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CHEMICAL CHANGES
Chemical changes and physical changes.
If a new substance (molecules) is formed in a change, it is called chemical change.
Example: Burning of magnesium ribbon, burning of paper, reaction between acid and metal.
In a physical change, only a change in the arrangement of molecules occurs. Physical change is a temporary
change. Example: Melting of ice, vapourisation of water.
Thermochemical reaction.
Chemical reaction which either liberated or absorbed heat energy is either absorbed is called thermochemical
reaction. If heat is liberated it is known as exothermic reaction. The reaction which absorbs heat energy is
called endothermic reaction.
Examples for exothermic reaction: Burning of fire wood, reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium.
Examples for endothermic reaction: The decomposition of potassium permanganate.
Photo chemical reaction.
The reaction which absorbs or releases light is called photo chemical reaction.
Example.1. Photo synthesis.
Water + Carbon dioxide + light →Glucose + Oxygen. (6H2O + 6CO2 + light →C6H12O6 +6O2)
Certain medicine undergoes chemical reaction by absorbing light. That is why such medicines are stored in
brown bottles which prevents light from entering into the bottle.
Electrolysis
The process of decomposition of a substance by absorbing electric
energy is known as Electrolysis.
The arrangement of the electrolysis of copper sulphate solution is given
here. When current is passed through copper sulphate solution, copper
will be deposited on the carbon rode which is connected to the negative
of the battery and disappeared the blue colour of the liquid.

Electrochemical cell.
The arrangement where electricity produced due to chemical
reaction is called Electrochemical cell. The figure of an
electrochemical cell is given here.
Here the current is produced due to the reaction of metal immersed in
the acid.
Electrochemical Reaction.
A reaction in which electricity generated or absorbed is called
electrochemical reaction.
Electrolysis and Electrochemical cells are examples for
electrochemical reaction.

For making an Electrochemical cell, we need an acid. Since


lemon,vegetables and most of the fruits contain acids, electrochemical cells can be made using any of
these. An electrochemical cell using lemon,
copper and zinc is pictured here.

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Electroplating.
Electroplating is the process of coating a thin layer of one metal on the
surface of another metallic object using electric current. It is through this
process, gold plated ornaments are made.
The arrangement of plating silver on an iron ring is shown here.
For coating copper , we have to use copper sulphate solution and copper
rod instead of silver cyanide and silver rod.
Endoergic reaction and exoergic reaction.
Reaction which absorbs energy is called Endoergic reaction. Reaction
which liberates energy is called Exoergic reaction.
All chemical reactions are either exoergic or endoergic reaction.

Reaction Major energy transaction Nature of transaction


Decomposition of potassium Heat Heat absorbed (endo
permanganate thermic)
Burning of magnesium ribbon Heat and light Heat and light liberated
(Exoergic reaction)
Photo synthesis Light Light absorbed (Endoergic)
Electrochemical cell Electricity Electricity produced
(Exoergic)
Electroplating Electricity Electricity utilised
(Endoergic)
Reaction between acid and metal Heat Heat liberated (Exothermic)
Various types of cells.
Cells are widely used as source of electric current. Various types of cells are used according to our
need. A list of cells we use generally are given below.
i.Dry cell (used in radio, torch,..)
ii.Mercury cell (calculator, watch),
iii.Nickel cadmium cell (rechargeable torch;lamps)
iv.Lithium Iron cell (mobile phone and laptop)

PRACTICE QUESTIONS
1. Classify the following changes into chemical changes and physical changes.
Rusting of iron, melting of wax, burning of candle, crushing a granite, cutting of wood.
2. What are the differences between physical change and chemical change?
3. When a small piece of sodium is added in the water taken in a beaker, they react each other.
a. What kind of change is this?
b. Identify the reactants and products.
c. Write down the balanced chemical equation of this reaction.
d. If a few drops of phenolphthalein is added into the beaker,
i. What do you observe?
ii. Identify the substance responsible for this?
4. a. The reaction of hydrochloric acid with magnesium is an example for ........
(Exothermic/ Endo thermic).
b. Give the balanced equation of this reaction.

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5. The decomposition of potassium permanganate is an example for endothermic reaction.


a. Name the gas formed during this reaction.
b. When the reaction is competed, what the substances will be remained in the test tube?
6. Photosynthesis is an example for photochemical reaction. Give the balanced equation of this
reaction.
7. Medicines are usually kept in brown coloured bottles. Can you explain the reason?
8. What is electrolysis?
9. An example for electrochemical reaction is seen in the figure.
a. Name this arrangement.
b. It is an example for ..... (Exoergic reaction/Endoergic reaction)
c. Give one practical application of this kind of electrochemical reaction.
10. Anila wishes to make an electrochemical cell using lemon.
a. List out the materials needed for this?
b. Name a fruit or vegetable she can use instead of lemon.
11. Electroplating is an example for electrochemical reaction.
a. What is electroplating?
b. List out the materials needed for electroplating copper on
an iron bangle.
c. Draw a neat diagram of this arrangement.
12. Pictures of three cell are given.
a. Identify the cells.
b. Give one use of each.
13. Judicious use of cells are to be encouraged. Why?

14. Match the contents of the columns A & B.


A B
Melting of Ice Photo chemical reaction
Glowing of fire fly Physical change
Electrolysis Endothermic reaction
Decomposition of potassium permanganate Electrochemical reaction
Exothermic reaction.
Ans.

