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lssue Number 42

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BRAHMOS MUTII.ROTE o*ru* t rt
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KANWA ASIAN DEFENCE

PHOTO NEWS: 11 Russicn exper lo ks cn Su3OMKK repo r ssue ARMY NEWS


INDIAN DEFEXPO 2OO8 AIR FORCE NEWS ?4 Rru o bidd ng for Mcrloysion ormy project
2 nnLuNrMsr l2 CH no imiiotes Russlcn SU2iSK Fighter NUCLEAR WEAPON ISSUE
3 rx H/ar 13 Oeptoymentof Jl0Aot PLA 25 pLn', nucleor worheods $ockplle ncrecsing

4 snnHN/os MULTI ROLE N4rssrLE Air Force No.2 Div sion MILITARY POLITICAL ISSUE
5 rruorn's Dor\rESTrc TN,4D sYSTET\4 l4 Lotest develcpment on RDg3 lssue 2& Communist Porty ond the PLA: $l I tight y boncled
6 rune nrurr rnruK sYSTEM
N,4rss LE I 5 veZsN uses RD3353 e^gires bui reforms on the horlzon
SINGAPORE AIR SHOW l* suloH,rrv deliverecl to Moloysio TAIWAN ISSUE
7 rrosLocKsz & Fr5sG &BoN x l rFV I $ So -"r $rcteg es of M G29MI FC1 vs, export '38 Ci.r no'r snow$orm diso$ers cnd To wcn's
8 Lropnno rrna H,rar prospect of Rus on ond Chinese ighters n referendum
DIGEST NEWS the 3rd world countries INTERVIEW
9 Did Ukroine he p Ch no des gn oirborne eorller ?il Frogi e "Tion Kong" positlons ond mob le 3 I Exclus ve Interview w ih Mo oysion
worning rodor? 53OO SAN{ Air Chief Generc Sri Azzon

I0 Voloysio nrmy develops UAVs NAVY NEWS


I0 Beoruslntroduces neworborne 22 caozn ssN,l oppeor ng n more countr es

ECM combot sy$em 23 uotoys o', procurement plcrn

E-Moil: konwotoronto@hotmoil.com / info@konwq.com


All Photos by Konwo

lltBrAlr BIrIltP0 2008


Arjun MBT is lndio's indigenous MBT which hos oroused substoniiql
controversies. The lndion Army hos ordered o totol of 124 Arjun. Al present, the
moin problems of Arjun ore ils expensive cosl ond poor combot copobility.
The l,400hp MTU 838 KoSl0diesel engine is rotherexpensive; in oddition,Arjun
is very lorge in size wilh o width of 3.864m (3.653m for MlA2 ond 3.7m for
Leopord). lts iunet is very similor to lhe eorlier version "Leopord-2" in design'
which is believed to hove q poor performonce in ovoiding on-coming shells.
Arjun hos o weight of 58.5 lons, ond ils mobiliiy is inferior lo the Chinese T99
MK2 MBT currently under production.The lotter hos o weight of 52 lons, hoving
o plon to use l,500hp engine with o power lo weight rotio of 28.84hp/t. The nf-
lndion Army hos doubt obout lhe strike precision of the l20mm rifled gun
produced by Combot Vehicles Reseorch & Development Estoblishment
(CVRDE), occording to q locol press. Arjun is fitted with 39-round FSAPDS ond
HE ommunilion, l8 of which ore stored ot the rototing turret. lts firing rote is 68
rounds per minule, qnd ils weopon systems weigh l8 tons. Arjun's fire control
computer is provided by TATA, while the thermql system is from French SAGEM.
Arjun is olso equipped with eleclro-hydroulic fire control system whose
moximum slewing speed is 4Sdeg/sec. For the ormour protection, it hos
Konchon ormour ond SGDs is I2 Nos (6 on either side).

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The EX lonk (Experimentol Tonk) developed by CVRDE. lt uses l,000hp diesel engines ond lheT72 chossis which
odopts torsion bor with hydro-slruts suspension. lt is fitted wilh the some moin gun ond Konchon omour os thql of
Arjun. lt con be operoted wiih 4 crew including driver. lts combot weight is 47 tons, power lo weight rotio 2l hp/t,
ground pressure 0,94kgf/cm,. Moximum speed on rood is 60 km/h qnd 40 km/h on cross-country. The performonces
ore 30" grodieni climbing,2.6m trench crossing,0.85m verticol obstocle climbing, ond l.2m shollow fording. Equipped
ormqmenl is I20mm rifled gun wilh -l0olo +16.5o depression & elevotion ond 32 rounds (FSAPDS / HESH) ommunition
whose role of fire is 6 to Srds/min. 7.62mm co-oxiol mqchine gun ond 12.7mm onti-oircrott mochine gun ore olso
instolled. Fire Control System is directortype while Gun Control System is elecko-hydroulic with digilol bollistic compuler.
!.tla .
BRAHMOS
MUUil-RQtE MlSSltE
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Above: Lond-bosed BRAHNOS missiles ore olreqdy deployed


qt the lndion Army. When osked obout lhe lndion medio
report thoi Russio{ndio cooperoiion in the BRAHMOS proiect
hqs not been quite smooth, ond thot "Russio would not
provide the engine technologies to lndio", Professor A. Pilloi'
Chief Designer of BRAHMOS, told Konwo thot the report wos
obsolutely not true. BRAHMOS is o ioint production between
Russio ond lndio, lndio is not supposed io produce the engine
in the first ploce, ond lndio did not osk Russiq to provide them
with engine technology either. The proiect is proceeding in
occordonce with ihe originol ogreement.

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Above: BRAHMOS submqrine{o-ship missile unveiled for lhe first


time. lt hos o ronge of 290km, ond the first lounch test is
expected to toke ploce within lhis yeor.
Right: Air-lounched version of BRAHMOS. Notice the protective
hood on top of the worheod, which con outomoticolly foll off
ofter lounching.
PHOTONEWS

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INDIAS DOMESTIC
TMD SYSTEM
lndio's indigenous TMD system wos unveiled for the first time qt the
exhibition. This is on otmospheric intercept system. Severol lounch tests hove
been conducted ond qll hii the designoted torgets.
Below: The United Stotes is octively promoting PAC3 intercept missiles to
lndio. This Us-mqde PAC3 wos put on exhibilion in lndio.
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SYSTEM

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The NAG ontFionk missile system produced
by lndio independently wos put on disploy
for the first time. This system odopts lR imoge
guidonce system ond hos o moximum
ronge of 4,000m. tu
PHOTONEWS

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The Singopore Air Force is going to be qrmed


with Fl5 SG very soon, lt is equipped with APG{3
(V) 3 AESA rodor. Singopore hos ordered 12+8+4
FI5 SGs. Along wiih this purchose, Singopore hos
olso ordered JDAM sotellite positioning bombs.
They os well os other long+onge lond otiock
weopons hove not been mode public up to the
present. The comprehensive technologicol
stondord ond combot power of the Singopore
Air Force's Fl5 SGs ore superior to thot of Jqpqn,
Koreq qnd lsroel.

BIONIX II IFY

The upgrqded version BIONIX ll IFV is


now refitted with the 30mm connon.
BIONIX I uses 25mm gun, qnd the
ihermol imoging system hos olso
undergone upgroding. The effective
distqnce of the iniegroted loser ronge
finder is 3km. This IFV is powered by
one DDC 6V92TA 450hp diesel engine,
mqximum speed 7Okm/h.
PHOTONEWS

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TEOPARD
IIA4 MBT
The first Leopord llA4 MBT Singopore
hqs received.Ihe Singopore Army hos
ordered 66 llA4, ond retrofitting wos
undertoken in Germony. The totol
purchose is reporiedly lower thon
USS48 million, ond the unit price is
obout US$720,000, which is o very good
deol. As o city stote, the objective for
Singopore to purchose heovy-duty
moin bottle tonks is to deter the
potentiol odversories.
Editor:
Andrei Chang (Pinkov)
Ta wan f4ilitary SeniorAcviser:
BeauWang
Pak stani Correspondent:
Zafar l4alik
Indian Correspondent:
Ranjit B. Rai
Malaysian Correspondent:

Prasun K. Sengupta

Russian Correspondent:

Nikolai Novichkov
Special News Reporl from Beil ng China:

John Chang
Design by <Kanwa NewsAndrei Chang> Military observers based in SouthAsia told Kanwa

