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R1 := 4.

8m Ohm
ET1 R2 := 13.3m Ohm
AM1
LS1 := 0.1726m H
A LS2 := 0.20222m H
+ LM := 9.81m H AMPL := -3.2k
VM1 V
ET2 Generator_torque
AM2 A
A B
C
3~ M
+ J := 10.5 kg m% Load T0 := 1.2 s
VM2 V AM3 ASM_2 P := 2
ET3
A T
T0 := 1 s
AMPL := 3.204k
Load_torque
GND

Electrical Machine Design Suite


Quick Introduction
Ansoft offers the most complete solution to electrical machine design
in the industry through its Electrical Machine Design Suite

What is the Electrical Machine Design Suite?


Æ Five combinable tools which assist engineers in designing and
analyzing electrical machines
Æ Integrates electromagnetic, circuit, and system engineering using
a common desktop environment

The Electrical Machine Design Suite includes:


Æ RMxprt – for machine design
Æ Maxwell 2D/3D – for finite element analysis
Æ Optimetrics – for optimization
Æ Simplorer – for system analysis
Æ ePhysics – for thermal and stress analysis
Electrical Machine Design Suite
14 types of
RMxprt motors/generators

FEA FEA

Optimetrics
Maxwell 3D
Maxwell 2D

Equivalent circuits ePhysics

Co-simulation SIMPLORER
Electric Machine Design Suite
A Complete Solution for Modern Electric Machines and Drives Design

Design Fast Analytical Solution:


Requirements Narrow the Design Space
Transient Analysis
using FEA
9 Size/Weight Parametric Analysis
9 Efficiency
9 Torque Simultaneous Equations:

9 Speed Magnetostatic/Eddy Current Field Equation: ∇ ×υ∇ × A = J s − σ


∂A
− σ∇V + ∇ × Hc + σv × ∇ × A
∂t
9 Cogging/Ripple Analysis using FEA dA di Nfl duc
S f a ∫∫ dt
Circuit Equation: d f dΩ + R if + L f + uc = us if − C =0
dt dt
9 Inverter Matching Parametric Analysis
Parametric Analysis Motion Equation mα + λω = Tem + Texternal
9 Thermal Optimization
Optimization
9 Stress
9 Manufacturability
9 Cost System Level IGBT
Analytical Based Model

D2 IGBT D3
IGBT
ECELink ω
EMF 175 +
IGBT FM_ROT
IA
ROT1 T
A A_PHASE_N1
IB
ROT2
A B_PHASE_N1
+
VBC V IC
A
C_PHASE_N1

EMF 175
IGBT
IGBT

ECE

A AM_IGB
ICA: PP:= EQU theta_elect := PP * ECELink
ON:= theta := MOD(theta_elect
OFF:=
THRESH:=4
HYST:=

Phase Curre Torqu Phase Voltag


1.00 IA 400.0 To 300.0 V_A Von Mises stress
200.0
500.0 IB
IC 200.0
0 0

-500.0 0 -200.0
-1.00 -100.0 -300.0
0 10.00m 17.27mt 0 10.00 17.27 t 0 10.00 17.27 t

Drive System Design Thermal and Stress Analysis

EMSSLink1
EMSSLink1
R1 MASS_ROTB1
MASS_ROTB1 EMF2 175
R1 R5 R3
EMF2 175 R5 R3 IA ROTB1
RA 0.023
IA RA 0.023 ROTB1
A A_PHASE_N1
A A_PHASE_N1 E1
E1 ROTB2
E5 E3
ROTB2 E5 E3 IB A_PHASE_N2
IB
RB A_PHASE_N2 RB 0.023
0.023
A A B_PHASE_N1
+ B_PHASE_N1 +
VBC V VBC V IC
IC B_PHASE_N2 B_PHASE_N2
RC 0.023 RC 0.023
A C_PHASE_N1
A C_PHASE_N1

C_PHASE_N2 C_PHASE_N2
EMF1 175 EMF1 175
VGE4
R2 R6 R4 VGE4
+

V R2 R6 R4

+
V

A AM_IGBT ICA:
ICA:
E2 E6 E4 A AM_IGBT
E2 E6 E4

ctrl_1:=ON theta>150 AND theta<210


ctrl_1:=ON
theta>90 AND theta<150 ctrl_2:=ON theta>210 AND theta<270
ctrl_6:=ON ctrl_2:=ON theta>150 AND theta<210
ctrl_3:=ON ctrl_1:=ON ctrl_1:=ON
theta>90 AND theta<150 ctrl_2:=ON theta>210 AND theta<270
ctrl_6:=ON ctrl_2:=ON
ctrl_3:=ON

ctrl_1:=OFF ctrl_2:=OFF
ctrl_6:=OFF ctrl_2:=OFF ctrl_3:=OFF
ctrl_1:=OFF ctrl_1:=OFF ctrl_2:=OFF
ctrl_6:=OFF ctrl_2:=OFF ctrl_3:=OFF
ctrl_1:=OFF

