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CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION I
I. The Roots of Liberal-Democratic Theory I
2. Problems of Interpretation 4
II. HOBBES: THE POLITICAL OBLIGATION OF
THE MARKET 9
1. Philosophy and Political Theory 9
2. Human Nature and the State of Nature 17
(i) Abstraction from Society 17
(ii) The State of Nature 19
(iii) From Physiological to Social Motion 29
3. Models of Society: 46
(i) The Use of Models 46
(ii) Customary or Status Society 49
(iii) Simple Market Society 51
(iv) Possessive Market Society 53
(v) Hobbes and the Possessive Model 61
(vi) The Inadequacy of the State of Nature 68
4. Political Obligation 70
(i) From Motivation to Obligation 70
(ii) Moral or Prudential Obligation? 72
(iii) The Postulate of Equality 74
(iv) Morality, Science, and the Market 78
(v) The Presumption of Obligation from Fact 81
5. Penetration and Limits of Hobbes's Political Theory 87
(i) Historical Prerequisites of the Deduction 87
(ii) The Self-perpetuating Sovereign 90
(iii) Congruence of Sovereignty and Market Society 95
(iv) Some Objections Reconsidered 100

III. THE LEVELLERS: FRANCHISE AND FREEDOM 10 7


I. The Problem of the Franchise 10 7

2. Types of Franchise III


x CONTENTS
3. The Record II7
(i) The Chronology II7
(ii) Putney and After I20
(iii) Before Putney I29
(iv) Summing-up I3 6
4. Theoretical Implications I37
(i) The Property in One's Person I37
(ii) The Deduction of Rights and the Grounds for Exclusion I42
(iii) Levellers' and Independents' Individualism I48
(iv) Limits and Direction of the Levellers' Individualism I 54-

IV. HARRINGTON: THE OPPORTUNITY STATE I60


I. Unexamined Ambiguities I60
2. The Balance and the Gentry I62
3. The Bourgeois Society I74
4. The Equal Commonwealth and the Equal Agrarian I82
5. The Self-Cancelling Balance Principle I88
6. Harrington's Stature I9 I

V. LOCKE: THE POLITICAL THEORY OF


APPROPRIATION I94
I. Interpretations I94
2. The Theory of Property Right I97
(i) Locke's Purpose I97
(ii) The Initial Limited Right I99
(iii) The Limitations Transcended 20 3
(0) The spoilage limitation 204
(6) The sufficiency limitation 2II
(c) The supposed labour limitation 2I4
(iv) Locke's Achievement 220
3. Class Diiferentials in Natural Rights and Rationality 22I
(i) Locke's Assumption of the Diiferentials in Seventeenth-
Century England 222
(ii) Diiferential Rights and Rationality Generalized 229
(0) Diiferential rights 23 0
(6) Diiferential rationality 23 2
4. The Ambiguous State of Nature 23 8
CONTENTS ri
5. The Ambiguous Civil Society 247
6. Unsettled Problems Reconsidered 251
(i) The Joint-stock Theory 25 I
(ii) Majority Rule v. Property Right 252
(iii) The Equation of Individual and Majority Consent 252
(iv) Individualism v. Collectivism 255
(v) Locke's Constitutionalism 257

VI. POSSESSIVE INDIVIDUALISM AND LIBERAL


DEMOCRACY 26 3
I. The Seventeenth-Century Foundations 26 3
2. The Twentieth-Century Dilemma 271

APPENDIX
Social Classes and Franchise Classes in England, circa 1648 279

NOTES 293

WORKS AND EDITIONS CITED 302

INDEX 305