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IOT SMART CITY: INTRODUCTION AND

CHALLENGES
Manav Rachna International Institute of Research and Studies
PRATEEK GURANI, MOHIT SHARMA, SHREYA NIGAM,
DR. NITASHA SONI
prateekgurani@gmail.com[1], msharma8020@gmail.com[2], shreyanigam1102@gmail.com[3],
nitashasoni@fetmriu.edu.in[4]

Today, whole world is acknowledging IoT devices on


ABSTRACT- In an IOT based smart city, the most a very fast rate. Currently, about 8.4 billion IoT
astonishing and, the most reflective component devices are using and it is estimated that about 30
billion IoT devices would be used in 2020-2021. So, it
would be a much more efficient water supply. This
could be estimated that the global value of IoT devices
kind of water supply treatment plant that would be would reach about $8 trillion by 2021.
established will be a much more advanced version of Applications of IoT
the already existing kinds. This water supply would Today we know that the potential of IoT market is
help many people across the globe to get access to much more than earlier as time has change lot of
devices are depend on internet and their applications.
clean, drinking water and sanitation. Given below is the list of some application that are
depend upon IoT
Also, in such a city there would be provided an 1.Smart Home
innovative solution to the huge traffic congestion Many applications in a smart house are made of IoT.
being faced these days, that leads to delays in Amount of investment in the smart house is around
reaching to work, rash driving and results in huge $2.5bn.
chaos and accidents. Thus, it would be great to kept 2.Smart City
in mind to provide a mid-way out to deal with these In smart city we use IoT devices to control the traffic
traffic issues in a more reliable and efficient way. We system, waste management, urban security and other
would provide a more reliable public transportation. various type of usage are also available
Public transportation these days are the most relied
3. Connected Car
means of conveyance for people living in all parts of This technology has not grown yet but in the coming
the world. year this is going to take place of cab driver and many
other driving vehicles.

KEYWORDS: Internet of things(IOT),Traffic 4. HEALTH


Congestion, Smart City, Challenges, Privacy, Efficient A huge number of device are used for medical purpose
Energy Systems. like operation (heart, brain, internal parts) as the
accuracy level of IOT device is 99.99% perfect .
probability of infection is also low.

1.INTRODUCTION Smart city: A smart city is focused on providing


IOT (INTERNET OF THINGS): Internet of things the advanced utilities throughout a city. These mainly
(IoT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, includes an efficient water system, more advanced
home appliances and many other items ingrained with traffic light systems (ways to avoid traffic
electronics, software, sensors, actuators and congestion[1]), a well maintained and structured
connectivity which enables these things to connect, infrastructure to resolve the problems of rapidly
collect and exchange data. Internet of things (IoT) increasing pollution and much more features that
plays a vital role to connect physical world to
makes a city much better than the other ones. A city
computer-based system which results economic
benefits, efficient improvements and reduce the equipped with basic infrastructure to give a decent
human’s efforts on a distinct level. quality of life, a clean and sustainable environment
through application of some smart solutions.

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Basic Infra: Assured water and electricity supply,
sanitation and solid waste management, efficient
urban mobility and public transport, robust IT
connectivity, e-governance and citizen participation,
safety and security of citizens.