ctrl_5:=OFF ctrl_4:=OFF ctrl_3:=OFF


ctrl_6:=OFF ctrl_5:=OFF ctrl_4:=OFF

ctrl_5:=OFF ctrl_4:=OFF ctrl_3:=OFF


ctrl_6:=OFF ctrl_5:=OFF ctrl_4:=OFF
ctrl_5:=ON ctrl_4:=ON ctrl_3:=ON
theta>330 OR theta<30 theta>270 AND theta<330
theta>30 AND theta<90 ctrl_6:=ON ctrl_5:=ON ctrl_4:=ON

ctrl_5:=ON ctrl_4:=ON ctrl_3:=ON


theta>330 OR theta<30 theta>270 AND theta<330
theta>30 AND theta<90

Equivalent Circuit Model : High


ctrl_6:=ON ctrl_5:=ON ctrl_4:=ON

Drive System Integration with Complete Transient FEA -Transient


Manufacturer’s IGBTs Fidelity Physics Based Model System Co-simulation
RMxprt
What is RMxprt ?
• Analytical Design Software for Electric Machines
• User can calculate machine performance, make material and size
decisions
• Flexible design and optimization process for rotating electric
machines which perform hundreds of "what if" analyses in a matter of
seconds

Machine Types
• Induction Machines : Three-Phase, Single-Phase
• Synchronous Machines : Line-Start PM, Adjustable Speed PM,
Salient Pole, Non-Salient Pole
• Brush commutated: DC, Permanent Magnet DC, Universal, Claw-
pole Alternator
• Electronically commutated: Brushless PM, Switched Reluctance
User Inputs
Typical Results
Complete Report and Curves
RMxprt to Maxwell 2D link
Š Automatic creation of complete transient design including:
Geometry, Materials, Master/Slave Boundaries, Sources, Mesh
Operations, External Circuits, Motion, and Solution Setup
Š Access this by clicking on Analysis > Setup > Create Maxwell
Design
RMxprt to Maxwell 3D link
Š Complete geometry creation
Š One-click FEA design
Š Option for periodic or full
models
Š Automatic update with project
variables

Š Geometry creation and material


assignment
Š General and dedicated machine
parts
Š Create new machine types with
arbitrary combinations
Š Dimension variables supported
Arbitrary Winding Configurations

Concentric Lap winding with


winding coil pitch=1

Single-layer Double-layer DC winding


lap winding lap winding
Common Slot Type Support

Single/double
Single/double
squirrel-cage
squirrel-cagecores
cores

Inner/outer
Inner/outerAC/DC
AC/DC
armature
armaturecores
cores
Maxwell
What is Maxwell?
Š Magnetic and Electric Finite Element Field Solvers
Š Static, Quasi-Static and Transient (time-domain)
solutions
Š Linear and non-linear, isotropic and anisotropic, and
laminated materials
Š Parametric and Optimization capabilities including
statistical, sensitivity and tuning analysis
Š Co-simulation with Simplorer
Š Direct link from RMxprt
Š Direct link to ePhysics
Maxwell Desktop
six
windows
Project
Manager 3D
Window modeler
Window

Properties
Window

Progress
Message Window
Window

History
Tree
Window
Powerful Geometry Utilities
¾ Geometry utilities automatically create complicated
2D/3D geometries
¾ Shape optimized for minimum count, good quality mesh,
significantly enhancing meshing success rate
General Machine Parts

Components
for most
machines
Geometry Variables Sharing
with RMxprt
Convenient
Convenientfor
forgeometry
geometry
parametric
parametricsweep
sweepand
and
optimization
optimization

Maxwell
Maxwellgeometry
geometry
automatic
automaticupdate
update
with
withvariables
variables
changed
changedininRMxprt
RMxprt
3-Tier Library Structure
Š System (global) level – predefined from Ansoft
Š User Library – to be shared among several users at a company
(can be encrypted)
Š Personal libraries - to be used only by single user (can be
encrypted)
Advanced Analysis Features
Š Distributed Analysis – for computing farm to
Options for remote or distributed analysis
capability – can solve different rows of a
parametric table on different PC’s (Tools >
Options > Analysis)
Š Remote Solve – to solve on a single remote
computer (must have separate license)
Š Optional convergence stopping criterion –
use of % change of any output parameter
(such as loss or torque) as an additional
convergence stopping criterion, but does not
impact adaptive refinement
Double Rotor Motion
Two Bands in Transient Solver
Š For transient motion solver, two bands with two independently moving
objects now allowed
Š Both rotational and translational solvers can handle this

