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Investigating the Relationship between the Aperture of

a Camera and a Geometric Sequence

School Name : -----

Candidate Number : -----

Examination Session : May 2016

Subject : Mathematics

Level : Standard

Assignment : Internal Assessment

James Adhitthana

Sequence

1 INTRODUCTION

The aim of this investigation is to find the relationship between the aperture of a camera

and a geometric sequence. As a photography enthusiast, I wondered about how a camera is able to

turn a live scene and freeze it into an image. Photography used to be a time consuming and

complicated hobby. However, the development of technology has enabled anyone to take their

own pictures simply by using the devices they have in their pockets. As a camera becomes a more

common tool/feature with the era of selfie, it seems that we do not actually understand how the

camera itself works, especially how it is able to capture light and turn it into a digital image.

A camera is inseparable from light. An image’s exposure, meaning the amount of light per

unit area allowed to reach the camera’s sensor during the process of taking a photograph,

determines how bright or dark an image appears1. A factor that affects the exposure is called the

aperture. This is a controllable circle shaped opening in the lens which directly affects the sum of

light that gets in the camera sensor2. Aperture is measured in F-stop or f-number, with a larger

number signifying a smaller opening in the lens resulting in lesser light received by the sensor;

and a lower F-stop number creating a bigger diameter in the lens opening. It can be said that the

relationship between the diameter and the F-stop number is inversely proportional to each other.

Some examples of F-stop numbers and of the apertures can be seen in the picture below. The letter

“ƒ/” signifies that it is an F-stop number.

1

"Exposure." What Is ? Webopedia Definition. QuinStreet Inc. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

<http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/E/exposure.html>.

2

Cheney, Mack L., Robert J. Galla, and Tessa A. Hadlock. Facial Surgery: Plastic and Reconstructive. Boca Raton,

Fla.: CRC, Taylor Et Francis, 2015. Google Books. Google Books, 2 Dec. 2014. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

<https://books.google.co.id/books?id=z07rBgAAQBAJ>.

1

James Adhitthana

Figure 1. Aperture and the inverse relationship of how the different f-stop looks like inside the lens

(modified image from: http://mitchmartinez.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Exposure-Graphics-Aperture.gif.png )

Aperture can simply be represented as the pupil of a human eye which dilates and contracts

depending on the amount of light that is allowed to enter the retina. F-stop numbers are the most

widely used sequence or set of numbers used in photography. However, the unique sequence of

numbers needs an explanation on how the abnormal sequence works. My main goal in this

investigation was to apply mathematics to investigate the sequence that lies behind the F-stop

numbers and to explore the relationship between F-stop numbers and the diameter and area of the

circular aperture opening in the lens. Other than that, the relationship between F-stop number and

lighting will be analyzed by looking at histograms. If these aims are fulfilled, this will help myself

and others understand how cameras work and give credit to the mathematics that cameras deserve.

In any camera, the standard F-stop numbers are given by this set of numbers (“ƒ/” signifies F-

stop number). For example, for F-stop number 4, it will become ƒ/4.

ƒ/1 ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2 ƒ/2.8 ƒ/4 ƒ/5.6 ƒ/8 ƒ/11 ƒ/16 ƒ/22

To determine the sequence inside the numbers F-stop number, we can divide the numbers into two

sets:

2

James Adhitthana

By dividing the numbers into two sets, it is visible that these numbers are actually mathematical

patterns or geometric sequences which is basically the set of numbers that is obtained by

multiplying the previous number by a fixed value called the common ratio (r). The sequence is

able to be found by using the geometric sequence formula. The formula is broken down into a1

which is the first term of the sequence, r being the common ratio, and n being the number of the

term to find.

𝑎𝑛 = 𝑎1 × 𝑟 𝑛−1

We can use this formula to find the first and second set of number. In this example, the first and

second value is used inside the formula.

2 = 1 × 𝑟 2−1 2.8 = 1.4 × 𝑟 2−1

2 = 1 × 𝑟1 2.8 = 1.4 × 𝑟 1

𝑟 = 2/1 𝑟 = 2.8/1.4

𝑟=2 𝑟=2

The entire F-stop range can be found by multiplying by the common ratio (r) of 2. This geometric

ratio signifies how the diameter of the aperture is doubled. Yet, by grouping these numbers into

two sets, going to the next number in each set presents jumps in two F-stops.

