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Project Report
On
"Speed Control of a DC motor using Pulse Width
Modulation"

Prepared by
Yashesh Patel (18EC090)

Under the guidance of


Prof. Yogesh Tiwari and Prof. Manthan Manavadaria

Submitted to
Charotar University of Science & Technology for Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Bachelor of Technology
in Electronics & Communication
EC 244 – Mini Project-I
Of 3rd Semester of B.Tech
Submitted at

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION


Faculty of Technology & Engineering, CHARUSAT
Chandubhai S. Patel Institute of Technology
At: Changa, Dist: Anand – 388421
November 2019
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the report entitled “Speed Control of a DC motor using
Pulse Width Modulation” is a bonafide work carried out by Yashesh Patel under
the guidance and supervision of Prof. Yogesh Tiwari & Prof. Manthan
Manavadaria for the subject Mini Project-I (EC244) of 3 Semester of Bachelor
rd

of Technology in Electronics & Communication at Faculty of Technology &


Engineering (C.S.P.I.T.) – CHARUSAT, Gujarat.

To the best of my knowledge and belief, this work embodies the work of candidate
himself, has duly been completed, and fulfills the requirement of the ordinance
relating to the Subject specified for 3rd semester of the University and is up to the
standard in respect of content, presentation and language for being referred to the
examiner.

Under the supervision of,

Prof. Yogesh Tiwari Prof. Manthan Manavadaria


Assistant Professor Assistant Professor
Department of Electronics & Department of Electronics
Communication, & Communication,
C.S.P.I.T., CHARUSAT-Changa. C.S.P.I.T., CHARUSAT-
Changa.

Dr. Trushit K. Upadhyaya


Head of Department,
Department of Electronics & Communication
C.S.P.I.T., CHARUSAT- Changa, Gujarat.

Chandubhai S Patel Institute of Technology (C.S.P.I.T.)


Faculty of Technology & Engineering, CHARUSAT
At: Changa, Ta. Petlad, Dist. Anand, Gujarat - 388421
EC 244 Mini-Project

ABSTRACT

A digitally operating electronic circuit which uses a hex inverting Schmitt-trigger IC from
CMOS library for the controlling purpose of the speed parameter of a simple dc motor by
implementing specific functions such as switching circuits, logic sequencing, timing, and
arithmetic to control, through digital or analog input/output modules, various types of
processes like analog to digital conversion. The variable resistor which is used to perform
the functions of a manual controller is considered to be within this scope. Excluded are
555 timer and other similar mechanical sequencing controllers. It used in most of the
industrial sectors to achieve production improvement, process optimization and time and
cost reduction. Integration, reuse, flexibility and optimization are demanded to adapt to a
rapidly changing and competitive market. In fact, standardization is a key goal to achieve
integration in this type of applications. In this project assembly of polarized capacitor is
operated automatically using a timing capacitor. The speed is controlled by Variable
Resistor. The principle is to make different types of impedances with different amount of
resistance values and also different types of diode connections.

C.S.P.I.T. i Department of electronics


and Communication
EC 244 Mini-Project

Acknowledgement
I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to my guide
Prof. Yogesh Tiwari & Prof. Manthan Manavadaria and coordinator of E&C department
of CSPIT, Dr. Trushit Upadhyaya, for their exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant
encouragement throughout the course of this project. The blessing, help and guidance
given by them time to time shall carry me a long way in the journey of life on which I am
about to embark.

I also take this opportunity to express a deep sense of gratitude to Mentor Yogesh Tiwari
for his cordial support, valuable information and guidance, which helped me in
completing this task through various stages.

Yashesh Patel (18EC090)

CSPIT, CHARUSAT

C.S.P.I.T ii Department of
Electronics and Communication
EC 244 Mini-Project

TABLE OF CONTENT

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………..i
Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………….......ii
List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………iv
Abbreviations………………..…………………………………………………………..viii
Chapter 1 Introduction………….....……..…………………………………………....8
1.1 Problem…..………….…………………………………………………………..8
1.2 Solution………...………………………………………………………………..8
Chapter 2 Project Description (Hardware)...………………………………………...9
2.1 Block Diagram…………………………………………………...……………...9
2.2 Circuit Diagram………………………………………………………………....10
Chapter 3 Components and Its Details…………... ……………………………….....12
3.1 List of Components………………..…………………………………….……...12
3.2 Details of components……………… ………………………………….……....12
Chapter 4 Implementation………………………... ……………………………….....16
4.1 Hardware Implementation…..……..…………………………………….……...16
4.2 PCB Design in Software ……….…………………………….……………..…..17
Chapter 5 Applications and Future scope.......…... …………………………………...20
5.1 Applications…………….…..……..…………………………………….……….20
5.2 Future Scope.……………. ……………… …………………………….……….20
Conclusion………………………………………………….…………………………...21
Reference………………………..……………………………………………………….22
Datasheets of Components……………….…………………………………………….23