Stator

Rotor I

Rotor II
Multiple end connected conductors
Š For transient solver, can have for independently connected squirrel
cage rotors

squirrel cage I

squirrel cage II

Induction Motor with Dual Rotor Cages


External Circuit Coupling
Š Use Maxwell Circuit Editor for control and drive circuitry
Š Re-adjusts time step of field computation when: five
Š Switching windows
Š Sharp variations in external sources
Š Large change in winding inductance
Schematic
Window
Project and
Components
Window

Properties
Window
Message
Window

Progress
Window
Maxwell Co-simulation with Simplorer
¾ 2D transient co-simulation: Maxwell V12 – Simplorer V8
¾ Improved performance with asynchronous time steps
¾ Next step is to support 3D: Maxwell V12.x – Simplorer V8.x

Lumped field
coupling parameters

Maxwell SIMPLORER
Equivalent circuit
coupling parameters
Dynamic Demagnetization
Source Design 2-step Target Design
process
Dynamic Demagnetization - Results

Source H field Target H field


in the PM in the PM
Laminated Materials Core Loss
Field Effects
Note: this can have an impact
on the torque in a motor


∇ × ([σ a ] ∇ × T) = ( µH + H pc )
−1

∂t

[k ]−1 H pc = ( µH )
∂t
H pc :
Typical Maxwell 2D/3D Results
Optimetrics
What is Optimetrics ?
¾ Optimetrics enables engineers to determine the best design variation
among a model's possible variations.
¾ Create the original model, the nominal design, and then define design
parameters that vary
¾ Optimetrics includes five unique capabilities:
1. Parametrics: Define one or more variable sweep definitions, each specifying a series of variable
values within a range. Easily view and compare the results using plot or table to determine how each
design variation affects the performance of the design.
2. Optimization: Identify the cost function and the optimization goal. Optimetrics automatically changes
the design parameter(s) to meet the goal. The cost function can be based on any solution quantity
that can be computes, such as field values, R,L,C force, torque, volume or weight.
3. Sensitivity: Determine the sensitivity of the design to small changes in variables in the vicinity of a
design point. Outputs include: Regression value at the current variable value, First derivative of the
regression, Second derivative of the regression
4. Tuning: Variable values are changed interactively and the performance of the design is monitored.
Useful after performing an optimization in which Optimetrics has determined an optimal variable
value, and you want to fine tune the value to see how the design results are affected.
5. Statistical: shows the distribution (Histogram) of a design output like force, torque or loss caused by
a statistical variation (Monte Carlo) of input variables.
Optimetrics Module (cont.)

Š Distributed Parametrics and Optimization

Š Seamless setup
Š Integrated with force,
torque, matrix
Š Complete support of
Transient solution
Optimetrics Module (cont.)
Integrated with external circuit
Optimize on ‘voltage’
Setup variables in in Maxwell
Maxwell Circuit Editor
Optimetrics Example
Š Optimization of a starter-alternator pack
Š The pack contains a motor used also as alternator
Š Three-phase claw pole motor
Š Permanent Magnets are added between teeth
Optimization of the Geometry
Want to see the influence on the output torque

Tooth angle Magnet thickness Magnet length


Results
Š Transient analysis run for the optimized design
Š Initial Peak torque: 63.40 Nm
Š Optimized Peak Torque: 67.42 Nm

Initial Optimized
Simplorer
What is Simplorer ? Circuits

• Multi-domain, system simulator for R1 50


C1
R2 1k R3 1k
C2
R4
50

designing high performance systems N0002

12 3.3u
3.3u

N0004

• Commonly used by the automotive,


V0 := 5 N0003 V0 := 0

N0005

aerospace/defense, and industrial


automation industries.
• Integrated analysis with electromagnetic Block
Diagrams
simulation tools (Maxwell, PExprt, RMxprt, I_PART_id

CONST

Q3D, HFSS)
I
UL := 9
LL := -9 P_PART_id id_ref
id
• Three Basic Simulation Engines: LIMIT GAIN

GS2
G(s) GAIN

yd
9 Circuits
KP := 0.76
SUM2_6

State
9 Block Diagrams Machines
9 State Machines IMP = 0 and RLine.I <= ILOW

• Analysis Types: DC, AC, Transient


SET: CS1:=-1 SET: CS1:=-1
SET: CS2:=-1 SET: CS2:=1
SET: CS3:=-1 SET: CS3:=-1
SET: CS4:=-1 SET: CS4:=-1
IMP = 0 and RLine.I >= IUP

• Co-simulation with Maxwell and Simulink IMP = 1


IMP = 0 IMP = 1
IMP = 0

• Statistical Analysis and Optimization SET: CS1:=1 IMP = 1 and RLine.I <= ILOW SET: CS1:=-1

• VHDL-AMS Capability
SET: CS2:=-1 SET: CS2:=-1
SET: CS3:=-1 SET: CS3:=-1
SET: CS4:=-1 SET: CS4:=-1
IMP = 1 and RLine.I >= IUP
Complete System Design

