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# CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF PUNJAB

## Submitted to:- dr. acHCHHE lal sharma sir

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES

Submitted by:-
Name– prachi jain
Reg.no.-19mscphy01
Session-2019-2020
Semester -i
CONTENTS
 WHAT IS FEEDBACK?

 TYPES OF FEEDBACK

##  APPLICATIONS OF NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

 EFFECTS OF FEEDBACK
Acknowledgement
In the accomplishment of this term paper successfully, many
people have best owned upon me their blessings and their heart
pledged support. This time I am willing to thank all the people
who have been concerned with this term paper.
Primarily I would thank god for being able to complete this term
paper with success. Then I would like to thank all my teachers
whose valuable guidance has been the ones that helped me patch
this term paper and make it full proof success. Their guidance,
suggestions and their instructions have served as a major
contributor towards the completion of this term paper.
Then I would like to thank my parents and friends who have
helped me with their valuable suggestions, has been very helpful
in various phases of completion of this term paper
Last but not the least I would like to thank those who have helped
me a lot during this particular term paper.

Thank You……
introduction
WHAT IS FEEDBACK?
Feedback means to eject some portion of output into the input channel. Through
feedbacking the strength of the input signal can be increased. According to their phase
difference between the input channel voltage and the output channel voltage, they are
being characterized in two types.
So in electronics we can confine that feedback is an event which involves
feedbacking of output signal at the input channel. Due to this, sometimes
feedback is proved to be a good option or bad option, because feedbacking alters
the variables in the system, therefore resulting in different outputs.
Figure: feedback circuit

## As depicted by this diagram, feedback can be

seen properly.As shown in this
figure, output is given back into the input
channel which will tend to increase the strength of the input at the channel.This
feedbacking also decreases the noise level and thus helps in stabilising the
circuits.
TYPES OF FEEDBACK
Generally, the method of introducing some small part of output
voltage/current back to the input terminal is known as the feedback. So,
by using this process of feedbacking, the noise level can be reduced
easily and will help to maintain the output of the amplifier constant.
These are mainly divided into two types based on the signal that is
fed back into the input channel, these are as follows:-

Positive feedback:When the input signal and the feedback signal both
introduces the phase of 180degree thus contributing the net phase change of
360degree and finally the signal at the input channel and the signal at the
output channel will come in phase, then it will be called positive feedback.

Negative feedback: When the signal at the input and the signal at the output are
not in phase with each other, or when the input and the output will be having the phase
difference of 180degree and when the feedback introduces no phase. Then the output
will remain exactly opposite to the signal at the input terminal.
WORKING OF NEGATIVE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS:-

Like as the diagram shown, the negative feedback amplifiers are those amplifiers in
which output is fed back into the input and the alignment of the input and the output
voltages will get changed with respect to each other. There is a summing junction at its
input which helps to subtract some part of the feedback Vf from the input Vs and Vi will
be obtained which is again feedback at the input channel of the amplifier which is
exactly in out of phase with the output.
So, Vi= Vs - Vf
Where Vs is the voltage given at the input and Vf is the signal given at the feedback
There are basically two main types of negative feedback circuits:-
1. NEGATIVE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK
2. POSITIVE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK
NEGATIVE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK
This is further divided into two types:
Voltage series feedback
Voltage shunt feedback

## NEGATIVE CURRENT FEEDBACK

This is further divided into two main types
Current series feedback
Current shunt feedback

## In this network, through the feedback loop, some part of the

output voltage is fed in series with the input voltage. This is also
called as a parallel-series circuit.

As the figure shows, as the feedback channel is connected in shunt with the
output channel, so the net output impedance will be decreased and
consequently due to the series connection between the feedback channel
and the input channel, the input impedance will be increased.
2. Voltage Shunt Feedback:-
In this type of feedback, some part of the output voltage is applied in parallel with input
voltage. So, it is also called as the parallel-parallel prototype connection.
As the feedback is inserted in shunt with the input signal and also the feedback signal is
inserted in shunt with the output signal as well, therefore both input and output
impedances will be decreased.

## 3. Current series feedback:-

In this type of circuit- Through the feedback network some part of the output voltage is
applied at the series with the input channel or we can see here from the diagram that
both the input and output signals are connected in series with the feedback due to
which the input and output impedances will increase and therefore the circuit is known
as the current series feedback

4. Current shunt feedback:-In this type of network, the input channel and the feedback
channel are connected in series and some part of the output signal is provided in series
with the input voltage through the feedback network and thus it is called as the series
driven shunt feedback.
Here as depicted in this diagram, the feedback network is being connected in series
with the output, so output impedance will be increased but at the moment when the
feedback is going to connect in parallel with the input, then the input impedance will be
decreased.

