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SBL100-Lecture

Stem Cells

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WHY STEM CELLS ??

WHY STEM CELLS ?? Many disease or disorder can be cured Tissue repair Heart disease Cancer

Many disease or disorder can be cured Tissue repair Heart disease Cancer

Arthri2s

Parkinsons disease Diabetes Leukemia

disease or disorder can be cured Tissue repair Heart disease Cancer Arthri2s Parkinsons disease Diabetes Leukemia

Stem cell 9meline: The history of a medical sensa9on 1981: Mar2n Evans, is first to iden2fy embryonic stem cells – in mice.

1997: Ian Wilmut and his colleagues unveil Dolly the sheep, the first ar2ficial animal clone.

cells – in mice . 1997 : Ian Wilmut and his colleagues unveil Dolly the sheep,

1998: James Thomson and John Gearhart, isolate human embryonic stem cells and grow.

2001: Bush controversy.

1998: James Thomson and John Gearhart, isolate human embryonic stem cells and grow. 2001: Bush controversy

2006: Cells reprogrammed, Shinya Yamanaka “induced pluripotent stem cells”.

2007: Nobel prize Evans and Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies for embryonic stem cells.

2009: Obama-power removed the limits on federal funding of research on stem cells

Smithies for embryonic stem cells. 2009: Obama-power removed the limits on federal funding of research on

2010: Spinal injury.

2012: Blindness treated.

2010: Spinal injury . 2012: Blindness treated .

2012: Nobel prize Yamanaka and John Gurdon for crea2ng induced pluripotent stem cells.

2014: Therapeu9c cloning – with adult cells for diabetes. Ref: hUp://www.newscien2st.com/ar2cle/dn24970

stem cells. 2014: Therapeu9c cloning – with adult cells for diabetes. Ref: hUp://www.newscien2st.com/ar2cle/dn24970
US President Donald Trump’s administra2on is ending fetal-2ssue research by government scien2sts and placing restric2ons

US President Donald Trump’s administra2on is ending fetal-2ssue research by government scien2sts and placing restric2ons on academic researchers seeking grants from the Na2onal Ins2tutes of Health (NIH) for studies involving fetal 2ssue.

Stem cells

A reserve cell with the capacity to grow and mul2ply to replace dead or damaged adult cells.

to grow and mul2ply to replace dead or damaged adult cells. •   A cell that
to grow and mul2ply to replace dead or damaged adult cells. •   A cell that
to grow and mul2ply to replace dead or damaged adult cells. •   A cell that

A cell that has the ability to continuously divide and differentiate (develop) into various other kind(s) of cells/tissues

normal cells

stem cell

have a job and they can only do that job, for example be a heart cell

has the poten2al to become anything

are specialized and cannot become other types of cells. Like the cells in your eyes cannot become the cells in your brain

Stem cells can change into any type of specialized cells

Normal cells cannot divide forever. Their DNA shortens with each division and they eventually die out.

Stem cells are called immortal cells because they can divide forever. Their DNA doesn't get shorter with each division un2l it has been changed into a specialized cell.

normal cells are already DNA coded for a specific reason

stem cells are blank cells that can become any kind of cell

normal cells are found everywhere.

Stem cells are found only in several places

normal cells always lie at the end of the lineages.

Stem cells lie at the beginning of the cell lineages

Kinds of Stem Cells
Kinds of Stem Cells

Embryonic stem cells come from a five to six-day-old embryo. They have the ability to form virtually any type of cell found in the human body.

Adult stem cells are undifferen2ated cells found among specialised or differen2ated cells in a 2ssue or organ aeer birth. Based on current research they appear to have a more restricted ability to produce different cell types and to self-renew.