Smart Solutions: Public information, grievance


redressal, electronic service delivery, citizens’
engagement, waste to energy & fuel, waste to compost,
100% treatment of waste water, smart meters &
management, monitoring water quality, renewable
Fig.1 Smart Traffic lights
source of energy, efficient energy and green building,
smart parking, intelligent traffic management system. In this fig.as shown clearly the whole system is
Firstly, we go through the attributes and main features based on real time vehicular data in which real
of smart city such as smart lightning, smart water position of a vehicle can be traced through its
supply system, advanced traffic control system and registration number and inbuilt GPS system[4]
much more. The main components that will be used in and finally we use this on a large scale and can
developing the city are sensors, GPS systems, estimate the current traffic density on any side of
advanced infrared cameras etc. then we see the issues road and traffic lights can respond according to
or challenges in smart city from which the major one the data calculated.
is data security.
Energy Efficient System: IOT with the
application of automation provides a satisfactory
2. ATTRIBUTES OF SMART CITY alternative for traditional lightning system to
reduce power consumption by almost 35%.
An Innovative Solution to Traffic Congestion:
Automation[5] uses remote monitoring system
Traffic jams are really tiresome in a busy city life.
which allows supervisors to regulate street lights
IOT provides an outstanding traffic management
through wireless connections with a fail resist or
system to deal with this complication. Smart or
fail-safe nature that means even in a worst
intelligent traffic lights would play key role in this
condition our solution fails the lights can still
regard. These traffic lights have inbuilt sensors
work normally without any interrupt. These lights
and advanced artificial intelligence systems. In
embedded[6] with sensors which responds
spite of timing system like normal traffic lights
according to surroundings light conditions or
they work on real time vehicular data[2] system
brightness i.e. In foggy conditions sensors would
in which signal changes according to the current
turn the light on even if it is 12 of noon. Smart
traffic conditions on all sides of an intersection or
thermostats, hot water systems, efficient and
junction[3].The signals communicate with each
advanced lightning, modern window shades are
other and adapt to changing traffic conditions to
some of the equipment that can be used in
reduce the amount of time that cars spend idling.
achieving our target. All these systems will surely
Using fiber optic video receivers similar to those
makes a huge difference. By leveraging the latest
already employed in dynamic control systems,
IOT technologies in our smart city, we’re not only
the new technology monitors vehicle numbers
helping in reducing the overall expenses, but also
and makes changes in real time to avoid
keeping a check on pollution, which is good for
congestion wherever possible.
health and environment.

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3. Challenges of Smart City through IOT

Security

Security is one of the biggest and most significant issue


for the deployment of IoT. With the increase in how
many devices are connected on the internet,
opportunities and incentives increase for exploiting
vulnerabilities. Any one poorly designed device can be
used to leak user data as hackers don’t need to exploit
every device but just the weakest link. Such exploits
can be really bad and even harm people’s safety and
health. For example: A weekly secured IOT based
Fig 2. Smart street lightning system embedded with coffee machine can give hackers access to a network
sensors that also host health systems on which patients’ lives
depend on.
Minimized Crime rate:
Securing IoT devices can only be successful if IoT
One of the major points of concern that is the rising
ecosystem is secured as a whole. To achieve this IoT
crime rate can be tackled with the advanced video
manufacturers need to concentrate on security as a
monitoring system an effective substitute of traditional
requirement from beginning of the product
camera[7] system. It consists of motion sensing
development to deployment. Which includes tamper-
models with low light capable infrared cameras and
proof hardware, secure upgrades, secure software, and
also have wireless battery powered options which
security testing. Such common IoT security measures
surely curtail the crime rate and provide a safer
are:
environment.
Adding security during design phase: Developers of
Smart Water Supply and Management System:
IOT devices should include security at the start of any
A Smart water management system consists of IOT based device development. Security in such
physical components such as pipes, reservoirs devices should always be enabled by default.
embedded with sensors which works on data analysis Providing software security patches and using secure
(water quality, pressure, consumption rate[8] etc.) in a hardware should also be a strict requirement for the
particular area. It maximizes the efficiency of physical development of such devices.
components in use so that we can save water and also
Login credentials should never be hardcoded: A
cut down the cost of traditional system
good security measure developers can take is to have
users update the credentials before allowing the device
to function. Users should always update the credentials
using a strong password or bio-metrics. An example of
this is most routers shipping with login credentials
“admin” which a lot of users don’t update and
therefore remain vulnerable to security hacks.

Identity management: Detecting and identifying


each device uniquely and quickly will be critical to
understanding what the device is, its behavior, other
devices it interacts with, and security measures that we
Fig 3. Smart water management system should take for a particular device.
Fig 3. shows a smart water management system based
Hardware security: Making devices tamper-proof
on pipeline and pump station monitoring with the help
of data sciences and IOT. This system also checks the will be highly useful. Same can be said for making
water quality on real time quality data basis. System devices tamper-evident so it can be easily detected
should be under DMA control which is responsible for when a device is tempered with. When devices used in
scheduling of water supply in different areas.