LawrenceWong recently that Ukraine's Kvant Radar Design Bureau was not only involved in designing
the phased array radar fitted on Type 052C DDG, but that it helped China in designing
Published by airborne phased array earlier warning radar system. However, this has not been
Kanwa Information Center confirmed directly by the Ukraine government or Kvant Design Bureau.An
authoritative source from the Ukraine StateArms lmport/Export Company just told
Address:
Kanwa that Ukraine indeed helped.China in designing the phased array radar sysrem
420 Nvvy 7 East PO.Box 82023 used on 052C DDG.
Richmond Hill, ON CANADA L4B 3K2 It is said that KJ2000AWACS uses phased array radar,and KJ200 also uses phased
E-Majl: kanwatoronto@hotmail,com array radar.lt is not clear to what extent Ukraine has helped China in the design of
info@kanwa.com
airborne earlier warning radar system. Nonetheless, from the tradition of military
cooperation between the two countries, Kvant Design Bureau has very close ties
fel9769 I I 80 (Hong Kong)
with China in the development of radar.There is possibility that Ukraine's radar
Agent in China for subscription experts provided some technical consultation service to their Chinese counterparts.
China lnternational Book Meanwhile, Kanwa's judgment is that China has been deploying rwo rypes of AWACS
radar at a very rapid pace. lf China could manufucture the radar on its own in the first
Trading Corporation, Shenzhen Branch
place,why did it try to importAWACS radar system from lsrael?Thus it is quite
Attn: lYs, Wu or l'ls. Xu
possible that China received assistance from Ukraine. Kvant has had extensive
Tel: (0755) 25947493, 25943875 experience in designing airborne and ship-borne radar systems since the Soviet Union
Fax (0755) 25943696 years. I
Registration No: G360NAO 100

Copyright
2004 Kanwa Information Center

Photos and articles are the copyrrght of


their respective owners

All rights reserved, No part of this


I
publication may be copied, reproduced,
stored in any retrieval systems or
transmitted in any form whatsoever
without the written permission of the
publisher and the copyright holders.
<Kanwa News> Malaysia unveiled a number of UAVs hours,a payload of 20kg,equipped with one SONY-developed
at LIMA 2007.ALUDRA UAV was first put on display on optical sensor. So far two PrototyPes have been manufactured.
the 2007 Malaysian National Day.At LIMA 2007, Unmanned Cybershark has a flight speed of l50km/h' Another one is
System Technology SDN BHD revealed further technical called Cybereye, payload 60kg, endurance time in the air 6
details of this UAV.The technical exPerts told Kanwa that hours, flight altitude up to 20,000 feet. 1
the company has manufactured 5 prototypes of this UAV
using it to bid for the Malaysian Air Force and Army projects'
This UAV has a take-off weight of 250kg' payload 50kg' and
is equipped with one TV optical camera produced by
THALES with 4 channels of sensors including an oPtical
sensor, aTV sensor, a laser range-finder and a laser pointer'
ALUDRA UAV has a length of l4 feet,wing span l6 feet,
endurance in the air 6 hours, maximum speed 220km/h. lt
is powered by one 50hp twin-cylinder gas engine'The
company has also developed a data tink system for the UAV
which has a functional range of l50km. la taking-off requires
only 250m.The designer of ALUDRA claims that all the
design works were completed by the comPany
independently.At present, flight tests have been basically
completed.
SAPURA has also developed three tyPes of UAVs.The
first one is called Cybershark which has an endurance of 3

<Kanwa News> Belarus 55SAircraft Maintenance Plant Currently, China has interest to work with the Belarus
has recently introduced a new airborne ECM pod called comPany.

"Satellite" capable of iamming radar guided air-to-air missile This kind of iamming system can also perform deceptive
and ground-to-air missiles.This pod can be installed on
jamming upon the enemy's airborne radar system.The
MiG29 Su27 and Su30 fighters. lt can also be fitted on lL76 designer claims that this ECM system can be installed on
transport aircraft and Su25 attackers.The designer of this civilian commercial aircraft and other transPort aircraft to
jam the attacks of the radar guided AAMs orASMs.l
system says that in the number of tests so far conducted,
this ECM pod demonstrated outstanding performances'

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<Kanwa News Andrei Chang> ln response to the side cannot guarantee the maintenance quality ofthe Su27SK
reports that one Su30MKK fighter of the 9th Regiment fighters so far exported to China. "We have tried our best to
under the PLA Air Force No.3 Division crashed in a help maintaining and repairing these fighters, but some people
November 2007 training exercise, an authoritative source thinl< that Russian parts are too expensive.The fact is, even
from the Russian military industry accepted Kanwa's after the contracted warranty,we had provided China with a
interview.The source said that they did not receive such a whole lot of parts free of charge.The applications of all the
report from the Chinese side.The Russian side confirmed parts have to follow strict standards, for instance, the parts
that at least one Su30MKK had crashed in training exercise, for Al3 lF engines.This engine has undergone a series of
and the Russian side was immediately informed after the upgrading after 1990s, and Ukraine does not have the
incident, with the Chinese claiming that the crash was caused maintenance manual and the license to repair these upgraded
by engine trouble. engines.As a consequence, we cannot guarantee the overall
The same authoritative source also said Russia knew quality of the engines and the whole combat aircraft that
that China imported a new batch of Su27 maintenance parts have been serviced by a third country," stressed the source.
from Ukraine recently, as these parts were much cheaper. Regarding the high cost of Russian parts, the Russian side
Meanwhile, China and Belarus have also been cooperating was also quite surprised. "The problem lied in the drastic
in the maintenance of China's Su serial fighters. The depreciation of the US dollar, and of course you will have to
explanation from the Chinese side is that equivalent pay more US dollars. But China and Malaysia usually buy the
products from Ukraine and Belarus are much cheaper than US dollars with their own currencies and then make the
those of Russia and yet have comparable quality, while the payment, and in fact that should not be such a troubling
Russia's positions are that these products from Ukraine problem, because the Chinese and Malaysian currencies have
to Russian products,
and Belarus "are in fact not comparable been appreciated against the US dollars," the source explained.
T
but much worse." Under this circumstance, the Russian -
Su30MK2

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Su30MKK in Chino. Officiql Pholos


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Russion SU 27Sl( fighter
<Kanwa News Andrei Chang> Based on the Russian Sukhoi functions and features a modular design.As a result,the overall
Su27SK fighter, China has copied it as the domestic J I lB multi- performance of J I lB in fact is now at par with the Russian
function fighter.Three J I I B prototypes have been manufactured edition Su2TSMK.The changes in the fire control system and
since 2006 and evaluated at the lst fighter division based in the cockpit are also substantial, and Jl lB will be able to fire
Ansan after the factory flight test.A Chinese military industry China's indigenous PL I 2 air-to-air missiles and a whole series
source confirmed that its pre-production would start from this of other precision guided weapons.The cockpit is composed
year. "We will not need to assemble more Su27SKs, because it of 3 large-size colour multi-functional displays and 2 small-size
is old technology given from Russia," the same source said' colour multi-functional displays. ln recent years, China's pace
Compared with Su27SK,J I lB has undergone drastic changes' of development in airborne equipments has been very fast.The
A source from Chinese aero industry says that except the Russian- design of Jl0B cockpit has been somewhat quite precocious,
made engines, 90% of the major sub-systems including the radar and the rear cockpit may be composed of 4 multi-functional
and optical electronic systems are made by China. Moreover, the colour displays and 2 small-size multi-functional displays.
weapons will also integrate more indigenous systems' For this ln addition,JllB will be fitted with China's indigenous
purpose,AVlC I has made plans specifically for the JI I B design strapdown inertial navigation system,3-axix data system, power
projects, among which the testing of the I 47 4 serial radar systems supply system, emergency power unit, brake system, hydraulic
has already been completed.A Chinese pilot with more than 20 system, fuel system, environment control system and molecular

years of flight experience mentioned about his experience of sieve oxygen generation systems. Kanwa believes that with
flying Su27 fighters.This pilot personally had a very high opinion China's producing a larger amount of J I I B parts domestically,
of Su27SK, saying it is "very easy to fly". However, as the source its demand for parts import from Russia is going to decline
from the Chinese military industry points out,some of the parts dramatically during the second phase of J I I B production, and
used on Su27SK have very short lifespan,which has led to high some of the subsystems and equipments are comPatible with
rate of technical accidents. For instance, frequent problems with those on J I I B,J IOA and Jl0Bfighters. lt is said thatJl lB's flight
36SH- I IRST have largely restricted the regular training of the control system will also be manufactured in China.This was
combat forces. On this particular issue, Kanwa paid a special visit the leading reason why Russia could not determine whether
to the Ural Optical & Mechanical Complex.A Russian source China would continue to produce Su27SK fighters in the next
said that the Ural signed two contracts with the Chinese phase. Su27SK{ I I Russian Chinese joint contracted project

counterpart and would supply them with OLS-3 lE parts, the has now been finished by the Chinese side without any
upgraded edition of 36SH- | lRSTThe contracts involve a total consultation with Russia.ffi
value of US$ million, the execution of which started in 2007'
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JIiB
Kanwa has learned that the R&D of the Chinese made IRST
Official Pholo
system to be fitted on Jl lB has already completed.The physical
appearance of this newly devetoped IRST is very close to the
original Russian OLS-3lE so that it still looks like an imitation
edition of the Russian system with some upgrades.The fire
control radar system uses mechanical scanning, integrates more
::
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FCIIJF 17 . Official Photo