System

Subsystem

Component

Electrical Thermal Magnetic


Mechanical Hydraulic Logic

Analog Digital
SIMPLORER Methodology
Electrical/Electronics Digital Control Systems
(analog and digital circuits) (state machine)
R1 R2 1k R3 1k R4
50 50
C1 C2 IMP = 0 and RLine.I <= ILOW
N0002
3.3u SET: CS1:=-1 SET: CS1:=-1
SET: CS2:=-1 SET: CS2:=1
12 3.3u SET: CS3:=-1
N0004 SET: CS3:=-1
V0 := 5 N0003 V0 := 0 SET: CS4:=-1 SET: CS4:=-1
IMP = 0 and RLine.I >= IUP
N0005

IMP = 1 IMP = 0

XOR2_DEL1 IMP = 0 IMP = 1

A XOR
XOR2_DEL2
B
SUM IGBT1 IMP = 1 and RLine.I <= ILOW
XOR IGBT2 IGBT3 SET: CS1:=1 SET: CS1:=-1
SET: CS2:=-1 SET: CS2:=-1
C SET: CS3:=-1 SET: CS3:=-1
SET: CS4:=-1 SET: CS4:=-1
AND2_DEL1 IMP = 1 and RLine.I >= IUP

AND
OR2_DEL1 C1
4.7m
AND2_DEL2 OR Carry IGBT5 IGBT6
IGBT4
AND

Analog Control, Mechanics


A BC
(block diagram)
3~
MS I_PART_id

CONST
I
UL := 9

Each part of a complex technical LL := -9 P_PART_id id_ref


id
LIMIT GAIN G(s) GAIN

system is represented by the most yd KP := 0.76 GS2


SUM2_6
appropriate modeling language
Multi Domain Design

Transformer

Sensors
Control Electro Mechanics

Multitude of Domains
Multitude of Tools & Methods

Power Converter

Mechanics
Utility
Simulator Coupling Technology
Maxwell2D/3D SIMPLORER Simulation Data Bus Simulink
Electromagnetism
Electro mechanics Simulator Coupling Technology

C/C++
MathCad
Interface

Circuit Block Diagram State Machine VHDL-AMS


Simulator Simulator Simulator Simulator

Model Database
Electrical, Blocks, States, Machines, Automotive, Hydraulic,
Mechanics, Power, Semiconductors…
Integrated Design Environment
All three basic simulation types are on same desktop:
Circuits, Block Diagrams, State Machines
Power Library
Power Library
Power System and Cable Models Inverter Topologies Applications:
Single Phase Power Supply
Ideal Three Phase Power Supply
Two Level Inverter Equivalent Circuit
Three Phase Two Level Inverter
• AC/DC Converters
Three Phase Power Supply with Impedance
WIRE - Gamma Model
Single Phase Two Level Inverter
Three Phase Three Level Inverter
• Inverters (DC/AC)
Wire T-Model Single Phase Three Level Inverter • Drive Systems
Line-commutated Converters DC Link
B2 Diode Bridge Control Algorithms • Power Quality
B2 Fully Controlled Two Level Square Wave
B2 Half-Controlled, Symmetrical Two Level Natural Sampling • Alternative Power
B2 Half-Controlled, Asymmetrical Three Level Single Phase
B6 Diode Bridge Three Level Three Phase
B6 Thyristor Bridge
B6 Bridges - Inverse Parallel Connection
Three Level Single Phase NS
Three Level Three Phase NS
Industries:
B12 Diode Bridge Four Quadrant Current Control • Industrial Automation
B12 Thyristor Bridge Parallel Connection Four Quadrant Natural Sampling
B12 Thyristor Bridge Cascade Load Models • Drives Manufacturers
B24 Thyristor Bridge Three Phase RL Load
Single Phase A.C. Chopper Logic • EV/EHV
Three Phase A.C. Chopper Dead Time
• Power Conversion
• Power Quality

+ Battery and Fuel Cell


Mechanical Elements Library
Mechanical Systems
Rotational Coordinate Transformation
Mass Rotational-Rotational
Rigidity Rotational-Translational
Torque Source Translational-Rotational
Angular Velocity Source Translational-Translational
Ground Electrical Machines
Translational DCMP DC-Machine Permanent Excitation
Mass ASMS Slip Ring Induction Machine
Rigidity SYMP Synchronous Machine Permanent Excitation
Force Source SYMP Synchronous Machine Permanent Excitation w Damper
Velocity Source
Ground

Applications: Industries:
• Drive Trains • Automotive Suppliers
• Electro-Hydraulic • Drive Manufacturers
Systems
• Industrial Automation
• Electro-Mechanical
Systems • Defense
• Load Variations • Aerospace
Simplorer to Maxwell ECE Coupling
Simplorer - Simulink Cosimulation

