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M. Sathish Kumar and S.

Maneemegalai (2008) Department of Biochemistry, Prince Shri

Venkateshwara Arts and Science College,Gowrivakkam, Chennai - 600 073

“Evaluation of Larvicidal “Effect of Lantana Camara Linn Against Mosquito

Species Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus” Mosquito larvicidal activity

and phytochemical screening of methanol and ethanol extract of leaves and

flowers of Lantana camara Linn belongs to the family of Verbanaceae have

been evaluated in the present study. Larvicidal effect on 3rd and 4th instar larvae

of mosquito species Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus have been

investigated in a dose dependent manner for 24 h. With 1.0 mg/ml concentration

of extracts of Lantana camara maximum mortality was observed in Aedes aegypti

exposed for 24 h. In the case of Culex quinquefasciatus the mortality was seen

maximised when the concentration increased to 3.0mg/ml. Presence of saponin,

flavonoids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides have also been observed and

GC/MS analysis was carried out on methanol flower and leaf extract to find out

the components.

S. P. Singh,K. Raghavendra, R. K. Singh,S. K. Subbarao, Current Science, Vol. 81, no. 12, 25

December 2001. “Studies on larvicidal properties of leaf extract of Solanum

nigrum Linn. (family Solanaceae)” Continued use of synthetic chemical

insecticide-based intervention measures for vector control has resulted in lower

efficacy of the insecticide in controlling the medically important disease vectors.

Malaria contributes to the major disease burden, and operational control failure,

namely development of insecticide resistance in malaria vector to the commonly

used synthetic chemical insecticides in public health sprays has made the disease
control more difficult. In recent years use of environment-friendly and easily

biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin has received renewed

importance for disease vector control. Interest in this field has increased more so,

as they are least phytotoxic and do not accumulate chemical residues in flora,

fauna and soil.

S. Nazar , S. Ravikumar , G. Prakash Williams, M. Syed Ali and P. Suganthi (2009) School of

Marine Sciences, Div. of Marine Pharmaceutical Technol., Dept .of

Oceanography & Coastal Area Studies, Alagappa University, Thondi- 623 409,

Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India. “Screening of Indian coastal plant

extracts for larvicidal activity of Culex quinquefasciatus” Indian Journal of

Science and Technology Vol.2 No 3 (Mar. 2009) ISSN: 0974- 6846. Emergence

of resistance among mosquitoes is recent problem. Safe and ecofriendly agents

from biological origins is need of the hour. Extracts of 100 coastal plants species

from South West coast of India were tested for the larvicidal activity of Culex

quinquefasciatus. Of these, 17 plant species showed LC50 within 100 mg.l-1. The

extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Abrus precatorius were found most

effective with LC50 value of 24 and 30 mg-1, respectively.

A.P. Madhumathy, Ali-Ashraf Aivazi & V.A. Vijayan (2007) Vector Biology Research Lab,

Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri,

Mysore, India. “Larvicidal efficacy of Capsicum annum against Anopheles

stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus” Short Research Communication J Vect

Borne Dis 44, September 2007, pp. 223–226. It is estimated that every year at

least 500 million people in the world suffer from one or the other tropical diseases
that include malaria, lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, dengue,

trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Of late chikungunya, a serious mosquito

borne epidemic has gained momentum in India. One to two million deaths are

reported annually due to malaria worldwide. Lymphatic filariasis affects at least

120 million people in 73 countries in Africa, India, Southeast Asia, and Pacific

Islands.

N Sivagnaname & M Kalyanasundaram(2004) “Laboratory Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of

Atlantia monophylla (Family: Rutaceae) against Immature Stages of Mosquitoes

and Non-target Organisms” Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Vol. 99, No. 1,

2004, pp. 115-118. Methanolic extracts of the leaves of Atlantia monophylla

(Rutaceae) were evaluated for mosquitocidal activity against immature stages of

three mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus , Anopheles stephensi , and

Aedes aegypti in the laboratory. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and pupae of

An. stephensi were found more susceptible, with LC50 values of 0.14 mg/l and

0.05 mg/l, respectively. Insect growth regulating activity of this extract was more

pronounced against Ae. aegypti, with EI50 value 0.002 mg/l. The extract was

found safe to aquatic mosquito predators Gambusia affinis , Poecilia reticulata ,

and Diplonychus indicus , with the respective LC50 values of 23.4, 21.3, and 5.7

mg/l. The results indicate that the mosquitocidal effects of the extract of this plant

were comparable to neem extract and certain synthetic chemical larvicides like

fenthion, methoprene, etc.


Pushpanathan T, Jebanesan A, Govindarajan M.(2006) “Larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent

activities of Cymbopogan citratus Stapf (Graminae) essential oil against the

filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera : Culicidae).” Trop

Biomed. 2006 Dec;23(2):208-12. Essential oils extracted by steam distillation

from Cymbopogan citratus were evaluated for larvicidal, ovicidal and

repellent activities against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. The

larval mortality was observed after 24 hours treatment. The LC(50) values

calculated for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instar were 144.54 +/- 2.3, 165.70

+/- 1.2 and 184.18 +/- 0.8 ppm respectively. Hundred percent ovicidal activity

was observed at 300 ppm. Skin repellent test at 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm(2)

concentration of C. citratus gave 100% protection up to 3.00, 4.00 and 5.00

hours respectively. The total percentage of protection of this essential oil was

49.64% at 1.0 mg/cm(2), 62.19% at 2.5 mg/cm(2) and 74.03% at 5.0

mg/cm(2) for 12 hours.