C.S.P.I.T iii Department of Electronics and Communication


EC 244 Mini-project

LIST OF
FIGURES Page
Sr. No. Name of the figure number

Figure 1 Block Diagram 9

Figure 2 Pluses with 0% through 50% duty cycle 10

Figure 3 DC Motor speed control using PWM method 10

Figure 4 Pin Configuration of BC337A 11

Figure 5 Pulse Width Modulated Waveform 11

Figure 6 Zener Diode 12

12
Figure7 IC 40106B
13
Figure8 Variable resistor
13
Figure9 Resistor
13
Figure10 DC Motor
14
Figure11 BC337 Transistor
14
Figure12 Ceramic Capacitor
15
Figure13 Capacitor polarized
15

Figure14 Battery 16

Figure15 The physical implementation of my project 18

Figure 16 Stimulation Image 18

Figure17 Circuit Image as done manual routing in


proteus Ares tool 19

Figure18 The real physical view of the PCB


C.S.P.I.T iv Department of Electronics
and Communication
EC 244 Mini-Project

Abbreviations
 ADC Analog to Digital Converter

 PWMPulse Width Modulation

 EMI Electro-Magnetic Interference

 GPB General Purpose Board

 VR Variable Resistor

 PCB Printed Circuit Board

 RPMRotation per Minute

 DC Direct Current

 PN Positive Negative

 IC Integrated Circuit

 DRC Design Rule Check

 CE Common Emitter

C.S.P.I.T viii Department of Electronics


and Communication
EC 244 Mini-Project

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Pulse-width modulation (PWM) or duty-cycle variation methods are commonly used in


speed control of DC motors. Speed control means intentional change of drive speed to a
value required for performing the specific work process. This concept of speed control or
adjustment should not be taken to include the natural change in speed which occurs due to
change in the load on the shaft.

1.1 PROBLEM

1. The very first problem that I encountered was package not found.
2. While making the connections of the circuit, I connected the diode in such a way
that I short circuited them and wasted my resources.
3. On completing the circuit, I made wrong connections of ICs which overheated and
damaged it such extent that it cannot be operated at any cost.
4. My motor was vibrating with variation and not rotating.
5. My variable resistor of 100k ohm preset was damaged in the sense that it was not
able to change its value as it was the preset type.
6. The battery did not come with connector as it was promised by Amazon.
7. The soldering was weak of small and compact parts of components of dc motor.
8. The output of the pot design of variable resistor of 100k ohm was constant.

1.2 SOLUTION

1. Resolved by creating our own package and them adding to package library.
2. I watched videos on YouTube to know the positive and negative markings on
diode.
3. The inputs and outputs pin(s) diagram of ICs with the help of Google.
4. So I opened the entire motor and noticed that the plastic gears were not properly
arranged to be able to rotate, then I resolved it by using the basic gear that was
directly attached to the motor.
5. I solved the fifth problem by replacing the variable resistor of 100k ohm of preset
design with the same but pot design.
6. I made my own battery connector from scraping up the torn out old or damaged
battery and re-soldering them with new wires.
7. I simply replaced it with an old replacement dc motor which had better and strong
terminal for connection.
8. I switched back to the preset design of variable resistor of 100k ohm but this time I
found the perfect screwdriver size to rotate the preset at last.
Chapter 2: Project Description (Hardware)

2.1 Block Diagram

Figure1 Block Diagram

Working
Pulse-width modulation (PWM) or duty-cycle variation methods are commonly used in speed
control of DC motors. The duty cycle is defined as the percentage of digital ‘high’ to digital
‘low’ plus digital ‘high’ pulse-width during a PWM period. Fig. 1 shows the 5V pulses with
0% through 50% duty cycle.