In photography, the amount of light entering the lens depends on the area of the aperture

hole which is shaped as a circle. When we decrease an F-stop number to the previous stop, the

amount of light is doubled because the opening area of aperture is doubled. When the F-stop

number is increased by one, the opposite happens, the amount of light is cut by half. However, if

the diameter of a circle is doubled, then the area of the circle quadruples. The aperture becomes 4

times larger because the area varies in relation to the square of the radius. Thus, doubling the radius

is identically equivalent to saying 2², which is 4. Therefore, to double the area of the circle, the

3

James Adhitthana

diameter of the aperture must be multiplied by the square root of 2 (rounded to 1.4) instead. 3 On

the other hand, to half the area of the circle, the diameter is divided by the square root of 2 (rounded

to 0.7). To summarize, every time we multiply the diameter by the square root of two, the area of

the aperture is doubled. If the diameter is multiplied by two, the area will be quadrupled.

From this information, we can create formulae to find the next and the previous F-stop

number. In the formula 𝑎𝑛 signifies the current f-stop number.4

𝑎𝑛+1 = √2 × 𝑎𝑛

1

𝑎𝑛−1 = × 𝑎𝑛

√2

For example, we can use this formula to find the next and the previous F-stop number of f/8.

𝑎𝑛+1 = √2 × 8

√2 × 8 = 11.313

1

𝑎𝑛−1 = ×8

√2

1

× 8 = 5.657

√2

When referring to the standard f-stop numbers, note that on the bottom row of the first formula of

finding the aperture number√2 × 8 = 11.313 and not 11 and on the second formula

1

× 8 = 5.657 and not 5.6. However, in the photography, the number is made 11 and 5.6 to make

√2

the figures convenient to remember although the actual aperture value used by the lens is 11.313

and 5.657 as proven by the recent formula.

3

Kumar, Sinu. "Relationship Between F-Stop Numbers and the Size of the Diaphragm Opening." : Relationship

Between F-Stop Numbers and the Size of the Diaphragm Opening Explained. School of Digital Photography, 27

Nov. 2013. Web. 8 Mar. 2016. <http://www.school-of-digital-photography.com/2013/11/relationship-between-

fstop-numbers-and-the-size-of-the-diaphragm-opening-explained.html>.

4

Saad, Tony. "Please Make A Note." : The Mathematics of F/stop Aperture Numbers. Tony Saad, 4 Oct. 2010.

Web. 11 Mar. 2016. <http://pleasemakeanote.blogspot.co.id/2010/10/mathematics-of-fstop-aperture-numbers.html>.

4

James Adhitthana

It is now observable how the F-stop numbers are basically multiples of a fixed number of √2.

Therefore, we can then use the formula to find the next aperture numbers.

ƒ/1 ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2 ƒ/2.8 ƒ/4 ƒ/5.6 ƒ/8 ƒ/11 ƒ/16 ƒ/22

𝑓 𝑓 𝑓 𝑓 𝑓 𝑓 𝑓 𝑓 𝑓 𝑓

/(√2)0 /(√2)1 /(√2)2 /(√2)3 /(√2)4 /(√2)5 /(√2)6 /(√2)7 /(√2)8 /(√2)9

5

Figure 2. Illustration showing the diameter of a lens and the focal length.

To find the diameter value of the aperture, another factor that affects the size of the aperture

is the focal distance called the focal length (ƒ) or the distance from the lens to the camera sensor

in millimeters. In photography, the focal length is how much zoom the lens makes. The bigger the

focal length, the more zoom the lens makes. A lens has several F-stops because there is a variable

5

Burden, Robert. "What Is an F-stop and Why Is It Important in Photography?" The Canadian Nature Photographer

-. The Canadian Nature Photographer, 8 Aug. 2008. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

<http://www.canadiannaturephotographer.com/fstop.html>.

5

James Adhitthana

diaphragm inside the lens that is controllable. Therefore, ƒ/4 is essentially ƒ divided by 4. We can

use this information to find the diameter of the lens aperture.

𝑓𝑜𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ

𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 =

𝐹 𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑝

Let’s say that the focal length of the lens or the distance from the lens to the camera sensor is

50mm (the most common focal length in photography) and the F-stop number is ƒ/4. We can then

find the diameter of the aperture by using the formula above.

50𝑚𝑚

𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 =

4

𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 12.50𝑚𝑚

Therefore, the F-stop value ƒ/4 means that the aperture diameter for a given lens has an effective

maximum opening of one fourth of its focal length. With this information, we can also find the

radius of the current aperture.

𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝑅𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 =

2

12.5

𝑅𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 =

2

𝑅𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 = 6.25𝑚𝑚

Since we know the radius, we are now able to find the area of the current aperture.