A B
Melting of Ice Physical change
Glowing of fire fly Photo chemical reaction
Electrolysis Electrochemical reaction
Decomposition of potassium permanganate Endothermic reaction
15. Two chemical reactions are given.
i. Calcium oxide + water →Calcium hydroxide + heat
ii. Calcium carbonate + heat →Calcium oxide + Carbondioxide
a. Write down the reactants and products of first reaction.
b. Of the two reaction which is endothermic reaction? Which is exothermic reaction?
Ans.a. Reactants‍: Calcium oxide and water Product: Calcium hydroxide.
b. Calcium carbonate + heat →Calcium oxide + Carbondioxide: Endothermic reaction.
Calcium oxide + water →Calcium hydroxide + heat: Exothermic reaction.

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PRACTICE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.


1. Classify the following changes into chemical changes and physical changes.
Rusting of iron, melting of wax, burning of candle, crushing a granite, cutting of wood.
Ans.Physical changes:Melting of wax, crushing a granite, cutting of wood.
Chemical changes: Rusting of iron, burning of candle.
2. What are the differences between physical change and chemical change?
Physical Change Chemical change
Temporary change Permanent change
Only change in the arrangement of molecules occurs New molecules are formed.
3. When a small piece of sodium is added in the water taken in a beaker, they react each other.
a. What kind of change is this? b. Identify the reactants and products.
c. Write down the balanced chemical equation of this reaction.
d. If a few drops of phenolphthalein is added into the beaker,
i. What do you observe?
ii. Identify the substance responsible for this?
Ans. a. Chemical change.
b. Reactants: Sodium and water.
Products: Sodium hydroxide and hydrogen.
c. 2Na + 2H2O →H2 + 2NaOH
d.i. The liquid becomes pink.
ii. Sodium hydroxide.
4. a. The reaction of hydrochloric acid with magnesium is an example for ........
(Exothermic/ Endo thermic).
b. Give the balanced equation of this reaction.
Ans.a. Exothermic. b. Mg + 2HCl →H2 + MgCl2
5. The decomposition of potassium permanganate is an example for endothermic reaction.
a. Name the gas formed during this reaction.
b. When the reaction is competed, what the substances will be remained in the test tube?
Ans.a. Oxygen. b. Potassium manganate and manganese dioxide.
6. Photosynthesis is an example for photochemical reaction. Give the balanced equation of this
reaction. Ans. 6H2O + 6CO2 →C6H12O6 +6O2
7. Medicines are usually kept in brown coloured bottles. Can you explain the reason?
Ans. Many of the medicines are photo sensitive. That is, it may undergo chemical change by receiving
light. When it is kept in brown bottles, light cannot enter into the bottle and hence the reaction will be
prevented.
8. What is electrolysis?
Ans. It is the process of the decomposition of a substance by passing electric
current through it.
9. An example for electrochemical reaction is seen in the figure.
a. Name this arrangement.
b. It is an example for ..... (Exoergic reaction/Endoergic reaction)
c. Give one practical application of this kind of electrochemical reaction.
Ans.a. Electrochemical cell.
b. Exoergic reaction.
c. For making batteries (Current sources)
10. Anila wishes to make an electrochemical cell using lemon.
a. List out the materials needed for this?
b. Name a fruit or vegetable she can use instead of lemon.

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Ans. a. Some pieces magnesium and copper, connecting wire, LED.


b. Apple, potato or tomato.
11. Electroplating is an example for electrochemical reaction.
a. What is electroplating?
b. List out the materials needed for electroplating copper on an iron
bangle.
c. Draw a neat diagram of this arrangement.
Ans.a. It is the process of coating a thin layer of a metal on the
surface of another metal using electric current.
b. A piece of copper plate, copper sulphate solution, Iron bangle,
battery, beaker, connecting wire.
c.
12. Pictures of three cell are given.
a. Identify the cells.
b. Give one use of each.
Ans.a. A – Mercury cell. B – Lithium Iron cell
C- Dry cell
b. Mercury cell – used in calculator.
Lithium Iron cell – Laptop. Dry cell – Torch.
13. Judicious use of cells are to be encouraged. Why?
Ans. Many of the chemicals used in the cells are harmful
to the nature. So defunct cells are to be handled properly.
14. Match the contents of the columns A & B.
A B
Melting of Ice Photo chemical reaction
Glowing of fire fly Physical change
Electrolysis Endothermic reaction
Decomposition of potassium permanganate Electrochemical reaction
Exothermic reaction.
Ans.

A B
Melting of Ice Physical change
Glowing of fire fly Photo chemical reaction
Electrolysis Electrochemical reaction
Decomposition of potassium permanganate Endothermic reaction
15. Two chemical reactions are given.
i. Calcium oxide + water →Calcium hydroxide + heat
ii. Calcium carbonate + heat →Calcium oxide + Carbondioxide
a. Write down the reactants and products of first reaction.
b. Of the two reaction which is endothermic reaction? Which is exothermic reaction?
Ans.a. Reactants‍: Calcium oxide and water Product: Calcium hydroxide.
b. Calcium carbonate + heat →Calcium oxide + Carbondioxide: Endothermic reaction.
Calcium oxide + water →Calcium hydroxide + heat: Exothermic reaction.

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