Figure 2 Pluses with 0% through 50% duty cycle

The average DC voltage value for 0% duty cycle is zero; with 25% duty cycle the average
value is 1.25V (25% of 5V). With a 50% duty cycle the average value is 2.5V, and if the duty
cycle is 75%, the average voltage is 3.75V and so on. The maximum duty cycle can be 100%,
which is equivalent to a DC waveform. Thus by varying the pulse-width, we can vary the
average voltage across a DC motor and hence its speed.

2.2 Circuit Diagram


The circuit of a simple speed controller for a mini DC motor, such as that used in tape
recorders and toys, is shown in Fig. 2.

Figure 3 DC Motor speed control using PWM method

Circuit Explanation
Here N1 inverting Schmitt trigger is configured as an astable multivibrator with a constant
period but variable duty cycle. Although the total in-circuit resistance of VR1 during a
complete cycle is 100 kilo-ohms, the part used during positive and negative periods of each
cycle can be varied by changing the position of its wiper contact to obtain variable pulse-
width. Schmitt gate N2 simply acts as a buffer/driver to drive transistor T1 during positive
incursions at its base. Thus the average amplitude of DC drive pulses or the speed of motor M
is proportional to the setting of the wiper position of VR1 potentiometer. Capacitor C2 serves
as a storage capacitor to provide stable voltage to the circuit.

Thus, by varying VR1 the duty cycle can be changed from 0% to 100% and the speed of the
motor from ‘stopped’ condition to ‘full speed’ in an even and continuous way. The diodes
effectively provide different timing resistor values during charging and discharging of timing
capacitor C1.

Figure 4 Pin Configuration of BC337A

The pulse or rest period is approximately given by the following equation: Pulse or Rest
period ≈ 0.4 x C1 (Farad) x VR1 (ohm) seconds. Here, use the in-circuit value of VR1 during
pulse or rest period as applicable.

The frequency will remain constant and is given by the equation:

Frequency ~ 2.466 / (VR1 x C1) ~250 Hz (for VR1=100K ohms and C1=0.1 µF.

The recommended value of in-circuit resistance should be greater than 50 kilo-ohms but less
than 2 mega-ohms, while the capacitor value should be greater than 100 pF but less than 1 µF.

Pulse Width Modulated Waveform

Figure 5 Pulse Width Modulated Waveform

 As there is a change in voltage due to the parallel connections of the polarised


capacitor and the ceramic timing capacitor.
 This is caused by the opposing parallel connection of the diodes D1 and D2 with
the variable resistor VR1.
 Now the current led by this connection is given to N2 Schmitt trigger IC40106 as
an input.
 The output of N2 is given to BC337 transistor which gives the required electric
conditions so that the dc motor gives us controlled speed (rpm) output.
Chapter 3 Components and Its Details
3.1 List of Components

 Zener Diodes (D1, D2, D3)


 Hex-Inverting Schmitt-Trigger (N1, N2, IC40106)
 Variable resistor of 100K ohm maximum resistance with preset design (VR1)
 22K ohm resistor (R2)
 6V DC motor (M)
 BC337 Transistor (T1)
 Ceramic Capacitor of 0.1uF (C1)
 Polarized Capacitor of 220uF and 16V (C2)
 Battery of 9V.

3.2 Details of components


1. Zener Diodes (D1, D2, D3):-

Figure 6 Zener diode

A Zener diode is a type of diode that allows current to flow not only from its anode to its
cathode, but also in the reverse direction, when the Zener voltage is reached.
Zener diodes have a highly doped p–n junction. Normal diodes break down with a reverse
voltage, but the voltage and sharpness of the knee are not as well defined as for a Zener diode.
Normal diodes are not designed to operate in the breakdown region, whereas Zener diodes
operate reliably in this region.

2. Hex-Inverting Schmitt-Trigger (N1, N2, IC40106):-


The HEF40106B provides six inverting buffers. Each input has a Schmitt trigger circuit. The
inverting buffer switches at different points for positive-going and negative-going signals. The
difference between the positive voltage (VT+) and the negative voltage (VT) is defined as
hysteresis voltage (VH). The HEF40106B may be used for enhanced noise immunity or to
“square up” slowly changing waveforms. It operates over a recommended VDD power supply
range of 3 V to 15 V referenced to VSS (usually ground). Unused inputs must be connected to
VDD, VSS, or another input.