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<Kanwa News Langl<awiAndrei Chang> Regardingthe latest engines to China?To this question,Anexander Payl<in,Technical

report that the Russian Sovernment has approved China's Director to Chernyshev Moscow Machine-building Complex,
export of FC I fighters fitted with RD93 engines to Pakistan answered that that would depend on the sPecific situations.
and other 6 countries, Kanwa interviewed the vice general Generally spealcing,JF l7 does not have the capabiliry to comPete
manager, Gennady N. Arl<hipov of Chernyshev Moscow with advanced MiG29SMT and MiG35 fighters. "They are combat
Machine-building Complex. He first confirmed that the Russian aircraft of totally different generations," he said.
government did permit the plan to exPort RD93 engines to Concerning the Russian government's formal decision on
China and allow China to resell them to a third country provided China's reselling RD93 engines to Pakistan, several aviation
that China discusses the issue with Russia'As for Pakistan and industry observers based in Moscow told Kanwa that this is
other 6 countries, Mr.Arkhipov said it depends on the sPecific mainly because Russia hopes lndia would choose MiG35. ln
situations. Countries like SaudiArabia and Lebanon have never orher words, if lndia decides to import 126 MiG35, there can
been the export destinations of Russian fighters or Chinese be new changes in the prospect of RD93 exPort to Pakistan.
fighters. He said that in mid December in2007, the Chinese This observation is in line with Kanwa's earlier conclusion'That
delegation would visit Russia and discuss the issue on purchasing is,the sale of RD93 to Pakistan has become a maior means for
RD93 for 2008.Another source from the Russian military Russia to impose greater Pressure upon lndia. Since 2007'
industry preferred to stay anonymous but claimed that basically military cooperation between lndia and Russia has become a
China had been permitted to provide RD93 engines to Pal<istan little oppressive. Particularly, refitting Gorshkov aircraft carrier
and the overhaul service for it will be delivered in China. could be further delayed, and the upgrade and delivery time of
Russia has said publicly on a number of occasions that RD93 A50 AWACS may be further postponed.
could only be used for the Chinese Air force and should not be Commenting on the rePorts that the JF l7 fighters of the
exported to any third country without Moscow's permission, PakisraniAir Force may be outfitted with French MICAAAMs
and this was writcen in the contract.Why this has been changed? and THALES'RC-400 airborne radar system, a source from the

ln response to this question, Mr.Arkhipov said:"With permission Pakistani Air Force said that the bidding for JF l7's radar and
from Russia, China can of course exPort JF l7 fighters fitted weapon systems is still underway,and no final decision has been
with RD93 engines.This time China did get permission from made so far. Nonetheless, the Pal<istaniAir Force indeed hopes
the Russian government.'l to employ European weaPon systems.A source from ltalian
On whether lndia has expressed its attitude on Russia's FLIR Company also confirmed to Kanwa that bidding for the
new decision, he said, "No.This is because lndia does not have systems is still going on,and the Company invited the Pal<istani
to worry aboutJF l7.JF l7 is only a single-engine light duty fighter pilots to ltaly to conduct 2l test sorties of their system. FLIR
upgraded from MiG2 I and is no match for the advanced combat Company is confident that its Grifo-S7 radar will eventually
fighters of the lndian Air Force". win the contract.This is because the PakistaniAir Force is already
lf there is direct competition between JF l7 and M|G29SMT producing Grifo-7 small radar systems for J7P fighters, and the
in the international marl<ets,will Russia continue to exPorc RD93 rwo sides have cooperative experience in this area.3

MiG29 SMT

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USES RD33 53
engrnes
<Kanwa News Langkawi Andrei Chang> A senior manager
from the Malaysian ATSC told Kanwa that the RD33 52 engines
fitted on MiG29N fighters of the MalaysianAir Force have been
upgraded to RD33 53.The initial overhaul time of RD33 52 is The Moloysiqn Air Chief Generol Sri Azizon indicoted in
350 hours after service, while it is upgraded to 1,000 hours on exclusive interview with Konwo thot the outstonding
performonce of MiG29N wos highly commended by
after service in 53.The source said that they were highly satisfied
the Air Force.
with the quality and performance of RD33 53, as the upgrade
has greatly improved the effectiveness of maintenance. ln
December 2007,ATSC and ROSOBORONEXPORT signed a that the bureaucracy of the Russian government had to be
new contract that the lacter would supply toATSC new MiG29N changed for the better.Although MiG made painstaking efforts
parts.The source was also very satisfied with the per{ormance to improve service, it has not been effective so far. Because of
of MiG29N in the MalaysiaAir Force, saying that those fighters this,ATSC and Ukraine have signed an agreement on the
met the designated combat objectives.The Air Force also had maintenance of RD33 engines and Ul<raine would help Malaysia
similar evaluation.The Malaysian Air Chief General Sri Azizan to repair RD33 52 engines. Nevertheless, for overhaul of the
indicated in an exclusive interview with Kanwa that the RD33 52 and 53 engines, they still have to be sent back to
outstanding performance of MiG29N was highly commended Russia, as Ul<raine does not have the technical documents of
by theAir Force. RD33 53 or the engineering manuals.
Nonetheless, an authoritative source from ATS€ once again Two years ago, several senior officials from MiG Design
raised sharp criticism over MiG's repair service, hoping that Bureau claimed in an interview with Kanwa that the new
MiG could improve their after-sale service in the future.Two leadership of MiG would put after-sales service on top prioriry.
years ago, an ATSC source told Kanwa in an exclusive interview For that purpose, they would try to implement networl<ed parts
that the overall cost of MiG29's repair and maintenance was management and on-condition service, and to reduce the time
extremely high, almost twice that of A/F l8C. Besides, the time needed for repair and maintenance.
it took to repair the engine and other key parts was also too Military observers based in Kuala Lumpur told Kanwa that
long.The source said at that time that in terms of maintenance because of the sky-high cost of MiG29N maintenance, the
service,A/F l8C was much better.Thanks to the US military's Malaysian Air Force is considering whether they should get
lntegration Maintenance Program, the Malaysian Air Force can MiG29N retired ahead of the schedule. This has not been
have access to the needed parts forA/Fl8C through the confirmed by the Malaysian Air Force or ATSC, however.Air
established networked inventory manatement system within Chief General Sri Azizan said to Kanwa that MiG29N would
72 hours. In contrast, the provision of MiG29N parts would remain in service until they are no longer required. He also
usually take at least several months, and the overhaul of engines indicated that there was no plan to further upgrade those
would take as long as 9 months. fighters.
Two years have past, and the same source accepted Kanwa's The MiG Group is now promoting to Malaysia the
interview in December 2007, saying that there had been no MiG29SMT upgrading plan.The MalaysianAir Force seems not
obvious improvement in that regard. He believed, however, that to have the intention to go ahead with the plan in the near
MiG had tried its best and that the core of the problem was term. I