Kinds of Stem Cells Stem cell type Description Examples Cells from early (1-3 Totipotent Each

Kinds of Stem Cells

Stem cell type Description Examples Cells from early (1-3 Totipotent Each cell can develop into
Stem cell
type
Description
Examples
Cells from
early (1-3
Totipotent
Each cell can
develop into a
new individual
days)
embryos
Pluripotent
Cells can form
any (over 200)
cell types
Some cells of
blastocyst (5
to 14 days)
Multipotent
Cells
differentiated,
but can form a
number of
other tissues
Fetal tissue,
cord blood,
and adult
stem cells
The Association of Reproductive Health Professionals
The Association of Reproductive Health Professionals

The Association of Reproductive Health Professionals

Stages of Embryogenesis

Day 2 2-cell embryo Day 1 Fertilized egg Day 3-4 Multi-cell embryo Day 11-14 Tissue
Day 2
2-cell embryo
Day 1
Fertilized egg
Day 3-4
Multi-cell embryo
Day 11-14
Tissue Differentiation
Day 5-6
Blastocyst

Derivation and Use of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

Isolate inner cell mass (destroys embryo)
Isolate inner cell mass
(destroys embryo)
Outer cells (forms placenta)
Outer cells
(forms placenta)
cell mass (destroys embryo) Outer cells (forms placenta) Inner cells (forms fetus) Culture cells “ Special
Inner cells (forms fetus) Culture cells
Inner cells
(forms fetus)
Culture cells
(forms placenta) Inner cells (forms fetus) Culture cells “ Special sauce ” (largely unknown) Heart repaired

Special sauce(largely unknown)

fetus) Culture cells “ Special sauce ” (largely unknown) Heart repaired Day 5-6 Blastocyst Kidney Heart
fetus) Culture cells “ Special sauce ” (largely unknown) Heart repaired Day 5-6 Blastocyst Kidney Heart
fetus) Culture cells “ Special sauce ” (largely unknown) Heart repaired Day 5-6 Blastocyst Kidney Heart

Heart

repaired

Day 5-6 Blastocyst
Day 5-6
Blastocyst
fetus) Culture cells “ Special sauce ” (largely unknown) Heart repaired Day 5-6 Blastocyst Kidney Heart

Kidney

Heart muscle

Embryonic stem (ES) cells:

Where we find them

blastocyst

cells inside = inner cell mass

them blastocyst cells inside = ‘ inner cell mass ’ outer layer of cells = ‘

outer layer of cells = trophectoderm

mass ’ outer layer of cells = ‘ trophectoderm ’ embryonic stem cells taken from the
mass ’ outer layer of cells = ‘ trophectoderm ’ embryonic stem cells taken from the

embryonic stem cells taken from the inner cell mass

’ embryonic stem cells taken from the inner cell mass fluid with nutrients culture in the

fluid with nutrients

’ embryonic stem cells taken from the inner cell mass fluid with nutrients culture in the

culture in the lab to grow more cells

under condi2ons A

grow

grow under condi2ons C

Embryonic stem (ES) cells:Challenges

grow under conditions B
grow
under conditions B

embryonic stem cells

?

condi2ons C Embryonic stem (ES) cells: Challenges grow under conditions B embryonic stem cells ? skin
condi2ons C Embryonic stem (ES) cells: Challenges grow under conditions B embryonic stem cells ? skin
condi2ons C Embryonic stem (ES) cells: Challenges grow under conditions B embryonic stem cells ? skin

skin

neurons
neurons
condi2ons C Embryonic stem (ES) cells: Challenges grow under conditions B embryonic stem cells ? skin

blood

condi2ons C Embryonic stem (ES) cells: Challenges grow under conditions B embryonic stem cells ? skin

liver

Adult stem cells: Where we find them

Adult stem cells: Where we find them surface of the eye b r a i n

surface of the eye

Adult stem cells: Where we find them surface of the eye b r a i n

brain

skin

stem cells: Where we find them surface of the eye b r a i n skin

breast

intes2nes (gut)

tes2cles

stem cells: Where we find them surface of the eye b r a i n skin

bone marrow

muscles

stem cells: Where we find them surface of the eye b r a i n skin

adult stem cells: What they can do

adult stem cells: What they can do blood stem cell found in bone marrow differen2a2on MULTIPOTENT
adult stem cells: What they can do blood stem cell found in bone marrow differen2a2on MULTIPOTENT
adult stem cells: What they can do blood stem cell found in bone marrow differen2a2on MULTIPOTENT

blood stem cell

adult stem cells: What they can do blood stem cell found in bone marrow differen2a2on MULTIPOTENT
adult stem cells: What they can do blood stem cell found in bone marrow differen2a2on MULTIPOTENT

found in bone marrow

differen2a2on

MULTIPOTENT

stem cell found in bone marrow differen2a2on MULTIPOTENT only specialized types of blood cell: red blood
stem cell found in bone marrow differen2a2on MULTIPOTENT only specialized types of blood cell: red blood

only specialized types of blood cell:

red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets

bone marrow differen2a2on MULTIPOTENT only specialized types of blood cell: red blood cells, white blood cells,