## BENEFITS OF GIVING NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

REDUCES NOISE
LESS DISTORTION
REDUCED FREQUENCY DISTORTION
LESS PHASE DISTORTION
INCREASE STABILITY
INCREASE BANDWIDTH
ACHIEVE GAIN STABILITY
BETTER STABILIZED VOLTAGE GAIN
INPUT/ OUTPUT IMPEDANCE CAN BE CHANGED AS DESIRED
HIGHER FIDELITY

 There are many benefits of giving the negative feedback over positive feedback,
as discussed above .The major difference between both is that positive
feedback will amplify any change and negative feedback will reduce the change.
GAIN OF NEGATIVE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS:-

## As depicted above, Av is the gain which is given without feedback. Negative

feedback is then applied by feeding some portion (β) of the output voltage Vo
back to the input terminal. Therefore, the final input is the difference between the
signal input and the feedback input voltage.
So, Vi=Vs-βVo
Then, the output voltage must equal to the input voltage (Vs-βVo) multiplied by the
gain Av of the amplifier i.e.,
(Vs-βVo)Av=Vo
VsAv-βVoAv=Vo
VsAv=Vo(1+βAv)
Hence, Vo = {Av/ (1+βAv)} Vs
Vo/Vs is the voltage gain of the amplifier with the feedback
Therefore voltage gain with negative feedback is
Avf ={Av/(1+βAv)}
It is seen that the gain of the amplifier without feedback is Av but after giving the
feedback, the gain will be reduced by the factor (1+βAv). The current gain of the
amplifier will not be altered by giving the negative feedback to the circuit.

APPLICATIONs:
1. Inverting operational amplifiers:-

 This is the fig depicting how the negative feedback works in operational amplifier
 Whenever dealing with operational amplifiers, there are two very vital rules to
take care of while working with the inverting amplifiers, first one is zero current
will flow into the input terminal, and the second one is V1=V2 but in real world
of operational amplifier
 These rules got slightly broken. This is due to the fact that the input junction and
the feedback signal are at the same potentials i.e.,zero(0)volts, the junction is
called as a virtual ground.

Now utilizing these two rules, the equation for closed loop gain of negative feedback
operational amplifiers can be derived.
i=Vin-Vout/Rin+Rf
Therefore, i=Vin-V2/Rin=V2-Vout/Rf
i= (Vin/Rin)-(V2/Rin)=(V2/Rf)-(Vout/Rf)
So, Vin/Rin=V2[1/Rin+1/Rf]-Vout/Rf
And as, i=(Vin-0)/Rin=(0-Vout)/Rf
Rf/Rin=0-Vout/Vin-0
So, the closed loop gain of the circuit is given as,
Vout/Vin=-Rf/Ri
Vout=-(Rf/Rin)×Vi
Where, the negative sign shows that the output is 180◦ out of
phase from the input signal. This property can be used to change a
smaller sensor signal to much larger voltage.
Another major working of an inverting amplifier that is
‘‘transresistance’ amplifier’, it can easily convert the
current into voltage.
1. These amplifiers are basically used to transform a
small value of current generated by the photodiode into
the large value of voltage which varies directly with
the amount of input given to the circuit.

##  EFFECTS OF NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

1.STABILITY OF GAIN:-
Negative feedback plays a very significant role in electronics. The major advantage of
introducing negative feedback is that it decreases the net gain by the factor of (1+β
A)where A is the gain without any feedback.

Avf=A/(1+βA)

## 2. NON –LINEAR DISTORTION

It is quite clear that a large signal has more non-linear distortions as its output is
changing at every point of time in the cycle. So, at that time , the distortions can be
compensated.

And as we have derived that introducing the negative feedback will decrease the gain
by the factor 1+βA and thus the circuit gets stable.

Dvf=D/1+βA

## D=distortion without any feedback

3. FREQUENCY RESPONSE
As we have seen from the above explanation that generally the feedback is taken
through the resistive circuit. Thus, the frequency will not alter the voltage gain of the
circuit. The result is that the output voltage of the amplifier remains same over a
broad range of frequencies. Then we can say that negative feedback will help to
improves the frequency response curve of the amplifier.

4. CIRCUIT STABILITY
The output of a feedback amplifier will be easily changed if the temperature,
frequency of the signal and amplitude of the signal will get changed and hence the
amplifier’s gain will also change and will cause distortion in the network. Negative
feedback will help to stabilize the circuit because let us suppose, the output voltage
will be varied due to the change in the various factors like temperature, or it might be
any reason .Hence, the negative feedback will also change because more feedback is
being given from the output to the input. This will tend to prevent any variations in
the input or will oppose any type of increase in amplification at the input channel and
thus maintains the stability.

## 5. EFFECT ON INPUT IMPEDANCE OUTPUT

IMPEDANCE
As we give the negative feedback, the given(input) impedance will increase but the
given(output) impedance will decrease. Such a process is very helpful in impedance
matching.

REFERENCES:-
1. V.K.MEHTA AND ROHIT MEHTA[ISBN-978-81-219-2450-4]
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRONICS, LOCATION-NEW DELHI, PAGE NO.-
336,338,342,343
2. www.electronicstutorials.co.in/#negative_feedback_amplifiers?
3. www.tutorialspoint.com/#feedback_amplifier?
4. www.elprocus.com/#amplifiers_feedback_characteristics?