Figure 7 IC 40106B
3. Variable resistor of 100K ohm maximum resistance with preset design (VR1):-

Figure 8 Variable resistor


A potentiometer is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding or rotating contact that forms an
adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used, one end and the wiper, it acts as
a variable resistor or rheostat.
The measuring instrument called a potentiometer is essentially a voltage divider used for
measuring electric potential (voltage); the component is an implementation of the same
principle, hence its name.
4. 22K ohm resistor (R2):-

Figure 9 Resistor
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical
resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current
flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and
terminate transmission lines, among other uses. High-power resistors that can dissipate
many watts of electrical power as heat may be used as part of motor controls, in power
distribution systems, or as test loads for generators. Fixed resistors have resistances that
only change slightly with temperature, time or operating voltage. Variable resistors can be
used to adjust circuit elements (such as a volume control or a lamp dimmer), or as sensing
devices for heat, light, humidity, force, or chemical activity.
5. 6V DC motor (M):-

Figure 10 DC Motor
A DC motor is any of a class of rotary electrical machines that converts direct current
electrical energy into mechanical energy. The most common types rely on the forces produced
by magnetic fields. Nearly all types of DC motors have some internal mechanism, either
electromechanical or electronic; to periodically change the direction of current flow in part of
the motor.
DC motors were the first form of motor widely used, as they could be powered from existing
direct-current lighting power distribution systems. A DC motor's speed can be controlled over
a wide range, using either a variable supply voltage or by changing the strength of current in
its field windings. Small DC motors are used in tools, toys, and appliances. The universal
motor can operate on direct current but is a lightweight brushed motor used for portable
power tools and appliances. Larger DC motors are currently used in propulsion of electric
vehicles, elevator and hoists, and in drives for steel rolling mills. The advent of power
electronics has made replacement of DC motors with AC motors possible in many
applications.

6. BC337 Transistor (T1):-

Figure 11 BC337 Transistor

The BC337 is an NPN transistor, capable of handling up to 625 mW, with collector voltage of
50V, Collector current of 800mA. Gain of 100–630 times at collector current of 100 mA.

It can handle about 1/3 the power of a 2N2222A, similar gain (but lower maximum) if you are
more familiar with this type.

It is a general bipolar NPN transistor. BC337 is the part number of the transistor. There are
thousands of different transistors, BC337 is one of them.

Transistors are characterized by the I-V behavior between terminals (there are 3 - base,
collector and emitter). They are also characterized by the limitations in current and Voltage
they can withstand.

7. Ceramic Capacitor of 0.1uF (C1):-

Figure 12 Ceramic Capacitor

A ceramic capacitor is a fixed-value capacitor where the ceramic material acts as


the dielectric. It is constructed of two or more alternating layers of ceramic and a metal layer
acting as the electrodes. The composition of the ceramic material defines the electrical
behavior and therefore applications. Ceramic capacitors are divided into two application
classes:

 Class 1 ceramic capacitors offer high stability and low losses for resonant circuit
applications.
 Class 2 ceramic capacitors offer high volumetric efficiency for buffer, by-pass, and
coupling applications.
Ceramic capacitors, especially multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), are the most produced
and used capacitors in electronic equipment that incorporate approximately one trillion (1012)
pieces per year.
Ceramic capacitors of special shapes and styles are used as capacitors
for RFI/EMI suppression, as feed-through capacitors and in larger dimensions as power
capacitors for transmitters.

8. Polarized Capacitor of 220uF and 16V (C2):-

Figure 13 Capacitor polarized

An electrolytic capacitor (occasionally abbreviated e-cap) is a


polarized capacitor whose anode or positive plate is made of a metal that forms an
insulating oxide layer through anodization. This oxide layer acts as the dielectric of the
capacitor. A solid, liquid, or gel electrolyte covers the surface of this oxide layer, serving as
the cathode or negative plate of the capacitor. Due to their very thin dielectric oxide layer and
enlarged anode surface, electrolytic capacitors have a much higher capacitance-voltage (CV)
product per unit volume than ceramic capacitors or film capacitors, and so can have large
capacitance values. There are three families of electrolytic capacitor: aluminum electrolytic
capacitors, tantalum electrolytic capacitors, and niobium electrolytic capacitors.