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells)

gene2c reprogramming

= add certain genes to the cell

gene2c reprogramming ’ = add certain genes to the cell cell from the body induced pluripotent
gene2c reprogramming ’ = add certain genes to the cell cell from the body induced pluripotent
gene2c reprogramming ’ = add certain genes to the cell cell from the body induced pluripotent
gene2c reprogramming ’ = add certain genes to the cell cell from the body induced pluripotent

cell from the body

induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell behaves like an embryonic stem cell

stem (iPS) cell behaves like an embryonic stem cell differen2a2on culture iPS cells in the lab
stem (iPS) cell behaves like an embryonic stem cell differen2a2on culture iPS cells in the lab
stem (iPS) cell behaves like an embryonic stem cell differen2a2on culture iPS cells in the lab

differen2a2on

cell behaves like an embryonic stem cell differen2a2on culture iPS cells in the lab Advantage: no

culture iPS cells in the lab

Advantage: no need for embryos!

all possible types of specialized cells

Therapeu9cs:

Idea: Inject stem cells to repair damaged organ

Need stem cells with correct potency

Adult stem cells are rare, say around 0.01 % only

So use of iPSC are the clever technology to have Pluripotent SC

Turned differen2ated cells in lab by gene2c reprogramming,

So very very less chance for rejec2on

Comparison of Embryonic v/s Adult Stem Cells

Embryonic stem (ES) cells

almost all the cell types of an adult organism.

from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst.

pluripotent stem cells

Adult stem cells

limited range of cells within a 2ssue type,

within most organs, e.g in bone marrow, brain, liver, etc

mul2potent stem cells

Regula2on of stem cells

Stem cells kept quiescent Cell cell interac2on Signals from surrounding cells Ac2va2on by surrounding environments

cells Stem cells kept quiescent Cell cell interac2on Signals from surrounding cells Ac2va2on by surrounding environments
cells Stem cells kept quiescent Cell cell interac2on Signals from surrounding cells Ac2va2on by surrounding environments
cells Stem cells kept quiescent Cell cell interac2on Signals from surrounding cells Ac2va2on by surrounding environments
Dream is to get Stem cell popula2on for every organ of our body Dream is

Dream is to get Stem cell popula2on for every organ of our body Dream is to get repaired any damaged organ or limb Just inject correct stem cells to get any organ repaired.

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Bone marrow cancer Haemophilia Muscular Dystrophy Brain tumour Skin wounds and burns

Bone marrow cancer

Bone marrow cancer Haemophilia Muscular Dystrophy Brain tumour Skin wounds and burns

Haemophilia

Bone marrow cancer Haemophilia Muscular Dystrophy Brain tumour Skin wounds and burns
Bone marrow cancer Haemophilia Muscular Dystrophy Brain tumour Skin wounds and burns

Muscular Dystrophy

Bone marrow cancer Haemophilia Muscular Dystrophy Brain tumour Skin wounds and burns

Brain

tumour

Skin wounds and burns

Bone marrow cancer Haemophilia Muscular Dystrophy Brain tumour Skin wounds and burns
damaged eye (lee) and restored vision following stem cell therapy (right) Dr Virender Singh Sangwan,
damaged eye (lee) and restored vision following stem cell therapy (right) Dr Virender Singh Sangwan,
damaged eye (lee) and restored vision following stem cell therapy (right) Dr Virender Singh Sangwan,

damaged eye (lee) and restored vision following stem cell therapy (right) Dr Virender Singh Sangwan, L.V.Prasad eye Ins2tute

hUp://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/variety/stem-cell-therapy-for-

cornea-treatment/ar2cle3482857.ece

cornea-treatment/ar2cle3482857.ece Tony Iommi, had the stem-cell treatment, feeling great

Tony Iommi, had the stem-cell treatment, feeling great

Recent advancement in stem cells

24 july 2015, University of Texas used silk fibers to provide salivary gland stem cells with a 3D scaffold on which to grow a matrix of salivary gland stem cells.