SIMPLORER
SIMPLORERv8
v8

Š Simulation initiated from SIMPLORER


Š Simulink invoked from SIMPLORER
d-q-Phase Transformation
Vector control based on d-q transformation
ICA:
TP := 0.0002 ¾ d-q transformation using built in math engine
ustmax := 10.
t0a := 0
t0b := 0 ¾ On-time computation for phase A and B for inverter
t0c := 0 control based on Controller output data
Control Signal Generation / Phase Transformation

EQU

yalph := cos(theta_el) * yd.VAL - sin(theta_el) * yq.VAL theta_el := SYMPOD1.PHIDEG * PI / 180.


ybeta := sin(theta_el) * yd.VAL + cos(theta_el) * yq.VAL TEc := (yc / ustmax + 1) * TP / 2.
ya := yalph i1alph := SYMPOD1.I1A
yb := -0.5 * yalph + ybeta * sqrt(3.) / 2. i1beta := (SYMPOD1.I1A + 2 * SYMPOD1.I1B) / sqrt(3.)
yc := -ya - yb i1d := i1alph * cos(theta_el) + i1beta * sin(theta_el)
TEa := (ya / ustmax + 1) * TP2 i1q := i1beta * cos(theta_el) - i1alph * sin(theta_el)
TEb := (yb / ustmax + 1) * TP2
theta_m := theta_el / 3.
Speed and Torque Control
Speed Control
I_iq I_n n
I GAIN iq I GAIN

KI := 29.02k
UL := 10

G(s)
GS1
LL := -10
UL := 9
LL := -9 P_Iq m_ref P_PART_n ust_in ust
Yt
LIMIT GAIN LIMIT GAIN GAIN

yq KP := 0.76 KP := 0.1161k

I_id id_ref Controller design using block


I CONST
diagrams
KI := 80
yd P_id GS2 id ¾ Speed Profile from Data
LIMIT GAIN G(s) GAIN File
UL := 9 KP := 0.76
LL := -9 ¾ Reference Torque
d-q-Current Controller Determination
DC Motor Drive System

TR

D1 D2 +
D3 AM1
R_R A
L_R

ET1 10m 0.3m LOAD


R_S L_S CD tY
M D7
1m
ET2
0 50.00m 100.00m DCM
15.00 R_T L_T RA := 1.2
LA := 9.5m
ET3 KE := 0.544
10.00 D4 D5 D6 J := 4m

DCM.N P_GAIN LIMITER CONTR_OUT


0 0 GAIN GAIN LIMIT
0 0
50.00m T 50.00m
100.00m
-16.66m KP := 50 UL := 20 THRES1 := -2.5
LL := 0
N_REF CLOCK I_GAIN THRES2 := 2.5
I
VAL1 := -1
Motor torque and CONST

16.6667
CONST

.1m
KI := 20 VAL2 := 1

load torque
Servo Drive System
Phase Currents Reference and Actual Speed
20 1k
15 0.75k
10 0.5k
IGBT1 IGBT2 IGBT3 5
D1 D2 D3 0.25k
ET1 R1 L1 0
0
-5
1m -0.25k
10m -10
ET2 C1 -0.5k
R2 L2 -15
4.7m -0.75k
-20
1m -25 -1k
10m 0 50m 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 t [s]
0 50m 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 t [s]
ET3 L3
R3
DC Link Voltage Reference and Actual Torque
10m 1m 0.57k C1.V [V] 40
0.56k 30
0.56k 20
D4 D5 D6
IGBT4 IGBT5 IGBT6 0.55k 10
0.55k 0
0.54k -10
0.54k -20
0.53k -30
ICA:
M_LOAD SYMPOD1 A B C
0.53k -40
TP := 0.0002
ustmax := 10. 1,3 Nm at tY Synchronous Machine 0 50m 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 t [s] 0 50m 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 t [s]

t0a := 0 2000 rpm


3~

MS
permanent excitation Position
t0b := 0 QuickGraph9
8 2 * yd.VAL 1.6k
t0c := 0 R1 := 1 L1D := 9.2m yq.VAL 1.4k
LOAD := SYMPOD1.N*0.00065 + M_LOAD.VAL P := 3 L1Q := 9.2m 6
1.2k
J := 5.55m KE := 0.334 4
1k
t - t0a >= TEa t - t0b >= TEb t - t0c >= TEc 2
0.8k
P11 P21 P22 P31 P32 0
P12 0.6k
-2 0.4k

z1 := 1 z2 := 1 z2 := 0 z3 := 1 z3 := 0 -4 0.2k
z1 := 0
z5 := 0 z5 := 1 z6 := 0 -6 0
z4 := 0 z4 := 1 z6 := 1 -0.2k
-8
t0a := t t0b := t t0c := t 0 50m 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 t [s] 0 50m 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 t [s]

t - t0a >= TP t - t0b >= TP t - t0c >= TP


I_iq I_n n
Control Signal Generation / Phase Transformation
I GAIN iq I GAIN Speed Control
KI := 29.02k
EQU theta_el:=SYMPOD1.PHIDEG * PI / 180.
UL := 10
G(s)