Subramanian Arulkumar, Muthukumaran Sabesan(2010) Department of Zoology, Faculty of

Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamilnadu, India “Rapid

preparation process of antiparkinsonian drug Mucuna pruriens silver nanoparticle

by bioreduction and their characterization” Pharmacognosy Research Year :

2010 Volume : 2 Issue : 4 Page : 233-236 Development of biologically inspired

experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving an important

branch of nanotechnology. The bioreduction behavior of plant seed extract

of Mucuna pruriens in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated


employing UV/visible spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and

transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform - infra red (FT-

IR). M. pruriens was found to exhibit strong potential for rapid reduction of

silver ions. The formation of nanoparticles by this method is extremely rapid,

requires no toxic chemicals, and the nanoparticles are stable for several months.

The main conclusion is that the bioreduction method to produce nanoparticles is a

good alternative to the electrochemical methods and it is expected to be

biocompatible.

Santhoshkumar T, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Bagavan A, Jayaseelan C, Zahir

AA, Elango G, Kamaraj C.(2010), Unit of Nanotechnology and Bioactive Natural

Products, Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, C. Abdul Hakeem

College, Melvisharam, Vellore District, 632 509, Tamil Nadu, India.“Synthesis of

silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity

against malaria and filariasis vectors”. Parasitol Res. 2010 Oct 27. The aim of this

study was to investigate the larvicidal potential of the hexane, chloroform, ethyl

acetate, acetone, methanol, and aqueous leaf extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.

(Nymphaeaceae) and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract

against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex

quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many

commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by

aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in

water. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy,

X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared support the biosynthesis and
characterization of silver nanoparticles. Larvae were exposed to varying

concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles for 24 h. All

extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the maximum efficacy was

observed in crude methanol, aqueous, and synthesized silver nanoparticles against

the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 8.89, 11.82, and 0.69 ppm; LC(90) = 28.65,

36.06, and 2.15 ppm) and against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 

9.51, 13.65, and 1.10 ppm; LC(90) = 28.13, 35.83, and 3.59 ppm), respectively.

Shigefumi Okamotoa, Hironori Yoshiia, Toyokazu Ishikawab, Takami Akagic, Mitsuru Akashic,

Michiaki Takahashie, Koichi Yamanishia and Yasuko Moria, (2008) Laboratory

of Virology and Vaccinology, Division of Biomedical Research, National

Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085,

Japan. “Single dose of inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine with poly(γ-

glutamic acid) nanoparticles provides effective protection from Japanese

encephalitis virus” Vaccine Volume 26, Issue 5, 30 January 2008, Pages 589-594.

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious disease caused by the JE virus (JEV), and

vaccination is the only way to prevent the diseases. In Japan, the only JE vaccine

currently available is an inactivated vaccine that requires multiple doses for

effective protection; therefore, an effective single-dose vaccine is needed.

However, no report of an effective protocol for a single dose of JE vaccine in

animals has been published. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a single-dose

vaccination in mice to which the JE vaccine was given with or without adjuvant.

Biodegradable poly(γ-glutamic acid) nanoparticles (γ-PGA-NPs) were used as a


test adjuvant. Remarkably, a single dose of JE vaccine with γ-PGA-NPs enhanced

the neutralizing antibody titer, and all of the immunized mice survived a normally

lethal JEV infection, while only 50% of the mice that received a single dose of JE

vaccine without γ-PGA-NPs survived. The use of aluminum as the adjuvant

showed similar levels of enhanced efficacy. These results show that γ-PGA-NPs

are a novel and safe adjuvant for JE vaccine, and that a single dose of JE vaccine

with γ-PGA-NPs provides effective protection from lethal JEV in mice. A similar

protocol, in which a single dose of JE vaccine is mixed with γ-PGA-NPs, may be

useful for the immunization of humans.

Amanda M. Moore, Sina Yeganeh, Yuxing Yao, Shelley A. Claridge (2010) Departments of

Chemistry and Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park,

Pennsylvania 16802, United States "Polarizabilities of Adsorbed and Assembled

Molecules: Measuring the Conductance through Buried Contacts" ACS Nano,

Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/nn102371z Publication Date (Web): November 15,

2010. They measured the polarizabilities of four families of molecules adsorbed

to Au{111} surfaces, with structures ranging from fully saturated to fully

conjugated, including single-molecule switches. Measured polarizabilities

increase with increasing length and conjugation in the adsorbed molecules and are

consistent with theoretical calculations. For single-molecule switches, the

polarizability reflects the difference in substrate−molecule electronic coupling in

the ON and OFF conductance states. Calculations suggest that the switch between

the two conductance states is correlated with an oxidation state change in a nitro

functional group in the switch molecules.