The achievement is significant because "salivary gland stem cells are some of the most difficult cells to grow in culture and retain their func2on.

hWp://uthscsa.edu/hscnews/singleformat2.asp?newID=5099

hWp://uthscsa.edu/hscnews/singleformat2.asp?newID=5099 There are currently no treatments for dry mouth, where the

There are currently no treatments for dry mouth, where the salivary glands do not produce enough saliva.

Ar2ficial blood grown in a lab from stem cells is one step closer to being available to people with complex blood types for whom it is difficult to find matching donors.

UK's NHS (Na2onal Health Service) Blood and Transplant manufactured blood may be used in clinical trials with human within 2 years

may be used in clinical trials with human within 2 years

hWp://www.nhsbt.nhs.uk/news-and-media/news-ar9cles/news_2015_06_25.asp

Recent advances and Applications

Recent advances and Applications hUp://www.genpol.org/stem_cell_research.html#Car2lage

hUp://www.genpol.org/stem_cell_research.html#Car2lage

CLONING 44
CLONING
44

Cloning in general refer to as reproduction without mating.

Cloning is a scientific process that allows scientists to copy the genetic traits of a plant or animal to create one or more living replicas.

The baby that develops will have the identical genetic traits as the animal that provided the nucleus used to fertilize the host’s egg.

“THE CLONES” 1 Carp 2 Cat 3 CaUle 4 Deer 5 Dog 6 Ferret 7

“THE CLONES”

1 Carp

2 Cat

3 CaUle

4 Deer

5 Dog

6 Ferret

7 Frog (tadpole)

8 Fruit flies

9 Gaur

10 Goat

11 Horse

12 Mice

13 Mouflon

14 Mule

15 Pig

16 Pyrenean ibex

17 Rabbit

18 Rat

19 Rhesus Monkey

20 Sheep

21 Water Buffalo

22 Wolf

23 Zebrafish

MAGIC & STEM
MAGIC & STEM
NOAH
NOAH

GENE

22 Wolf 23 Zebrafish MAGIC & STEM NOAH G E N E 45 hUps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki

45

hUps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki List_of_animals_that_have_been_cloned

TYPES OF CLONING •   Therapeutic cloning : It involves the use of (stem) cells

TYPES OF CLONING

Therapeutic cloning : It involves the use

of (stem) cells for medicinal or research purposes.

(stem) cells to create cloned humans or animals.

Reproductive cloning: It involve the use

purposes. •   (stem) cells to create cloned humans or animals. Reproductive cloning : It involve

46

Reproductive Cloning

Reproductive Cloning Therapeutic Cloning

Therapeutic Cloning

Reproductive Cloning Therapeutic Cloning

FUTURE ASPECT & CONCLUSION

Stem cells pose a bright future for the therapeutic world by promising treatment options for diseases which are considered as non-curable.

Holds hope for curing or improving treatments for 70+ diseases

Holds hope for curing or improving treatments for 70+ diseases Stem cell video hWps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evH0I7Coc54

Stem cell video hWps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evH0I7Coc54

Are human playing as God?
Are human playing as God?

Are human playing as God?

Are human playing as God?
Are human playing as God?

RELIGIOUS ISSUES

References:

Essen2als of Stem Cell Biology, 2013, Edt: Robert Lanza, Anthony Atala, Academic Press.

Stem Cells: From Basic Research to Therapy, Federico Calegari, Claudia Waskow, CRC Press, 2014.

Stem Cells and Cloning (2nd Edition): Kelly M Hogan, Michael A. Palladino

http://www.nature.com/news/human-stem-cells-created-by-cloning-1.12983

hUp://www.eurostemcell.org/films

Acknowledgement:

Slides help from Prof C.S.Dey previous year slides Internet sources, teaching slides on slideshare, scitable , MIT videos and others ppts Students: Monica, Ni2ka, Praveen and Kir2ka

Today:

We learnt about stem cells and applica9ons