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1. Alpha particles - Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound
together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus. They are generally produced in the
process of alpha decay, but may also be produced in other ways.
2. Alpha rays - Alpha "rays" are actually high speed particles. Early researchers tended to
refer to any form of energetic radiation as rays, and the term is still used. An alpha particle is
made up of two protons and two neutrons, all held together by the same strong nuclear
force that binds the nucleus of any atom.
3. Atom - An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the
properties of a chemical element. Every solid, liquid, gas, and plasma is composed of neutral
or ionized atoms. Atoms are extremely small; typical sizes are around 100 picometers.
4. Atomic charge - The electron always has a "-", or negative, charge. The proton
always has a "+", or positive, charge. If the charge of an entire atom is "0", or neutral, there
are equal numbers of positive and negative charges. Neutral atoms have equal numbers of
electrons and protons.
5. Atomic distance - Atomic spacing refers to the distance between the nuclei of
atoms in a material. This space is extremely large compared to the size of the atomic
nucleus, and is related to the chemical bonds which bind atoms together. The spacing
between atoms in most ordered solids is on the order of a few ångströms (a few tenths of a
nanometer). In very low density gasses (for example, in outer space) the average distance
between atoms can be as large as a meter.
6. Atomic energy - Atomic energy is energy carried by atoms. The term originated in
1903 when Ernest Rutherford began to speak of the possibility of atomic energy. The term
was popularized by H. G. Wells in the phrase, "splitting the atom", devised at a time prior to
the discovery of the nucleus.
7. Atomic mass - When discussing atoms, many people use atomic weight and atomic
mass interchangeably, even though they aren't quite the same thing either. Atomic mass is
defined as the number of protons and neutrons in an atom, where each proton and neutron
has a mass of approximately 1 amu (1.0073 and 1.0087, respectively).
8. Atomic number - The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical
element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. It is identical to the
charge number of the nucleus. The atomic number uniquely identifies a chemical element.
In an uncharged atom, the atomic number is also equal to the number of electrons.
9. Atomic pile - a nuclear reactor that uses controlled nuclear fission to generate energy.
atomic reactor, chain reactor, pile. nuclear reactor, reactor - (physics) any of several kinds of
apparatus that maintain and control a nuclear reaction for the production of energy or
artificial elements.
10. Atomic transmutation - Transmutation, conversion of one chemical element
into another. A transmutation entails a change in the structure of atomic nuclei and hence
may be induced by a nuclear reaction , such as neutron capture, or occur spontaneously by
radioactive decay, such as alpha decay and beta decay.
11. Atomic weight - Atomic weight. ... An isotope is one of two or more species of
atoms of the same chemical element that have different atomic mass numbers (protons +
neutrons). The atomic weight of helium is 4.002602, the average that reflects the typical
ratio of natural abundances of its isotopes.
12. Beta disintegration –
13. Beta emitter - beta emitter A radioisotope which decays by emitting an electron
particle. Beta emitters are labelled as “soft” emitters if the electron is of low energy and has
a short penetration distance, or “hard” if it is high-energy and with a great penetrating
14. Beta particle - A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is
a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an
atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay. There are two forms of beta decay, β−
decay and β+ decay, which produce electrons and positrons respectively. Beta particles with
an energy of 0.5 MeV have a range of about one metre in air; the distance is dependent on
the particle energy. Beta particles are a type of ionizing radiation and for radiation
protection purposes are regarded as being less ionising than alpha particles, but more
ionising than gamma rays. The higher the ionising effect, the greater the damage to living
15. Beta rays - a form of ionizing radiation emitted by radioactive substances (such as
radium), more penetrating than alpha rays, and consisting of negatively charged electrons.
The electrons are the same kind of particle as those of cathode rays, but have much higher
velocities (about 35,000 to 180,000 miles per second). They are readily deflected by a
magnetic or electric field.
16. Binding energy – Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum
energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts. This energy is
equal to the mass defect - the amount of energy, or mass, that is released when a bound
system (which typically has a lower potential energy than the sum of its constituent parts) is
created, and is what keeps the system together. If the energy supplied is more than the
binding energy, then the disassembled constituents possess non-zero kinetic energy.
17. Chain reaction - Chain reactions are one way that systems which are not in
thermodynamic equilibrium can release energy or increase entropy in order to reach a state
of higher entropy. For example, a system may not be able to reach a lower energy state by
releasing energy into the environment, because it is hindered or prevented in some way
from taking the path that will result in the energy release. If a reaction results in a small
energy release making way for more energy releases in an expanding chain, then the system
will typically collapse explosively until much or all of the stored energy has been released.
18. Critical mass - The mass corresponding to the critical size per fission reaction is
called as critical mass of that material. If the mass of the fissionable material is less than the
critical mass, nuclear fission would not occur. This situation is called sub critical. If the mass
of fissionable material is more than the critical mass, then the situation is called super
critical. Critical mass has always a definite value for any specific system.