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝜋 × 𝑟 2

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝜋 × 6.252

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 122.65𝑚𝑚2

6

James Adhitthana

Lens focal length Aperture Diameter Radius Area

F-Stop Number

(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm2)

1 50 50.00 25.00 1962.50

1.4 50 35.71 17.86 1001.28

2 50 25.00 12.50 490.63

2.8 50 17.86 8.93 250.32

4 50 12.50 6.25 122.66

5.6 50 8.93 4.46 62.58

8 50 6.25 3.13 30.66

11 50 4.55 2.27 16.22

16 50 3.13 1.56 7.67

22 50 2.27 1.14 4.05

From the table, we can observe that even though the lens’ focal length to the camera sensor is the

same, the aperture diameter is getting smaller when the F-stop is increased resulting in a smaller

radius and smaller area of the circle. This is one of the reasons why a photo taken is too dark. It is

because the diameter of the aperture is small and therefore it lets less light into the lens and to the

sensor. Thus, in photography moving forward from one F-stop to the next one will cut the amount

of light reaching the sensor in half because the diameter of the aperture opening is halved, letting

in half as much light to the sensor. On the other hand, moving backward from one F-stop to the

previous F-stop would mean that the amount of light reaching the sensor is doubled because the

diameter and area of the aperture opening is doubled. The table clearly shows the inverse

relationship between the F-stop number and the aperture diameter where the F-stop number is

inversely proportional to the diameter of the aperture.

3 HISTOGRAM

Aperture and the various F-stop numbers allow a digital camera to control how much light

goes into the camera sensor that affects the brightness or darkness of the image taken. However,

how does a photographer determine how much he or she needs to adjust the F-stop number so that

the image is perfectly exposed (neither too bright nor too dark)? It turns out, in photography the

usage of histograms is very important in order to get a perfectly exposed image. A histogram is a

type of graph that sanctions a photographer to discern how the values of some data are distributed.

7

James Adhitthana

In photography, a histogram of the values of black and white is used to analyze how dark (black

color) and how bright (white color) an image is. Most digital cameras will blissfully show a

histogram of values for the image a photographer is about to take. If the camera is in automatic

mode, it will automatically adjust the camera settings to take a perfectly exposed image.

The question is, what are actually these values that the histograms show us? In order to

understand what the histogram means to the camera and photographer, we need to know how

digital pictures are made. A digital image captured by a camera is fundamentally a two-

dimensional grid of numbers, each of which belongs to a single pixel in the image. Every one of

these pixels represents the brightness of a given spot in the image.6 Computers store numbers in a

binary format, meaning that all signals inside a computer have two (and only two) different

therefore binary values: 0 and 1.7 In computer terminology, one piece of information which can

store either 0 or 1 is called a bit.8 In a digital image, every single pixel of an image uses 8 bits of

memory to store each value.

Therefore, we can calculate how many possible values of a shade of color (in the case of image

brightness: black and white) for every pixel of an image:

Basically each pixel has one of 28 = 256 possible color values from 0 which is the darkest tone of

black to 255 which is the brightest value of white. The closer the number is to 0 the darker the

pixel is and the closer the value is to 255 the brighter the pixel is.

6

Marshall, Jason. "How to Use Histograms to Take Better Pictures." The Math Dude. Quick and Dirty Tips, 18 Dec.

2015. Web. 13 Mar. 2016. <http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/math/how-to-use-histograms-to-take-

better-pictures?page=1>.

7

Watson, Gray. "The Story of 256." The Story of 256. Gray Watson, 2002. Web. 16 Mar. 2016.

<http://256.com/256.html>.

8

Ibid.

8

James Adhitthana

Figure 3. An example of a histogram with a visualization of the data presented. In this example, the image is said to be over-

9

exposed (too bright)

A histogram is a bar graph that is compacted together with no spaces between each bar.

Since an image has millions of pixels (this is why cameras have “megapixels”), we are not able to

see each individual bar in a photo histogram although it is actually there. In essence, the photo

histogram shows how properly exposed an image is and tells the camera to automatically adjust

the aperture and other settings so that the final image taken is not too dark nor too bright. In theory,

a perfect image should have a bell curve or a normal distribution. We do not want an image to be

too dark or too bright, but we want it to have perfect brightness where most of the image details

are visible.

9

Hildebrandt, Darlene. "How to Read and Use Histograms - Digital Photography School." Digital Photography

School How to Read and Use Histograms Comments. Digital Photography School, 2012. Web. 08 Mar. 2016.

<http://digital-photography-school.com/how-to-read-and-use-histograms/>.

