,900 nmi (7,200 km)[d][26](p47) std: 3,900 nmi (7,200 km)[f][26](p49)
Range[219] 5,625 nmi / 10,415 km[j]
ER: 6,590 nmi / 12,200 km[e] ER: 5,980 nmi / 11,070 km[g][i]

Cruise speed Long range: 459 kn (850 km/h), Maximum: 486 kn (900 km/h) at 39,000 ft (12,000 m),[128] Ceiling: 43,100 ft (13,100 m)[214]
Takeoff std: 6,300 ft (1,900 m)[26](p58) 9,200 ft (2,800 m)[26](p64) 3,290 m / 10,800 ft
distance[k][219] ER: 2,480 m / 8,150 ft ER/F: 2,650 m / 8,700 ft
std: P&W JT9D / PW4000 / GE CF6-80 ER/F: PW4000 / GE CF6-80 / RB211-524
Engines (×2)[215] GE CF6-80 / PW4000
ER: RB211-524 std: P&W JT9D
std: 48,000–52,500 lbf (214–234 kN) std: 48,000–60,600 lbf (214–270 kN)
Thrust (×2)[215] 60,600 lbf (270 kN)
ER: 48,000–60,600 lbf (214–270 kN) ER/F: 56,750–61,500 lbf (252–274 kN)

See also
Competition between Airbus and Boeing
Related development

Boeing 757 – Airliner family by Boeing[9]


Boeing E-767 – Airborne warning and control aircraft by Boeing[61]
Boeing KC-46 Pegasus – Military aerial refueling and strategic military transport aircraft[92]
Boeing KC-767 – Military tanker/transport aircraft by Boeing[71]
Northrop Grumman E-10 MC2A – Proposed Airborne Warning and Control aircraft based on the Boeing 767 airframe[174]
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Airbus A300 – World’s first twin-engine widebody jet airliner[135]


Airbus A310 – Short-fuselage derivative of the A300 airliner[135]
Airbus A330-200 – Shortened, longer-range variant of Airbus A330[141]
Boeing Business Jet – Executive transport variants of several Boeing airliners
Boeing 777 – Wide-body long-range twin-engine jet airliner family
Boeing 787 Dreamliner – Wide-body twin-engine jet airliner, first airliner to be constructed primarily of composite materials
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 – Wide-body tri-jet airliner
Related lists

List of jet airliners


List of civil aircraft

References

Notes
f. 269 pax, 187,900 lb / 85235 kg OEW, ISA
a. -300F: 15,469 ft³ / 438 m³, 24 88×108 in pallets[216]
g. 218 pax (18F/46J/154Y), PW4000
b. -300F: 119,000 lb (53,977 kg)
h. 52.7 tonnes payload
c. -300F: 190,000 lb / 86,183 kg
i. -300F: 3,225 nmi / 6,025 km[h][216]
d. 216 pax, 176,100 lb / 79,878 kg OEW, ISA
j. 245 pax (20F/50J/175Y), CF6
e. 181 pax (15F/40J/126Y), CF6
k. MTOW, SL, 30 °C / 86 °F

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External links
Official website (http://www.boeing.com/commercial/767/) External images
"Introducing the 767-400ER" (http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_03/ps/ps01/index.html). Aero Magazine. Boeing.
July 1998. Flight International cutaway
"Strategic stretch" (https://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1999/1999%20-%202521.html). Flight International. August 25, 1999. diagrams
"767-300BCF converted freighter" (https://web.archive.org/web/20160705064012/http://www.boeing.com/resources/boeingdotcom/comp Boeing 757/767 (https://web.arch
any/about_bca/startup/pdf/freighters/767BCF.pdf) (PDF). Boeing. 2007. Archived from the original (http://www.boeing.com/resources/bo
eingdotcom/company/about_bca/startup/pdf/freighters/767BCF.pdf) (PDF) on July 5, 2016. ive.org/web/20110414123006/http://
www.flightglobal.com/airspace/medi
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mages/7825/boeing-757-767-cutaw
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p://www.flightglobal.com/airspace/m
edia/civilaviation1949-2006cutaway
s/images/7827/boeing-767-400er-cu
taway.jpg)

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