19. Critical size - The actual size of material which allows the escape of neutrons to
such an extent that at least one neutron is positively left behind per fission reaction is
known as critical size.
20. Disintegration - is when one thing splits into parts or just ceases to exist. When
something is destroyed, broken up into pieces, or falls apart on its own, that’s
21. Electron –is an open-source framework developed and maintained by
GitHub. Electronallows for the development of desktop GUI applications using front and
back end components originally developed for web applications: Node.js runtime for the
backend and Chromium for the frontend.
22. Electron volt - a unit of energy equal to the energy gained by an electron in
passing from a point of low potential to a point one volt higher in potential : 1.60 × 10−19
joule. The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e− or β−, whose electric charge is
negative one elementary charge. Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton
particle family, and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no
known components or substructure. The electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836
that of the proton. Quantum mechanical properties of the electron include an intrinsic
angular momentum (spin) of a half-integer value, expressed in units of the reduced Planck
constant, ħ. As it is a fermion, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in
accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle. Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit
properties of both particles and waves: they can collide with other particles and can be
diffracted like light. The wave properties of electrons are easier to observe with experiments
than those of other particles like neutrons and protons because electrons have a lower mass
and hence a longer de Broglie wavelength for a given energy.
23. Free electron - any electron that is not attached to an ion, atom, or molecule and
is free to move under the influence of an applied electric or magnetic field.
24. Nuclear electron –
25. Nuclear wavelength –
26. Erg - The erg is the standard unit of energy in the centimeter-gram-second ( cgs ) or
small-unit metric system . It is an amount of energy equivalent to that expended by a force
of one dyne acting over a distance of one centimeter . This is a small unit of energy,
equivalent to 0.0000001 (one ten-millionth) of a joule . To convert from joules to ergs,
multiply by 10 7 . Conversely, multiply by 10 -7 .
27. Fission - An atom contains protons and neutrons in its central nucleus. In fission,
the nucleus splits, either through radioactive decay or because it has been bombarded by
other subatomic particles known as neutrinos. The resulting pieces have less combined mass
than the original nucleus, with the missing mass converted into nuclear energy.
28. Fission neutrons –
29. Fission neutron, delayed - In nuclear engineering, a delayed neutron is a
neutron emitted after a nuclear fission event, by one of the fission products (or actually, a
fission product daughter after beta decay), any time from a few milliseconds to a few
minutes after the fission event. Neutrons born within 10−14 seconds of the fission are
termed "prompt neutrons". A delay to control the chain reaction provided by Nature ...
Between 2.5 to 3 primary neutrons are emitted on average during a fission. The newly
formed fragments,, characterized by a large surplus in neutrons, undergo a series of beta
decays with varying periods to reach stability.
30. Fission neutron, prompt - a prompt neutron is a neutron immediately
emitted by a nuclear fission event, as opposed to a delayed neutron decay which can occur
within the same context, emitted after beta decay of one of the fission products anytime
from a few milliseconds to a few minutes later. Prompt neutrons emerge from the fission of
an unstable fissionable or fissile heavy nucleus almost instantaneously. There are different
definitions for how long it takes for a prompt neutron to emerge.
31. Fission nuclear - nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive
decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei). The
fission process often produces free neutrons and gamma photons, and releases a very large
amount of energy even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay.
32. Half-life - Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half
its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics to describe how quickly
unstable atoms undergo, or how long stable atoms survive, radioactive decay. The term is
also used more generally to characterize any type of exponential or non-exponential decay.
For example, the medical sciences refer to the biological half-life of drugs and other
chemicals in the human body. The converse of half-life is doubling time.
33. Heat of radioactivity –
34. Heavy hydrogen - Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol
D or 2H, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other
being protium, or hydrogen. The nucleus of deuterium, called a deuteron, contains one
proton and one neutron, whereas the far more common protium has no neutron in the
nucleus. Deuterium has a natural abundance in Earth's oceans of about one atom in 6420 of
hydrogen. Thus deuterium accounts for approximately 0.0156% (or, on a mass basis,
0.0312%) of all the naturally occurring hydrogen in the oceans, while protium accounts for
more than 99.98%. The abundance of deuterium changes slightly from one kind of natural
water to another (see Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water).
35. Heavy water – Heavy water is water that contains heavy hydrogen or deuterium.
Deuterium differs from the hydrogen usually found in water, protium, in that each atom of
deuterium contains a proton and a neutron. Heavy water may be deuterium oxide, D2O or it
may be deuterium protium oxide, DHO. Heavy water occurs naturally, although it is much
less common than regular water. Approximately one water molecule per twenty million
water molecules is heavy water.