GS1
LL := -10 yalph:=cos(theta_el) * yd.VAL - sin(theta_el) * yq.VAL
UL := 9 ybeta:=sin(theta_el) * yd.VAL + cos(theta_el) * yq.VAL
LL := -9 P_Iq m_ref P_PART_n ust_in ust
ya:=yalph
Y t
LIMIT GAIN LIMIT GAIN GAIN yb:=-0.5 * yalph + ybeta * sqrt(3.) / 2.

yq KP := 0.76 yc:=-ya - yb
KP := 0.1161k
I_id id_ref TEa:=(ya / ustmax + 1) * TP2
I CONST TEb:=(yb / ustmax + 1) * TP2
TEc:=(yc / ustmax + 1) * TP / 2.
KI := 80
i1alph:=SYMPOD1.I1A
yd P_id GS2 id
i1beta:=(SYMPOD1.I1A + 2 * SYMPOD1.I1B) / sqrt(3.)
LIMIT GAIN G(s) GAIN i1d:=i1alph * cos(theta_el) + i1beta * sin(theta_el)

UL := 9 i1q:=i1beta * cos(theta_el) - i1alph * sin(theta_el)


KP := 0.76
LL := -9 theta_m:=theta_el / 3.

d-q-Current Controller
Generator System
QuickGraph1
Reactive power 1.70k ASM_1.N

compensation

Soft start 1.60k


bypass

Delta Star TH3


ET1 L1 R1
A TH4
+ +
+
V
ET2
L2 R2 vm_HS_U1 V 1.40k
TH5 A
A B M
3~ 0 2.00 3.00 t
+ + + C
TH6
ET3 vm_HS_U2 V V R1 := 1.13333m
L3 R3
R2 := 1.7m QuickGraph2
+ TH1 40.00 vm1.V
+ A LS1 := 0.135667m vm2.V
+
vm_HS_U3 V vm3.V
V TH2 LS2 := 84.6667u
25.00
L4 R4 + + + LM := 4.33333m
V V V I1A0 := 0

1n 1n vm33 vm22 vm11 I1B0 := 0


0
High Voltage Low Voltage I1C0 := 0
I2A0 := 0
TFR3LS1 Dy5 TFR3LP1 I2B0 := 0
I2C0 := 0 -25.00
N0 := 1.49k
-40.00
Time dependent changing of the capacitances PHI0 := 0 0 2.00 3.00 t
in the reactive power compensation LOAD := T_turbine
soft KI := -0.1k
SET: := con:=0
GAIN I SET: := C_con:=100u (t>=(0.65+(6*T_con))) (t>=(0.65+(8*T_con)))
(t>=(0.65+(2*T_con))) (t>=(0.65+(4*T_con)))
SET: := T_con:=0.05 (t>=0.65) State10_3
alpha2

(t>=(0.65+(3*T_con))) (t>=(0.65+(5*T_con))) con:=1


con:=1
(t>=(0.65+T_con)) (t>=(0.65+(7*T_con)))
Tmax:=-500 (t>0.1) (t>=0.6) (t>=2.5) (t>=3.5) (t>=4.5) (t>=4.8)
<---Timedependent changing of load torque
caused by the wind
net_in:=1 * Unom net_in:=1 * Unom net_in:=1 * Unom
net_in:=1 * Unom net_in:=1 * Unom net_in:=1 * Unom net_in:=1 * Unom
bypass:=0 SET: := bypass:=1 bypass:=1 Tmax:=-19000
Tmax:=-10000 Tmax:=-15000
main:=1 Tmax:=-500
Tmax:=-5000
alpha VA2_1
EQU tY ICA: EQU n_off2
Unom := 20k / 1.73 Pmech := T_turbine * ASM_1.N / 60 * 2 * 3.14 / 3
FILE := asynchronous_wind_generator5_ssh__alpha.mdx
toff := 1 / (2.1 * freq) C_com := 10u
TPERIO := 0.5 SET: ignit12:=0 SET: ignit22:=0 SET: := ignit32:=0
tignit := alpha.VAL / (360 * freq) risetime := 120 t > th3+toff or vm3.V>=0
PHASE := 0 vm1.V<0 and alpha.VAL<= risetime-1 vm2.V<0 and alpha.VAL<=risetime-1
freq := 50 PERIO := 0 T_turbine := -5000
am1 := 20k * sqrt(2) / sqrt(3) t>th1+toff or vm1.V>=0 vm3.V<0 and alpha.VAL <= risetime-1
Soft start curve t>th2+toff or vm2.V>=0

for alpha
Thyristor Control SET: th1:=t
SET: th2:=t SET: := th3:=t
DEL: ignit22 ## tignit