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harsh environments or remote locations where they manufacture products faster than competitors, which
cannot be monitored physically is a very good use case can have a similar affect as it leads to not following the
of this feature. standard completely or properly.

Network security: IoT network needs to be secured Regulation and Development


by many ways including port security, encryption, no
port forwarding, and not opening ports unnecessarily; Similar to privacy, there are several regulatory
using antivirus software, firewalls, blocking concerns surrounding the Internet of Things which
unauthorized IP addresses are a few examples of good need some legal and thoughtful consideration from the
network security standard practices. community. Technology is moving a lot faster rate
than what the regulatory committees are able to keep
Consumer education: Educating consumers about the up to and generate policies for. This leads to the
dangers of IoT systems and provide them with way to governing and regulatory committees to not come up
stay secure. Users of IoT play a crucial role in making with standards that last more than a shorter period.
sure the devices remain secure. If we take the example
of coffee machine from earlier, a well-educated user There is a lot of potential with Internet of Things when
would know that they shouldn’t install an unsecured it comes to having big social and economic benefits for
device on the same network as highly secured devices. third world countries. Less-developed regions will
also need to create policies, educate people for relevant
Privacy technical skills, and generate readiness requirements to
be able take advantage of IoT’s potential.
Internet of Things faces very unique challenges when
it comes to privacy. A lot of it surpasses the user data
privacy issues that is the biggest concern today. This
is also why consumers education is really important 4. CONCLUSION:
for IOT applications. It becomes even more
In this paper we have thrown light on IOT based
widespread when it comes to deployed user devices.
smart city and its challenges. In an IOT based smart
city, the most astonishing and, the most reflective
Smart TVs are now coming with vision and voice component would be a much more efficient water
recognition features integrated. Such features can supply. in such a city there would be provided an
continuously focus on conversations or watch innovative solution to the huge traffic congestion
activities and selectively transmit data for being faced these days, that leads to delays in
postprocessing which can lead a lot of privacy reaching to work, rash driving and results in huge
chaos and accidents. Thus, it would be great to kept
concerns. Google home, and amazon echo are more
in mind to provide a mid-way out to deal with these
recent example of such technology. traffic issues in a more reliable and efficient way.
Thus, we would build up a more reliable public
Standards transport structure that would be effortless. This
would minimize the deals, difficulties and would
There is a lack of documentation and community maximize the ease for the travelers. Some of the
standard practices in the IOT domain. This hugely features of smart cities are listed below:
impacts Internet of Things and not just limits the
development of such devices but also affects their An Innovative Solution to Traffic Congestion:
Traffic jams are really tiresome in a busy city life.
potential. Not having a proper standard enables
IOT provides an outstanding traffic management
inappropriate behavior by IoT device developers. Not system to deal with this complication. Smart or
having proper guidelines and/or regulations on intelligent traffic lights would play key role in this
manufacturers and their manufacturing practices, regard. Energy Efficient System: IOT with the
developers may end up designing products that operate application of automation provides a satisfactory
in disruptive ways without any regard for their impact alternative for traditional lightning system to reduce
power consumption by almost 35%. One of the major
on other devices or on users. There are big negative
points of concern that is the rising crime rate can be
consequences for having poorly configured or tackled with the advanced video monitoring system
designed devices on a network and the resources they an effective substitute of traditional camera system.
are linked to and, in essence drops the people trust on With many pros. There comes some cons. Also, such
the internet itself. A main cause of poor standards can as:
be cost constraints. Their a also a need to design and

978-1-5090-6785-5/18/$31.00 © 2018 by IEEE


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being an ongoing issue, its unlikely to see a big change
in the immediate next future.

However, as the number of connected devices


continues to grow, our working and living spaces are
becoming consumed with smart IOT devices and a lot
of people are welcoming the new era of smart things.

6. Acknowledgement:

We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Dr.


Prateek Jain, Accendere Knowledge Management
Services Pvt. Ltd for his valuable comments that led
to substantial improvements on an earlier version of
this manuscript

7. References:

[1]CISCO, “The Internet of Things, Infographic”,


available online at: http://blogs.cisco.com/news/the-
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