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Su30Ml(M
delivered to
Moloysio
<Kanwa News LangkawiAndrei Chang> General SriAzizan, Different from Su30MKl, Su30MKM is equipped with
Chief of the Malaysian Air Force, told Kanwa that the Malaysian French-made IFF antennae and the wide-angle HUD made by
Air Force was highly satisfied with the timely delivery of THALES.The multi-functional display system is also made by
Su30MKM and the outstanding performance of the fighter in THALES.The front and rear cockpits are equipped with in total
flight operations. He said that the initial batch of 6 Su30MKMs 6 5x5 SMD-55S and I colour 6x6 SMD-66S displays. Su30MKM
were officially delivered to the Malaysian Air Force in July 2007, also uses LDP Damocles combat pod and NAVFLIR system.
and the last batch will be received in December 2008.Alexander Damocles pod has a weight of 265kg and length 2.5m.When
N. Klementiev,Vice General Manager of SUKHOI Aircraft under navigation guidance, the thermal imaging system has a
Company, disclosed to Kanwa that another 6 Su30MKMs would field view of 24x18 degrees,4x3 degrees and I x0.75 degrees
be delivered to Malaysia in December 2007. Besides, Russia will respectively. NAVFLIR has a target designation range of l0-
be responsible for the training of SU30MKM pilots, which is I 2km (20x20m targets), 22.5-50km ( I 00x I 00m targets), optical

going to take place in Malaysia. For this purpose, SUKHOI has field view 24x I8 degrees, electronic zoom l2x9 degrees. OLS-
provided Malaysia with 2 sets of Su30MKM ground simulators. 301 IRST is produced by Ural Optical Mechanical Plant.The
All of the above Su30MKM fighters will be deployed at the SURA helmet mounted target designator was produced by Kiev
No. I I Flight Squadron stationed at Butterworth.All of the pilots Arsenal Plant.The Radar computers are RC-l and RC-2
have the experience of flying MiG29N or F/A- lSC.The Malaysian produced by lndian HindustanAeronautics Ltd,and the mission
Su3OMKM pilots who flied M|G29N before told Kanwa that computers are BCVM486- l. Su30MKM is also equipped with
Su30MKM was easy to control, as it had full digital FBW control L I 50-30 radar warning receiver, SAP-5 l8M jamming pod, and
system and all manipulation could be done by following the UV-30MK chaff/flare dispenser.The fighter is fitted with 4 laser
flight manual.As a result, they commanded the basic control warning receivers and 2Avatronics MAW-300 missile approach
skills within a short period.The pilots also indicated that they warning system, each of which is composed of 3 lR sensors.
had not conducted any confrontation exercises between Su30MKM is reportedly equipped with 95NAA GPS
Su30MKM,A/F- l8C and other fighters.The pilots who had navigation system produced by SAGEM and the LS22OBVOR/
experience flying A/F l8C said that in terms of the
MiG29N
manoeuvrability, Su30MKM is superior to A/F l8C.
A local military source says that the Malaysian Air Force
intends to procure more Su30MKMs.When asked about
this issue, GeneralAzizan told Kanwa that no final decision
had been made so far. Meantime, he commended highly
the performance of F/A- l8E/F, claiming that the plan to
acquire additional F/A- l8E/F fighter is still "alive".
Col. (Rtd.) Selamat B. Bakin, Director/Chief Executive
Officer of AerospaceTechnology System Corp. SDN.BHD
(ATSC), told Kanwa that the maintenance of Su30MKM is
undertaken by the Malaysian Air Force itself. ln the future,
ATSC will try to obtain the contract to provide maintenance
service for those Su30MKMs.ATSC has very rich experience
in maintaining MiG29N fighters. ln December 2007, the
MalaysiaAir Force and ROSONORONEXPORT signed an ILS receivers made byTHALES, but this has not been confirmed
agreement that Russia would supply the parts for Su30MKMs. by the Malaysian Air Force.
The degree of integration between Russian and Western Su30MKM still usesAl-3 IFP engines made by Ufa Company
systems on Su30MKM is higher than that on IAF Su30MKl.The (which integratesVKA-99MK gear box and GTDE- | l7- I starter)
Su30MKM deal was signed in August 2003, and the total with initial overhaul time 1,000 hours, service life 2,000 hours
transaction value of l8 Su30MKMs was US$900 million, an of flight.The TVC nozzle of the engine has a service life of 500
average unit price of US$50 million including the weapon hours. Kanwa has also managed to confirm that Su30MKM uses
systems. ln contrast, the overall value of the 4 Su30MK2Vs of the same engine as the Su30MKA fighter specifically designed
theVietnamese Air Force was US$ 100 million, an average unit for the Algerian Air Force.
price of US$25 million only.These were the figures from the Su30MKM has a designed service life of 6,000 flight hours
Russian media and have not been confirmed by the Russian or 25 years,and the KT-2 l3 main landing gear and KN-35 nose
authorities.This indicates that the technological performance landing gear also have a service life of 25 years or 4,000 times
of Su30MKM is far superior to that of Su30MK2V and Chinese of landing/taking-off.The first overhaul time of the fighter is
Air Force Su30MK2.An air force source from this region told after 1,000 taking-off/landing. Su30MKM is equipped with new
Kanwa that the Vietnamese Air Force was close to signing the generation K36D-3.5 pilot seat e.jector, maximum internal fuel
agreement to procure another 20 su30MK2V in order to capacity 9,400kg, normal fuel reserve for 5,270km, endurance
establ ish a fully-fledged Su30M K2V regiment. All of Vietnam's time in the air 4.5 hours.The maximum endurance time in the
Su27SK and Su30MK2V fighters are deployed at the No.370 air can be enhanced to I 0 hours after one aerial refuelling, and
Division stationed at Phan Rang. the range can be improved to 8,000km. a
AIRFORCENEWS

FCt

-*/,

Soles s
MiG29MT, FCI vs.export
prospect of Russion ond Chinese
fighters in the 3rd world countries
<Kanwa News John Wu,Andrei Chang> The English Web Russian fighters.As to Egypt, China has successfully sold 80
edition of the Russian KommersontDaily reported on November plus 40 K8 trainers. Egypt has long aspired to develop its own
20,2007 that the Russian MilitaryTechnology Export Service aviation industry, and therefore China may promote FC I to
Bureau of the Russian Federation had given permission to Egypt in the form of helping them to establish assembling line.
China's export of FC I fighters fitted with RD93 engines to This will be quite attractive for Egypt, and the biggest attraction
Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Nigeria, Bangladesh and Pakistan. of FCI for Pakistan is also that it can eventually manufacture
Nonetheless,this report has not been confirmed by the sources the fighter on its own.The situation of lran is quite special.lran
from the Russian military industry.A number of Russian military is unlikely to acquire fighters from Europe or the US under the
enterprises including MiG Design Bureau told to Kanwa on current international situations, and thus Russia and China are
several occasions that FC I fighters fitted with Russian engines
can only be exported to countries that will not pose threat to
the market of MiG fighters.
Yet it is true that China has been trying all means to Promote
FC I to the above countries.Among these countries, Bangladesh,
Nigeria and Algeria have bee using different variants of MiG
fighters. Besides, lran, Myanmar, Lebanon and Sri Lanka are also
considered potential clients of FC l.
A careful analysis ofthe current status offighter replacement
in the air forces of those countries indicates that SaudiArabia
and Lebanon are somewhat unlikely to become FC l's clients,
the situations in Algeria and Egypt are unclear, while lran, Sri
Lanka, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Nigeria have the potential to
purchase FC I .
Firstly, Saudi Arabia is never an importer of Chinese and
'i::. 'j
MiG29SMT :g .d
E
f* #
t{
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l* MiG29SMT


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,6
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i#tl
ilI
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the key potential suppliers for them.What lran really wanted in had complained about its after-sale service. For example, the
fact was the twin-engine Su30MK fighter.The lranian Air Force MalaysianAir Force thinks that the performance of MiG29N is
is also equipped with 24 J7M fighters for training purpose. quite good, but it took 9 months to get the engine repaired
Lebanon has never used Chinese-made fighters so far.The two years ago and the parts become extremely expensive as
modernization pace of the Algerian Air Force has been very the value of Russian ruble increases steadily.This circumstance
fast. ln 2006, Nigeria purchased l2 JTNl fighters from China, might give FC I opportunity to gain certain portion of the
which are seemingly used for training purpose.This was the market.Although FCI is not the same standard fighter as

first time for Nigeria to acquire Chinese fighters.A very simple MiG2SSMI there exists an issue of effectiveness vs. price. lf the
question is why a fighter like J7 that is based on MiG2l price of MiG29SMT approaches that of aWestern fighter, the
technologies of the last century is now sold everywhere while traditional advantage of MiG might disappear.
MiG29 as a third generation fighter is continually losing the Besides, the changes in the country's government system
traditional markets.As it is widely known, FC I originates from might also make China in a more advantageous position than
MiG2l, and its life is extended right to the beginning of the Russia at the promotion of fighters. Due to the recent increase
2lst Century. China usually accepts trading aircraft with crude of oil revenues, the Russians basically asl< for hard currency
oil, while Russia itself is a net oil exporter.As a result, once the payment for its weapons.After the privatization reform, although
Chinese weapons are connected with crude oil, China may have the degree of nationalization of Russia's military enterprises is
greater competitive advantage in attracting the oil-producing still above other\ /estern countries, its nationalization is far
countries. China in fact has been putting huge hope on the oil lower than that of China's. Most of China's military industrial
and gas supplies fromAlgeria,and China was expected to import enterprises are state-owned; so the Chinese government plays
a total of 5 million tons of crude oil from them in the year a very big role in coordination and it is not difficult at all for
2007. Chinese oil companies are now operating 7 oil China's enterprises to exchange oil with weaPons.
cooperation projects in Algeria. As to Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladeshi, they are the
Kanwa believes that all the African countries that major marl<ets of F7, and it is possible for them to use FCI
traditionally use China's J7 and K8 fighters might become the fighters. Because both Myanmar and Bangladesh own MiG29s
potential markets of FC l. For medium-developed countries like and China's J7 serial fighters, they will become markets where
Malaysia, however, twin-engine fighters will gradually become MiG29 and FCI will have a fierce competition.
their mainstay air platforms, and as a consequence there will To sum up, because of the differences between national
not be much room for the promotion of FC l. systems,the changes ofthe operating practices ofChina's barter
Kanwa also believes that the problematic after-sale service trades and MiG's own problems in promotion and after-sale
of MiG is very likely to affect the sales of M|G29SMT more service, China's FC I fighters at the export market cannot be
seriously in the future. Some of the counlries who use MiG29 ignored any more by MiG.K
I