9

James Adhitthana

From the example photos above, it is made possible to see the relationship between aperture and

the histogram. From the series of pictures shown above, it can be concluded how the aperture

affects the amount of light that enters the camera. The histogram proves how going from one F-

stop number to the next cuts the quantity of light entering the camera in half by showing how the

𝑥 axis, which represents the brightness of pixels, is shifting. The 𝑦 axis which represents the

number of pixels is also shown to keep a similar shape when the 𝑥 axis changes.

5 CONCLUSION

This exploration has allowed me to explore the application of mathematics in our daily lives

that too often are there without us realizing it. It turns out that the F-stop number that controls the

aperture of a camera does not come from a random number, but is based on a geometric sequence.

The standard F-stop scale is essentially a geometric sequence of numbers that corresponds to the

sequence of the powers of the square root of 2 because an aperture is shaped as a circle. Just like

a pupil, the aperture is in charge of controlling the area of the aperture or the opening of the lens

that lets light in to the sensor controlled by the F-stop number. Decreasing the F-stop number by

one stop will double the brightness of an image because it will increase the diameter of the aperture

and in turn increase the area of the aperture letting double the amount of light into the lens and

10

James Adhitthana

into the sensor. Increasing an F-stop number by one stop will half the brightness of an image

because it will decrease the diameter of the aperture and in turn decrease the area of the aperture

letting half as much light into the lens and into the sensor.

This relationship between the F-stop number and the area of the aperture hole is an inverse

relationship. To prove how increasing the F-stop number halves the amount of light going into the

sensor, a histogram of the values of black and white is used to analyze how dark (black color) and

how bright (white color) an image is. The histogram maps out each pixels that has one of 28 = 256

possible color values from 0 which is the darkest tone of black to 255 which is the brightest value

of white. The 𝑦 axis represents the number of pixels. On the 𝑥 axis, the closer the value is to 0, the

darker the pixel is; and the closer the value is to 255, the brighter the pixel is. How increasing the

F-stop number decreases the amount of light of an image by half is shown in a histogram by the 𝑥

axis shift without the 𝑦 axis shape changing significantly. In theory, a perfect image should have

a bell curve or a normal distribution. We do not want an image to be too dark or too bright, but we

want it to have perfect brightness where most of the image details are visible. Thanks to this

mathematics exploration, I have learned a lot in order to take better photos and to determine

whether a photo is too dark or bright. Mathematics do permeates our daily life.

11

James Adhitthana

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Burden, Robert. "What Is an F-stop and Why Is It Important in Photography?" The Canadian

Nature Photographer -. The Canadian Nature Photographer, 8 Aug. 2008. Web. 02 Apr.

2016. <http://www.canadiannaturephotographer.com/fstop.html>.

Cheney, Mack L., Robert J. Galla, and Tessa A. Hadlock. Facial Surgery: Plastic and

Reconstructive. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC, Taylor Et Francis, 2015. Google Books. Google

Books, 2 Dec. 2014. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

<https://books.google.co.id/books?id=z07rBgAAQBAJ>.

<http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/E/exposure.html>.

Hildebrandt, Darlene. "How to Read and Use Histograms - Digital Photography School." Digital

Photography School How to Read and Use Histograms Comments. Digital Photography

School, 2012. Web. 08 Mar. 2016. <http://digital-photography-school.com/how-to-read-

and-use-histograms/>.

Kumar, Sinu. "Relationship Between F-Stop Numbers and the Size of the Diaphragm Opening." :

Relationship Between F-Stop Numbers and the Size of the Diaphragm Opening Explained.

School of Digital Photography, 27 Nov. 2013. Web. 8 Mar. 2016. <http://www.school-of-

digital-photography.com/2013/11/relationship-between-fstop-numbers-and-the-size-of-

the-diaphragm-opening-explained.html>.

Marshall, Jason. "How to Use Histograms to Take Better Pictures." The Math Dude. Quick and

Dirty Tips, 18 Dec. 2015. Web. 13 Mar. 2016.

<http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/math/how-to-use-histograms-to-take-

better-pictures?page=1>.

Saad, Tony. "Please Make A Note." : The Mathematics of F/stop Aperture Numbers. Tony Saad,

4 Oct. 2010. Web. 11 Mar. 2016.

<http://pleasemakeanote.blogspot.co.id/2010/10/mathematics-of-fstop-aperture-

numbers.html>.

Watson, Gray. "The Story of 256." The Story of 256. Gray Watson, 2002. Web. 16 Mar. 2016.

<http://256.com/256.html>.

12

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