SET: ignit11:=0 SET: ignit21:=0 SET: ignit31:=0

t>th1+toff or vm1.V<=0 vm2.V>0 and alpha.VAL<=risetime-1 vm3.V>0 and alpha.VAL<=risetime-1

vm1.V>0 and alpha.VAL<=risetime-1 t>th2+toff or vm2.V<=0 t>th3+toff or vm3.V<=0

SET: th1:=t SET: th2:=t SET: th3:=t


Inverter Drive System
ETR UR
TH11 TH12 TH13

TH24 TH25 TH26


v_soll
EXT

60
n_soll
P

100
un_soll
P

5m
um_sollB
LIMITER

10 -10
un GRnP
P

4.67
ui_soll ui_sollB
LIMITER

7.5 -7.5
ui GRiP
P

0.168
ust ICA1
ICA :
Control loop
vsoll v_soll1 VA1_1
VA1 :
P
un_ist NEG1 GRnI GRiI
ETS US EXT 100 NEG I I
t

NE10
0.04775 350.385 45.446
ETT UT omg"MasTacho" 10 -10 10 -10
t

uni6 ui_ist NEG2


TH14 TH15 TH16 EXT EXT NEG SR1
t

NE3
0.04775 0.2 NE8
TH21 TH22 TH23 omg"MasTisch" i_a"DcmpMotor"
n_ist v_ist s_ist Start
NE41 Sp
EXT P I
ERS tY
NE6
9.549 0.16667m 1
UR US UT ERS omg"MasTacho" dssi P2
P1
n6 v6 s6
NE5
EXT P I
USynR USynS USynT
9.549 0.16667m 1 NE2 NE1 NE9 NE7
omg"MasTisch"
M lTT2
J J J J J lTT1 NE4
SR2

STF DCMP STF STF STF STF


VSoll
StfTachowelle DcmpMotor StfMotorwelle StfKpplg StfSpindel StfSpdlAxial
MasTacho c := 20k c := 35k MasKupplgLi c := 186k MasKpplgReSpdlLi c := 18k MasSpindelRe MasTisch
R_a := 1.28 c := 190
J := 0.15m J := 0.9m J := 1.55m J := 1.94m J := 0.57m
k_Vsc := 66.7m L_a := 4.749m k_Vsc := 0.24 k_Vsc := 0.39 k_Vsc := 0.223 k_Vsc := 0.095
k_Vsc := 1
k_e := 971m
I_a0 := 0

Mechanical Elements
J := 2.1m
k_Vsc := 0.25 State Machine
V01 V02 V03

30.00 i_a"Dc 200.0 u_a"D


20.00 NE11 NE12 NE15 NE16 NE21 NE22

0 Z11 Z21 Z12 Z22 Z13 Z23


0
-10.00 -100.0
0 500.0m 812.9m T 0 500.0m 812.9m T NE13 NE14 NE17 NE18 NE19 NE20

7.500m ssoll 7.500m s_ist


sist s6
5.000m sschl 5.000m NE23 NE24 NE25
W01 W02 W03

0 0
V04 V05 V06
-2.500m -2.500m
0 500.0m 812.9m T 0 500.0m 812.9m T
NE26 NE27 NE28 NE29 NE30 NE31
40.00 m_Dff 20.00m v6
m_Dff v_ist
25.00 m_Dff
m_Dff Z14 Z24 Z15 Z25 Z16 Z26
m_Dff
0 0
NE32 NE33 NE34 NE35 NE36 NE37
-20.00 -10.00m
0 500.0m 812.9m T 0 500.0m 812.9m T
NE38 NE39 NE40
W04 W05 W06
Drive System with FEA model
Includes: High Fidelity Machine FEA Model, Battery, Manufacture IGBTs, Closed-loop Current/Speed
Controls, Dynamic Mechanical Load and Digital Switching
V ROT1

ω
IGBT1 IGBT2 IGBT3 + Rotor

Im_IN T

ABC beta IN

TTheta IN
T

- +
Battery
M LOAD
LBATT A1
Im β ECE
ECE -- LINK
LINK
t Y

IGBT4 IGBT5 IGBT6


PRI := 1 yalph = 0 and ybeta = 0 SET: tx:=t SET: k:=1

d-q-Current Controller
I n n
I iq yalph > 0 and ybeta >= 0

I GAIN iq I GAIN (ybeta > 0 and yalph <= 0) or (yalph < 0 and ybeta <= 0)
ybeta < 0 and yalph >= 0
SET: gam1:=ASIN(ybeta/y)
KI := 240 KI := 29.02k
UL := 10
G(s)

GS1 true
LL := -10 true SET: gam1:=pi-ASIN(ybeta/y)
UL := 10
true SET: gam1:=2*pi+ASIN(ybeta/y)
LL := -10 P Iq m ref P PART n ust in ust
Y t
LIMIT GAIN LIMIT GAIN GAIN
SET: kr:=(k-1)*PI3
SET: kl:=k*PI3
yq KP := 1.96 KP := 0.1161k
SET: k:=k+1 SET: gam1:=gam1
I id id ref
I CONST
true