TK I SAM

<Kanwa NewsTaipei Andrei Chang> This past January,


TK ISAM
theTaiwanese Defence Ministry opened the Sanchih based
Tian Kong I (TK l) SAM Company of the 6l lth Battalion
under the Taiwanese Air Force No.95 I Air Defence
Artillery Brigade to the international media.This base is
mix-deployed with "TK l" and "TK ll" ground-to-air
missiles.TK I uses towed launch vehicle, similar to the
deployment of earlier version 5300P SAM.TK ll adopts
fixed vertical launchers, with each company armed with
more than 32 launchers and each launch room consisting
of 4 vertical launchers.As it is widely known, both TK I
andTK ll's "Chang-bai" search radars use phased array
radar systems, which are deployed at fixed sites and
equipped with protection shield against typhoon weather
conditions. "Chang-bai" radar system has a length of
33.58m, width 10.67m, and height 53.21m. lt is composed
of 5,632 elements and works at S band with l0 available
TK ISAM
channels.The official explanation is that the Chang-bai
search radar has a track range of 300km, making all the
front-line military airports and ballistic missile positions
in northern part of China's Fuiian Province under its
coverage. lmages show that LongTian and Lu Qiao
airports are all within the range of its surveillance. lt is
widely known that LongTian Airport is armed with
S3OOPMU- | and HQ2 SAMs. Obviously, the search radar

.k1l
- r !--i{r :
Defence Ministry also wants to make the Point that both sides
are now armed with long-range ground-to-air missiles that are
sufficient to cover most of the Taiwan Strait, and Taiwan is now
capable of "controlling the airspace with ground-based missiles"
and undertaking "offensive air defence". Lastly, it also signals to
the Chinese not to take any reckless actions before Taiwan's
presidential election in March.
TK serial SAMs are the third similar missile system in the
world that uses phased array radars.TK I andTK ll have a range
of I 00km and 200km respectively, and the development of these
two types of missiles began in 1980s. lt was until July 2007 that
China received the first batch of 4 battalions of 20Okm-ranged
S300PMU2 SAMs. Since 2006, China has started a whole series
of major projects along the Taiwan Strait to construct 5300
SAM positions. Up to the present, China has started to deploy
at least 5 5300 battalions in this region.
The Sanchih Base separates theTK SAM launch sites from
the radar positions. Keeping a distance between the missiles
and the radars is reasonable, because even if the radar positions
are attacked by anti-radar weapons, the missiles themselves
may avoid the damage. From the latest moves of the PLAAiT
Force in drilling the attacks upon ground-based targets and the
performance features of its equipments, the SAM missile
positions of the Taiwanese forces will be the prime targets in
the initial wave of attacks, should a confrontation break out.
Particularly, the activities of the H6H bombers of PLAAF No. I 0
Division in the region near Chun Xiao Offshore Oilfields deserve
close attention. Some Japanese scholars believe that H6 is
capable of launching air-to-ship missiles, but No. l0 Division
belongs to the Air Force, not the Navy Aviation Force.A key
mission of the H6 bombers of the Navy Aviation Force is to
undertake attacks upon the surface ships ofthe oPPonent.The
systems of bothTaiwan and China's ground-to-air missiles now activities of the H6 at No. l0 Division have been very frequent
have overlapped search coverage.TK SAM's CIC and track radar above the waters of the China Sea and there were a total of 43
were also made open to the international media.The CIC is sorties within two days in September 2007 alone, which was
composed of three double-deck multi-functional colour display obviously a campaign tactical drill for certain intense air-based
systems, with no large screen display panel in place to attacks. Kanwa's analysis is that H6H may very likely be fitted
demonstrate the real-time status of the combat theatre.This withYJ63 air-to-ground missile,which has a range of more than
CIC is probably intended for back-up purpose.The wholeTK ll 200km, to launch the first round of attacks upon Taiwan's TK
vertical launch compartment and CIC are all built shallow SAM and Patriot ll positions.This is also why the PLAAF has
underground, with a reinforced concrete structure less than conducted very active training in the area to the north ofthe
0.5m on top and steel-plated gates. ln contrast, all Russian style Taiwan Strait. Of course,the attacks can also be supported by
air-to-ground missiles are armed with HE and ground- the PLA SecondArtillery Force's campaign tactical missiles (SSM)
penetrating warheads. For instance, H59TE TV guided air-to- armed with cluster warheads. ln other words, after destroying
ground missile is capable of penetrating 4-6m-thick reinforced some of the TK SAM positions and partially paralyzing their
concrete structure. Judging from the images of the PLA Air capability to control the airspace, Su30MKKs will fire the 70km-
Force's simulated attacks upon the targets at Dingxin Airport, ranged H3 I P and I lOkm-ranged H3 IPD anti-radar missiles, the
rhe accuracy of such strikes is improving steadily.The CS/MPG- I lSkm-ranged H5SMEASM and the 30km-ranged H29TEASM
25 track radar is designed to provide target designation forTK to launch surprise assaults upon the "Eagle" missile positions
l. Each launch unit is equipped with 2 such track radars, which of the Taiwanese Forces.
work at X band and has a total of I 5 channels.The radars are When asked by Kanwa why theTK missiles are not equiPPed
also deployed at fixed sites, thus have quite weak anti-raid with mobile launch vehicles, Lieutenant General Liu Chong-
capability. ling from the Headquarters of the Taiwanese Air Force said
Kanwa's analysis is that the objective for the Taiwanese that related exploration and research Programs are underway
Defence Ministry to open its TK SAM positions to the at Chong-shan ScienceAcademy, and the key problem lies in
international media is to send a message to the Chinese side the budget. He pointed out that theTaiwanese military is surely
that theTaiwan Strait is not China's "inland sea".TheTaiwanese working towards enhancing the mobility of the missile system.l
*g
K

ln addition,the lranian-made C802 coast-to-ship missiles have


also fallen into the hands of Hamas militia in Lebanon.
ln terms of effective range and price, C802A is very
attractive when used to deal with non-NATO opponents.As a
result, the above countries that are currently employing C80l/
802 will very likely turn to procure C802A.The introduction of
Type 022 fast missile boat along with C802A SSM may help
China to win greater share of fast missile boat market.Those
countries that have experiences using Chinese-made SSMs in
the past may also choose C802A, including Egypt, Sri Lanka and
<Kanwa NewsAndrei Pinkov>A source from theThai Navy Bangladesh.The countries that are extremely anti-America, for
told Kanwa thatThailand has become the first foreign country instances Syria andVenezuela may very likely turn to China for
to use C802A ship-to-ship missile.The l8Okm-ranged C802A naval equipments.
SSM has a longer range than the Russian H35 and the US Moreover, the appearance of C802A in the international
Harpoon SSMs, and now it is being promoted to Myanmar, market may give rise to regional arms race in ship-to-ship
Pakistan and lran.A source from China National Precision missiles.The reason why Thailand has decided to purchase
Machinery l/E Corp (CPMIEC) said at IDEX 2007 held inAbu C802A is very likely stimulated by the fact that China is
Dhabi that the introduction of C802A SSMs to the international simultaneously promoting C802A to Myanmar.
market was to meet the demand from those countries that Since C802A SSM has a range of more than I 80km, other
had already acquired Chinese-made C801, C802 SSMs or coast- Chinese-made target designation and positioning systems, longer
to-ship missiles.This means that all the countries that are now range track radar, or even naval helicopters and fixed-wing
armed with the above two types of missiles will likely become aircraft may also be promoted to the above countries after the
the clients of C802A. sales of C802A, which will give a boost to China's expansion of
Meanwhile, China also introduced the 280km-ranged YJ6-2 military influence.
SSM to the international market in 2006.TheThai Navy was Lastly, once lran andYeman acquire C802A,their capability
attracted by the longer range of C802A SSM and intended to to blockade the maritime channels in the region will get greatly
use itto replace the C80 I SSM currently in service. enhanced, given the critical geographical locations of the two
The countries currently armed with C80 I includeThailand, countries. C802A can easily blockade the waters of the Hormuz
Pakistan, Myanmar andYemen, and the countries using C802 Strait and the Bab El Mandab Strait between the Red Sea and
areAlgeria, lndonesia, Pakistan and lran (technological transfer). Gulf of Aden. I
Colonel Zohqri Jomin,
Director of Future
System of the
Mqloysiq Novy