36. Isobars – are atoms (nuclides) of different chemical elements that have the same
number of nucleons. Correspondingly, isobars differ in atomic number (or number
of protons) but have the same mass number. An example of a series of isobars would
be 40S, 40Cl, 40Ar, 40K, and 40Ca. The nuclei of these nuclides all contain 40 nucleons; however,
they contain varying numbers of protons and neutrons
37. Isomers –An isomer (/ˈaɪsəmər/; from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos = "equal",
méros = "part") of a molecule has the same number of atoms of each element, but has a
different arrangement of the atoms. It has the same molecular formula as the other
molecule, but with a different chemical structure. Isomers do not necessarily share similar
properties, unless they also have the same functional groups. There are two main forms
of isomerism (/ˈaɪsəməˌrɪzəm, aɪˈsɒ-/): structural isomerism (or constitutional isomerism)
and stereoisomerism (or spatial isomerism).
38. Isotones-Two nuclides are isotones if they have the same neutron number N, but
different proton number Z. For example, boron-12 and carbon-13 nuclei both contain
7 neutrons, and so are isotones. Similarly, 36S, 37Cl, 38Ar, 39K, and 40Ca nuclei are all isotones
of 20 because they all contain 20 neutrons. Despite its similarity to the Greek for "same
stretching", the term was formed by the German physicist K. Guggenheimer[1] by changing
the "p" in "isotope" from "p" for "proton" to "n" for "neutron".[2]
39. Isotope-are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron
number. All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.
The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos
(τόπος "place"), meaning "the same place"; thus, the meaning behind the name is that
different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table.
40. Mass defect – Proton and neutron are the constituent particles of nucleus. But
the mass of a nucleus is found to differ from the sum of masses of proton and neutron .This
difference in mass is known as mass defect.
41. Metastatic electron –
42. Mass number – The mass number in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic
mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is
identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass
number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element.
43. Neutron number – The neutron number, symbol N, is the number
of neutrons in a nuclide. Atomic number (proton number) plus neutron number
equals mass number: Z+N=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic
number is known as the neutron excess: D = N - Z = A- 2Z.Neutron number is rarely written
explicitly in nuclide symbol notation, but appears as a subscript to the right of the element
44. Nuclear atom – a conceptual model of the atom developed by Ernest Rutherford
in which a small positively charged nucleus is surrounded by planetary electrons.
45. Nuclear breeder –A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more
fissile material than it consumes. These devices achieve this because their neutron economy
is high enough to breed more fissile fuel than they use from fertile material, such as
uranium-238 or thorium-232.
46. Nuclear fuel – is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce
heat to power turbines. Heat is created when nuclear fuel undergoes nuclear fission. Most
nuclear fuels contain heavy fissile elements that are capable of nuclear fission, such as
Uranium-235 or Plutonium-239.
47. Nuclear power – is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to
generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity
in a nuclear power plant. Nuclear power can be obtained from nuclear fission, nuclear decay
and nuclear fusion.
48. Nuclear reactions – In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear
reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus
of an atom and a subatomic particle from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more
nuclides that are different from the nuclide that began the process.
49. Nuclear reactor – A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a
device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction. Nuclear reactors
are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in propulsion of ships.
50. Nucleon –In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron,
considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus. The number of nucleons in a
nucleus defines an isotope's mass number. Until the 1960s, nucleons were thought to be
elementary particles, not made up of smaller parts.
51. Nucleus – The nucleus is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Inside its fully
enclosed nuclear membrane, it contains the majority of the cell's genetic material. This
material is organized as DNA molecules, along with a variety of proteins, to form
52. Nuclide – A nuclide is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution
of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear
energy state. The word nuclide was proposed by Truman P. Kohman in 1947.
53. Parasitic capture –
54. Photon –The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the
electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier
for the electromagnetic force. The photon has zero rest mass and always moves at the
speed of light within a vacuum.
55. Plutonium – is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic
number 94. It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed
to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized. The element normally exhibits six allotropes
and four oxidation states.
56. Positron – The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter
counterpart of the electron. The positron has an electric charge of +1 e, a spin of 1/2, and
has the same mass as an electron. When a positron collides with an electron, annihilation
57. Proton – is a subatomic particle, symbol p or p⁺ , with a positive electric charge of
+1e elementary charge and a mass slightly less than that of a neutron. Protons and
neutrons, each with masses of approximately one atomic mass unit, are collectively referred
to as "nucleons".
58. Radioactivity – Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear
decay, radioactivity or nuclear radiation) is the process by which an unstable atomic
nucleusloses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as
an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron
capture, or a gamma ray or electron in the case of internal conversion. A material containing
such unstable nuclei is considered radioactive. Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear
states can decay through neutron emission, or more rarely, proton emission.
59. Radiation, electromagnetic – electromagnetic radiation (EM
radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic
field, propagating (radiating) through space, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.[1] It
includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma
60. Thermal neutrons - A thermal-neutron reactor is a nuclear reactor that uses
slow or thermal neutrons. ("Thermal" does not mean hot in an absolute sense, but means
in thermal equilibrium with the medium it is interacting with, the reactor's fuel, moderator
and structure, which is much lower energy than the fast neutrons initially produced by