KI := 240
Speed Control
kl <= gam1
yd P id GS2 id SET: gamr:=gam1-kr
kr <= gam1 and kl > gam1
SET: tr:= kA*y*Tp*sin(PI3 - gamr)
LIMIT GAIN G(s) GAIN SET: tl:=kA*y*Tp*sin(gamr)
SET: t02:=(Tp-tr-tl)/2
UL := 10 KP := 1.96
LL := -10

k=2 or k=4 or k=6 k=1 or k=3 or k=5

Phase Transformation / Control Signal Generation by Space Vector Modulation


SET: z1:=1 SET: z4:=0 SET: z1:=0 SET: z4:=1
ICA: EQU SET: z2:=1 SET: z5:=0 SET: z2:=0 SET: z5:=1
A123 SET: z3:=1 SET: z6:=0 A456 SET: z3:=0 SET: z6:=1
fp:=10k wu32:=sqrt(3.) / 2.
theta_el:=SYMPOD1.PHIDEG * P18 if (y>10.) {y:=10.}
Tp:=1./fp P18:=pi / 180.
sinthe:=sin(theta_el) i1alph:=SYMPOD1.I1A
tx:=0 PI3:=pi / 3. t-tx>=t02 and k=2 t-tx>=t02 and k=4 t-tx>=t02 and k=6 t-tx>=t02 and k=1 t-tx>=t02 and k=3 t-tx>=t02 and k=5
costhe:=cos(theta_el) i1beta:=(SYMPOD1.I1A + 2 * SYMPOD1.I1B) / wu3
wu3:=sqrt(3.) gam1:=0.
yalph:=costhe * yd.VAL - sinthe * yq.VAL i1d:=i1alph * costhe + i1beta * sinthe
kA:=0.1 B156
ybeta:=sinthe * yd.VAL + costhe * yq.VAL i1q:=i1beta * costhe - i1alph * sinthe A126 A234 A135 B246 B345
SET: z3:=0 SET: z1:=1 SET: z5:=0 SET: z6:=0
y:=SQRT(SQU(yalph)+SQU(ybeta)) theta_m:=theta_el / 3. SET: z1:=0 SET: z2:=0
SET: z6:=1 SET: z5:=1 SET: z4:=0 SET: z2:=1 SET: z3:=1
SET: z4:=1

t-tx >= t02+tr t-tx >= t02+tr t-tx >= t02+tr t-tx >= t02+tr t-tx >= t02+tr t-tx >= t02+tr

A246 A345 A156 B126 B234 B135


SET: z3:=0 SET: z2:=1 SET: z6:=0 SET: z4:=0
SET: z1:=0 SET: z2:=0
SET: z6:=1 SET: z5:=0 SET: z3:=1
SET: z4:=1 SET: z5:=1 SET: z1:=1

t-tx >= t02+tr+tl t-tx >= t02+tr+tl t-tx >= t02+tr+tl t-tx >= t02+tr+tl t-tx >= t02+tr+tl t-tx >= t02+tr+tl

SET: z1:=0 SET: z4:=1 SET: z1:=1 SET: z4:=0


E456 SET: z2:=0 SET: z5:=1 E123 SET: z2:=1 SET: z5:=0
SET: z3:=0 SET: z6:=1 SET: z3:=1 SET: z6:=0
true

true PRI := 1 t-tx >= Tp


SET: k:=0 t-tx >= Tp and k = 0 SET: tx:=t

t-tx >= Tp
EMI Motor Drive Analysis
Includes: Busbar, Cable, IGBT Package Parasitics for EMI Application
ePhysics
What is ePhysics ?
• Coupled Thermal and Stress Analysis for electromagnetic devices
• Fully integrated with other Ansoft Desktops (Models, Materials, Mesh
etc.)
• Three Solvers:
9 Static Thermal
9 Transient Thermal
9 Static Stress

Magnetic Analysis Thermal Analysis


Thermal Solution for Motors

Convection &
Radiation
Boundary
Conditions

Temperature distribution

Features:
- Coupled Maxwell – ePhysics solution
- Automatic loss mapping
- Anisotropic material properties
- Adaptive time stepping
- Advanced convective – radiative BCs Temperature variation vs time
of the rotor yoke & coils
Stress Solution for Motors
Von Mises stress

Deformation / stress due to


combined electromagnetic
and centrifugal force
distributions Features:

- Coupled Maxwell – ePhysics solution


- Automatic force distribution mapping
- Anisotropic material properties
- Usage of load with spatial distribution

Permanent magnets,
rotor with centrifugal
force volume density with
10,000 rpm spatial distribution
Embedded PM Motor
Magnified deformation due to
centrifugal and EM forces

Rotor