.8L,"
I I ll-ay' tsr

Frigote 2000
Grill'r r$N'{lrr
MEKOIOO OPV

<Kanwa News Langkawi Andrei Chang> Colonel Zahari the highest chance to win the contract'
Jamin, Director of Future System of the Malaysia Navy, told
Colonel Jamin also indicated that after all the MEKO- 100
Kanwa in the exclusive interview that China was bidding for OPVs are completed, the Navy will build more OPVs
their projects with Type 071 dock landing ship, and the Royal independently.
Malaysian Navy (RMN) had already received proposal'At the Some military observers in Kuala Lumpur claim that Malaysia
meantime, other countries including South Korea are also plansto build 6 indigenous OPVs at BOUSTEAD Shipyard in the
making active effort to participate in the bidding. However, he first phase, and the design of the vessel models is close to
said that no decision had been made on which countries should completion.The hull design of these OPVs originates from MEKO-
be awarded the contract. Other government sources said that I 00, but the speed is probably upgraded to 29 knots.The speed

the final decision would be announced in the latter part ofthe of the 6 MEKO- 100 currently under construction is 22 knots'
9th Five-Year Planof Malaysia. A source from BAE System told Kanwa that Malaysia has
Malaysia plans to acquire at least one 13,000-ton class multi- decided to sign a new contract to import 2 new FFGs (Frigate
role landing ship.The Korean Dokdo dock landing ship visited Batch ll) upgraded from LEKIU class FFG within a short period
LIMA 2007 in December. Military observers based in Kuala (before 2008).This new FFG will be equipped with ESSM

Lumpur say that Korea has very high chance to win the contract' intermediate-range shiP-to-air missile and Smart-S MK-2 air
The 4th MEKO- I 00 RMN OPV was launched on 7 December search radar made byTHALES and LinkY MK2 data link, Captas
2007, and the third of the same class OPVs were launched on I 5 Nano sonar, MM40 Block3 SSM and Bofors 57 MK3 naval gun.
November 2007. Malaysia is going to imPort and assemble in Colonel mentioned that the RMN had decided to import
total 6 MEKO- 100 OPVs. Colonel indicated that after all the 6 only two French SCORPENE submarines and that there was
OPVs are completed,the RMN will conduct comprehensive tests no plan to procure more submarines at the moment.
and only after that will RMN decide on the rype of weapon systems Other military sources from Kuala Lumpur claimed that
to be fitted on the OPVs. However, a source from the BOUSTEAD the weapon systems of SCORPENE had been confirmed and
Navy Shipyard told Kanwa earlier that the previous two MEKO- budget would be made to purchase SM39 submarine-to-surface

100 OPVs will be fitted with air defence modules, including l6- missiles.At the same time,the RMN is establishing the submarine
celled SAM vertical launch system and one RAM air defence fleet headquarters in SABA Province, which will directly
system. Regarding the ship-to-ship missile to be fitted on board, command the two submarines.Administratively, the fl eet belongs
Colonel said that the RMN is already using NM40 Exocet and to the Navy's Second Administrative Region' but command-
OtomatTeseo SSMs;therefore MEKO-100 will be armed with wise, the fleet headquarters rePorts directly to the Chief of
mainly European-made shiP-to-shiP missiles. Other military the Malaysian Navy. I
observers in Kuala Lumpur say that MM40 Exocet Block-lll has
ARMYNEWS

KSIA SAM

I
I

I
I
i

**, . r.. .

<Kanwa News Langkawi Andrei Chang> tracking radar uses a separate radar vehicle with a 22m-long
ROSOBORONEXPORT Company revealed at the LIMA 2007 stretchable tower, and its search range is enhanced to 35km. lt
press conference that they were bidding for the Malaysian Army is also noticed that the anti cruise missile capability is also
projects with BUK-M2E surface-to-air missile system (SAM).A improved. BUK-M l-2's radar system can attack only 5 targets
source from JSCV.Tikhomirov Scientific Research lnstitute of simultaneously,while the upgraded BUK-M2E can attack 24 air
lnstrument Design (NllP) says that compared with the earlier targets at the same time, covering an area of 0.0 l5-25km. BUK-
variant BUK-M l-2 SAM, BUK-M2E has an upgraded 9S36E radar M2E has an effective range of 3-45km for aircrafr targets,firing
system.As for the surface-to-air missile, both systems use the altitude 0.015-25km, intercept range for ballistic missile targets
same 9M3 lTE.The RPM phased array tracking radar fitted on l5-20km, intercept altitude for cruise missiles 0. l-20km, and
the original BUK-M I -2 has an effective track range of 20km effective attack range for helicopters 42km.
and is installed on the launch vehicle, while BUK-M2E's RPM The PLA Navy's 4 956E/EM DDGs and 2 0528 DDGs are
all armed with 9M3 l7Es.A source confirmed that this type of
ship-to-air missile does have the capability to attack surface
battleships, with an effective attack range of 25km for torpedo
craft and lSkm for missile swift boat.The response time of the
whole system is l0- l2 seconds.The original BUK-M l-2 ground-
to-air missile system launch vehicle can only carry 4 9Yl3l7E
SAMs, while the upgraded BUK-M2E uses 9A39M I vehicle and
can carry I 9M3 I 7Es.
From the technical parameters publicized by Russia, the
warhead weight of the Shtil- l/9M3 I 7E ship-to-air missile is only
to attack targets on
T0kg.Therefore, even if it has the capability
the they are intended to deal with small ships only.
sea,
Nonetheless, as the effective range of the missile for torpedo
craft and missile swift boats is below 25km, it does not have
much operational value.Torpedo crafts have phased out in many
countries,while the missiles fitted on modern missile swift boats
normally have an effective range of more than 4Okm.As a result,
9M3 l7E's attack power for small-tonnage ships is only
suPPortive. I
S Noeuanw.€APoNrssuE
rir ^I

JEFF CHEN, ANDREI CHANG

PLA's nucleorw heods


stockpile inc
LRBM AND ICBM WARHEADS entered service.As Kanwa's analyst pointed out in October
With more DF3 lA and JL2 long range strategic ballistic 2007 issue of KanwaAsian Defence, there were traces that the
missiles (LRBM) entering service, China's stockpile of nuclear DF4 long range ballistic ballistic missile positions located at
warheads has increased sharply,giving it preliminary capability Delinghayuan in Qinghai Province had been expanded. Straight
to engage in three-dimensional nuclear strikes upon opponent highway lanes stretch several hundred kilometres in the region,
targets.The changes in China's nuclear capability sarted in 1995, and some sections of the highways have been revamped and
before which the PLA Second Artillery Force (PLASAF) was new preliminary missile positions have been constructed.This
often teased as "a military service that need to find ways of indicates that China will very likely start deploying more DF3 lA
exiting".At that time, most of the soldiers serving under PLASAF highway-mobile lCBMs.
would have to rely on "growing vegetables and raising pigs" to The most likely strategic missile brigades that may receive
find their own way out. Such a miserable situation was very DF5 and DF5A ICBMs include No.80 I and No.804 Brigade.
much the result of the aftershocl< of the large-scale US and No.8 l3 Brigade is stationed at Nanyang of Henan Province, a
Soviet Union disarmament of their nuclear arsenals.After 1995, unit generally believed to have been armed with DF5 lCBMs. ln
however, with the intensification of the Taiwan Strait situation, addition, No.809 and No.8 l2 Brigades stationed in Qinghai are
China began to refocus its attention on the development of also armed with DF4s. No.803 and No.805 Brigades are
nuclear capability so as to possess effective deterrence against stationed in Hunan, and they are said to have also received
possible US military interference in the Taiwan Strait. The DF4s. Some of the DF4 brigades may have started to receive
PLASAF started to put forward such slogans as "Using the DF3 lA lCBMs.The positioning of DF4 and DF3 lA seems to be
Second Artillery Force to launch the first strike for decisive very close within the PLASAE and both are called "Long Range
victory".This marked the beginning of the transformation of Strategic Missiles", while D5 is called ICBM. Besides, there is
the PLASAF from "balanced nuclear and conventional capability" speculation that there is No.8 l8 Missile Brigade armed with
to "focusing more on nuclear capability". ln terms of DF3 l, but this has not been confirmed by official sources. ln
technologies, the PLASAF sped up the development of carrier that regard, because China currently does not yet have sufficient
vehicles for long-range strategic missiles including mainly DF3 I quantity of ICBMs with a range above 10,000km, upgrading and
and JL2. Besides, in order to make up the shortfall of nuclear service life prolonging of DF5s is very likely to continue.
arsenal within a short period, China produced additional DF5A The increase of nuclear warheads within the PLASAF
ICBMs and undertool< service life prolonging for the existing focuses on the strategic objective of "forcing other major nuclear
DF3 IRBMs and DF4 long range strategic missiles. powers not to dare nuclear blackmail upon China". ln terms of
With the deployment of more lCBMs, the number of the material for the production of nuclear warheads, China has
Chinese long-range strategic missile brigades has also increased. sufficient supplies. China has very rich uranium resources, and
Meanwhile, at least two 094 SSBNs and one 092M SSBN have its production of plutonium reserves has continued for quite a
MclsanwEAPoNIrssuE
l{f i9ia4*r:':.'i:i*r!l
a&,:;t;ii;::,..t1.-.,. ::-.
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1!

Gommunlst Paftu and tne PH:


still tightly bonded but
reforms on the horizon
Communist Party, the members of the Party
Central Committee who represented the
Military were kept under 77o.ln addition, the
Defence Ministry was given the real power to
command the military affairs of the country,
and the Headquarters of General Staff was also
under the direct control of the Defence
Ministry.
During the CPC lTth National Congress
total of 204 members were elected
last year, a
to the CPC Central Committee,4l of whom
were from the PLA,which accounts for 20%
of the total. This number with military
background indisputably shows that China's
one-party government still has a very strong
military colour. The total number of
representatives attending the I 7th National
Congress was 2,2 13, among whom 247 were
from the PLA and I I were specially invited
representatives who have made outstanding
<Kanwa News Andrei Chang> The power of the contribution to the construction of the Chinese military forces.
Communist Party of China was won through military struggles Based on these figures,there were totally 285 represenutives
rather than relying on the underground movements like Cheka from the PLA at the Congress, or I I .658%. ln comparison, during
of the former Soviet Union (which later transformed into the the l6th National Congress 5 years ago,there were 44 members
KGB) and workers' uprising, and therefore the influence of the from the PLA and Armed Police among the 198-membered
military forces upon the Party is greater than that in other Central Committee, or 22.22%, During the l5th National
socialist countries.The composition of the CPC Central Congress,the proportion of members and alternate members
Commission and the CPC Political Bureau after the lTth with military background in the Central Committee was l%
National Congress continues to represent such a unique feature higher than that of the I 6th National Congress. ln that sense,
of the power dynamics. Nonetheless, gradually, the relationship the proportion of the military members in the Central
between the Communist Party and the Military (the PLA) is Committee has been on the decrease gradually in three
undergoing some subtle changes.The new generation leaders consecutive National Congress, though the range of such change
obviously aspire that the PLA can be further kept away from is very small. Nonetheless, Kanwa thinks this change is of some
the top decision-making establishment of the CPC Central significance as this has been a period when the political situation
Commission. ofTaiwan Strait experienced acute deterioration,and the above
After the 24th National Congress of the Soviet Union figures symbolizes that the military has not had greater say

After the 24th Notionot Congress of the Soviet Union Communist


Portg, the members of the Portg Centrot Committee who
represented the Mititorg were kept under 7'1. ln oddition, the
Defence Ministrg wos given the reol power to commond the mititorg
offoirs of the countru, ond the fleodquorters of Generot Stoff wos
otso under the direct controt of the Defence Ministrg.
within the Party during this time.
ln terms of the composition of the Political Bureau of the
This reform is otso intended to
Central Committee,there are only 2 representatives from the further exercise cottective
PLA in the 25-membered Politburo.As a matter of fact, since leodership in notionqI mititorg
the l4th National Congress, PLA members in the Politburo
have been kept at 2. Because the overall number of Politburo
offoirs. From the chonges in
members has increased, however, the proportion of military the composition of the Centrot
members in the Parry's top decision-making body has decreased.
Mititorg Commission, there is
ln the I 4th, I 5th, I 6th and I 7th National Congress, the total
members of the Politburo are respectively 20, 22,24,25,and
possibititg thot further
the percentage of military members are respectively l0%,9%, exponsion of the Commission
8.3% and 8%.Among the Standing Members of the Political
Bureau of the Central Committee, there were no members
witt toke ptoce. ,r':' ';i::':'

from the PLA in the I 5th, I 6th or I 7th National Congress, of the Soviet Union Navy and Army, Commander-in-chief of
while during the l4th Congress, Liu Huaqing quite abnormally theWarsaw Pact armed forces, Chairman of the Soviet Union
became a Standing Member. On the other hand, during the Soviet KGB, the Minister of lnternal Affairs, Chairman of the Soviet
Union years, KGB had much greater influence on the Union Military lndustrial Committee, and Prime Minister.
Communist Party than the Chinese intelligence establishment, Obviously,the Soviet Union Communist Party had much better
which is one of the key differences between the Soviet Union policy coordination mechanism than the Chinese Communist
and Chinese Party politics. ln l976,Yuri Andropov himself P"rty.
became the General Secretary from the Director of KGB. ln the area of political reforms, China has established a top
Starting from the 2lst National Congress in 196 l,Andropov coordination department similar to the US Commission on
had been a member of the Party's Central Committee and National Security, and the concept of having civilian officials
became the Politburo member from 1973. His successor at entering the Central Mititary Commission has been put forward
KGB,Victor Chebrikov, was also a member of the Party's by Chinese scholars for quite some time. However,the reforms
Politburo. ln contrast, China's Minister of National Security has did not get headway because the non-military regime headed
never been a member of the Politburo. lnterestingly,atthe l6th by Hu Jintao had no absolute authority.As a result, the pace of
National Congress, Public Security Minister ZhouYongkang was China's national political syslem reforms and the nationalization
elected as the member of the Political Bureau, the first time in of the armed forces are unlikely to accelerate within the next 5
the history of the Chinese Communist Party. years.
As it is widely known, the core of power in a socialist At the level of the Central Military Commission,the reforms
government lies in the composition of the Secretariat of the in recent years have mainly centred on completely changing
Central Committee. None of the members of the Secretariat the conventional "Grand Ground Force" mindset. Starting in
of the CPC Central Committee elected ar rhe lTrh Congress 2004,the top commanders of the PLA Navy,Air Force, Nanjing
is from the PLA, while after the l6th Congress, Xu Caihou Military Region, and the Second Artillery Force have all become
entered the Secretariat.This could be perceived that the core members of the Central Military Commission,giving a balanced
of national power is now straying away from the military status of all services of the armed forces. Since the l4th
personnel. Congress,there have been normally 7 members in the Central
The influence of the military forces upon the Party has Miliary Commission, including the Chairman of the Commission.
been the greatest among all socialist countries, which is one of At the l6th Congress, the Central Military Commission was
the most important factors that has hindered China's political increasedto 8 members, and it was fumher increased to I I at
reforms.The key defect of such a system lies in the lacking of the lTth Congress.The expansion of the Central Military
effective coordination mechanism among different interest Commission was aimed at giving a more balanced attention to
groups, which normally leads to inability in management of the interests of different services within the PLA and different
national crlsis. It is quite unusual for the Foreign Minster, the power factions of the country.This reform is also intended to
National Security Minster and the Defence Minister not to be further exercise collective leadership in national military affairs.
in the CPC Political Bureau, nor are the members of the Central From the changes in the composition of the Central Military
Military Committee.This has been why the Chinese National Commission, there is possibility that further expansion of the
Defence and Foreign Ministries had different voices on a series Commission will take place.And yet as long as the National
of events from the US-China aircraft clash in the airspace above Central Military Commission continues to command the armed
South China Sea to the shooting down of an aging weather forces directly through the PLA Headquarters of General Staff
satellite in the beginning of last year. China's capability in rather than the Defence Ministry, the role of the Defence
managing crisis is even inferior to that of the Former Soviet Ministry will remain nominal.
Union. ln the 1970s, the Soviet Union resumed the function of How does the Standing Committee of the CPC Political
a National Defence Committee,whose members included the Bureau coordinate with the National Central Military
Defence Minister,the Deputy Defence Minister;Head of General Commission? China's existing political system has not even
Staff of the Soviet Union armed forces, the Political Commissars addressed this issue structurally. I
ffi;'ur-
!* F,! i'r'f,i ll';:
,'
tnlwnli;

Chino's snowstorm disosters


ond Toiwon's referendum
<Kanwa NewsAndrei Chang> ln 2008,the first major test Committee, 1,500 military officers from Guangzhou Military
for the Chinese communist government in crisis management Region entered Guangzhou Railway Station", an evidence of
is handling the recent snowstorm disasters and Taiwan's "UN the PLA's incompetence to respond to local emergencies.
membership referendum", which is a mirror of Hu Jintao's Mobilizing a battalion-level unit of the PLA should have to be
personal competence in governing the country. Despite China's approved by the Central Military Committee,and to what extent
full-force effort to mobilize all diplomatic resources and to close- has Hu Jintao controlled China's armed forces?This seems to
in and intercept the Taiwan's referendum in the international be a legitimate question to be asl<ed.
community within a period of almost half a year,Taiwan has AfterTaiwan formally publicized its decision to go ahead
finally decided to hold the two referendums.At any rate, this with the two UN membership referendums, the two Taiwan
should be taken as diplomatic failure for China, as this result Affairs Offices of China made a statement, claiming "the Chen
symbolizes that China's communication with the United States Shui-bien government will pay a price for this". Kanwa has
and Japan has not been effective, and the "shared crisis noticed that the firepower of this statement is much lower
management" model has not had the effect expected by the than the tough 2007 statement by the same twoTaiwan Affair
parties involved.The latest snowstorm disasters throughout a Offices that called Chen Shui-bien "a person condemned by
large part of China indisputably reflected the incompetence of history and therefore would not get away from the punishment
the Chinese government, particularly the inability to coordinate of history". Obviously, China is attempting to find ways to back
between the central government and local authorities, the un- down from its positions on the "Thiwan Referendum" issue.
preparedness ofthe Southern provinces to respond to emergent Regarding the "price" thatTaiwan has to pay, China's attack
crises, and the ineffectiveness of the armed forces to control firepower is now focused on Chen himseli not even mentioning
the situation. Compared with the "combating floods and rescue "the Taiwan Authority", which to some extent refleccs the fact
campaign" and the l,995196 military exercises during the Jiang that China has few choices in handling this issue. ln addition,
Zemin years, Hu Jintao's organizing capability and his control the development of situation in Taiwan can be extremely
over the armed forces seem not as good as his predecessor. unfavourable to China:whether the Nationalist Party's "return-
The response to the latest snowstorm disasters also to-UN Referendum" or the Democratic Progressive Party's
exposed the low competence of the Chinese society as a whole "join-UN referendum", if the popular votes supporting rhe above
in coping with unexpected crises, particularly in such critical two referendums amount to more than 50% jointly, it may be a
areas as transportation, power supply, as well as how to deploy demonstration of the genuine mainscream opinion of the
the armed forces quickly and to combat natural disasters.When peoples in Taiwan, which will be a big constraint for China's
the central government orders are blocked or resisted by the future Taiwan policies.
local governments, should a large-scale confrontation break out Hu Jintao's capability to govern the Chinese armed forces
at theTaiwan Strait and theTaiwanese military attacks the main has been a focal point of attention by the outside world. ln the
transportation lines and power supply systems in such critical course of the recent disasters, the overall performance of the
areas as the Pearl River Delta, Shanghai, Fujian and Jiangxi, how armed forces was much poorer than that during the anti-flood
will the PLA be able to deliver a large number of troops to the campaigns in the earlier years. lf Hu fails to tal<e an even tougher
front?This is a question that deserves serious reconsideration stance than Jiang Zemin in 1996 in coping with Taiwan's
by the top Chinese leadership.The sustained panic and confusion referendum issue, Hu's personal prestige and popularity within
in the areas under such attacks may give rise to harsh suspicion the PLA will plunge even further.S
of the general public about this war, particularly when the
warfare comes into a deadly stalemate.The recent disasters
also show that local governments are incompetent in
coordinating among themselves. Under this circumstance, the ln 2008, the first mojor test for the
capability of the Chinese forces to engate in long-distance Chinese communist government
assaults will have to be reviewed.
ln the early days of the disasters, the PLA forces were not
in crisis monogement is hondting
involved. ln a major social or Taiwan Strait crisis, how to the recent snowstorm disosters
coordinate between the armed police and the PLA forces? ond Toiwon's "UN membership
Obviously, the motivation of using the PLA forces is that the
armed police will need to guard against public riots in time of
referendurn", which is o mirror of
crisis.A feature report on the Guangzhou Doily on 2 February Hu lintoo's personoI competence
2008 claimed that "with the approval of the Central Military in governing the countru.
s', s.-: lHttnvrtw
R--. i'
Su30MKM Fr 8C MiG35

t -..

Moloysion Air continue to use F/A l8C and commends highly the multi-role
capability of Super Hornet fighter, saying that the technological
evolvement is very "forward-looking", and its survivability and

Chief Generol technical performance are also among the best. He points out
particularly that Super Hornet is equipped with active phased
array radar system, leading-edge network and computer

Sri Azizon technologies.The General gives a lengthy account of the


advanced technological standard of Super Hornet, underscoring
that theAir Force has a very high opinion on this fighter.
<Kanwa News Langkawi Andrei Chang>When asked about ln the Kanwa's exclusive interview with former Malaysian
the current status of Su30MKM multi-role fighters in Malaysia, Air Force Chieftwo years ago,the general stressed that during
General Azizan says that Su30MKM has outstanding capabilities the 9th Five-Year Plan,theAir Force planed to purchase 3-4
of air combat and ground attack, and Malaysia is very satisfied aerial earlier warning and command aircraft (AEW&C).The
with Russia's timely production and delivery.The MalaysianAir SAAB "Balance Beam"AEW&C ParticiPated in the LIMA 2005.
Force received the first batch of 6 Su30MKMs in July 2007, and When talking about the procurement ofAWACS, Gene ral Azizan
all delivery will be completed in December 2008. Malaysia has says that they are now considering different kinds of AEW&C

ordered a total of l8 Su3OMKMs.


As for the training and maintenance of
rl& and AWACS. He indicates that Malaysia
has already conducted an extensive
study of different types of AEW&C
Su30MKM, General indicates that training
affi'
is

already underway in cooperation with aircraft, and the consultation rePort has
been submitted to the government.The

btu
several countries, and theAir Force has the
capability to maintain Su30MKM. Since the Air Forcehopes that decision will be
beginning of the Su30MKM project, related \ ,? made soon on which tYPe of aircraft
training has been underway and the to Procure.
Malaysian pilots now have sufficient ability When asked about the service of
tr# MiG29N, General Azizan says that
to control the fighter. ln terms of repair
service for Su30MKM, Malaysia plans to Malaysia does not have any plan to
undertake intermediate and organizational upgrade it. He gives a high mark for its
level maintenance, and the Air Force has combat performance, claiming that the
acquired the necessary equipments specifically for that purpose. Air Force is very satisfied with MiG29N. However' when
A source from the Russian military industry says that the mentioning about the maintenance of MiG29N' he points out
MalaysianAir Force may very likely purchase more Su30MKM that in the philosophy of providing maintenance service, Russia
fighters. On this issue, General Azizan stresses that they plan and Malaysia are strikingly different, particularly concerning the
to establish 4 plus I multi-role fighter squadrons.This is a long- coverage of on-condition services. Because of this,theAir Force
term program aimed at enhancing the overall deterrence paid large amount of money for maintenance service.
capability of the Air Force. General points out in particular that Nevertheless, General says MiG29N is worth its value, and the

although Malaysian has imported Su30MKMs,theAir Force will Air Force is happy with the maintainability of the fighter.Thus,
continue to keep F/A- l8 Super Hornet Program alive. Shortly M|G29N will continue to be in service until they are no longer
before this, Pakistan tried to promote JF l7 fighters to Malaysia. required.
Two years ago, however, the former Malaysian Air Chief Dato On the issue of MiG's effort to bid for the Malaysian projects
Sri Nik lsmail bin Nik Mohamed indicated in an exclusive with MiG35, General simply says that MiG35 has advanced
interview with Kanwa that candidate fighters that were under avionics, cockpit and HOTAS technologies' ln addition, MiG35
consideration by the Malaysian Air Force were F/A- l8 Super is also equipped with digital maps and helmet-mounted aiming
Hornet and advanced Russian fighters,which denied indirectly system, and vectortrust engines. He believes that MiG35 has
they would even consider purchasing JF I 7. also lowered production cost, and its survivability is 2.5 times
General Azizan says that the Malaysian Air Force will higher than the older version MiG29.n
t t
D
N

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