9. Battery of 9V:-

Figure 14 Battery

A battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external


connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, mobile phones,
and electric cars. When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is
the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode. The terminal marked negative is the source
of electrons that will flow through an external electric circuit to the positive terminal. When a
battery is connected to an external electric load, a redox reaction converts high-energy
reactants to lower-energy products, and the free-energy difference is delivered to the external
circuit as electrical energy. Historically the term "battery" specifically referred to a device
composed of multiple cells, however the usage has evolved to include devices composed of a
single cell.
Chapter 4 Implementation

4.1 Hardware Implementation


I took a GPB for placing the components as where I live had no PCB manufacturing shop.
Then I took the components one by one staring from battery side constantly referring the
circuit diagram so that in the first go I would have a perfect working circuit then the polarized
and ceramic capacitor I joined them in parallel and made a parallel opposing feeding on the
terminals of variable resistor whose output would be fed as an input to the input pin of IC
40106 which is a hex inverting Schmitt trigger which ids going to feed the BC337 transistor
whose base terminal was connected with negative terminal of battery as to make a ground
connection and then the collector terminal was connected to the parallel connection of diode
D3 and the motor M which was in fact connected with the positive terminal hence completing
the circuit. The emitter terminal is kept common to both the positive and negative terminal of
the battery as it is a Common Emitter configuration transistor only in the practical world. I
have the 7th pin of IC as ground due to negative terminal of the battery and the 14th pin of IC
as VCC as the positive terminal of the battery was connected with it. As of how to know the
positive and negative part of the diode for the parallel opposing connection it is quite simple
as the negative part which is a vertical bar in your theory lectures same is in the practical
world the thick black bar on diode components indicates the negative part the rest part is
positive. The minimum resistance point is marked with shinning silver or metal kind of dot or
point on the preset design while on the pot design the regulator of potentiometer comes with
already marked minimum point which is straight vertically downwards and maximum point at
angle of 280 degrees starting from minimum point going in the clockwise direction. Then I
bent certain pins and broke the rest and solder them by myself as I have the soldering machine
at my home. So this how you can make projects at home sees the figure below.
Figure 15 the physical implementation of my project
Part (a) Front side of the GPB
Part (B) Back side of the GPB

4.2 PCB Design in Software


I used pick component mode and then shortlisted and selected 3252P-1-104LF which is
Variable resistor of 100K ohm maximum resistance with preset design (VR1), 40106 which is
Hex-Inverting Schmitt-Trigger (N1, N2, IC40106), battery which is a DC Power Supply
Battery of 9V, BC337 which is a BC337 Transistor (T1), CAP which is ceramic capacitor of
0.1uF (C1), CAP-POL which is Polarized Capacitor of 220uF and 16V (C2), DIODE which is
Zener Diodes (D1, D2, D3), MOTOR which is a 6V DC motor (M), RES which is 22K ohm
resistor (R2).
Then I used zoom tool and arranged the above components as near as possible as you can see
in the below figure 16. This is a very important point which has to be considered as to reduce
the cost of production and unnecessary wastage of resources.
Then I used the wire tool for connecting components and once all was done then I used play
stimulation button to check whether I made any mistakes by any chance and as the stimulation
stopped the error message pop-up box showed no errors.
Then I clicked the generate Netlist to ares button to arrange traces or routes or wire
connections on pcb as to satisfy both the compact circuit design and the proper wiring
connections and to check that I clicked DRC(s) button which gives a report on any design
rules violated if any but in my case it was no problem that it was showing no DRC error
generated. This was so because I have done manual writing many times, before taking this
task of doing the project, to have enough experience and practice and knowledge to do it in
the first go.
Figure 16 Stimulation image in proteus Isis tool is given below:-

Figure 17 Circuit Image as done manual routing in proteus Ares tool


Figure 18 the real physical view as how would the PCB looks in the real
world
Part (a) Front or top or component side of the PCB

Part (B) Solder side or the back side or bottom side of the PCB
Chapter 5 Applications and Future Scope

5.1 APPLICATIONS

As of now the applications of speed control of a dc motor using PWM is as follows:


See, basically a motor's purpose is to drive any load. Motors are used widely in factories,
traction systems, etc where variable speed is needed as per the requirement. For example
in saw mills, high speed motors are required to cut down logs or in some situations like in
papers mills, we need low speeds. In traction systems, we need to slow down the engine
on approaching the station whereas in between two locations, high speed is needed. DC
motors have the easiest speed control methods hence they are again slowly being
preferred over AC motors. It is cheaper in terms of money to use PWM method to control
the speed of a dc motor.

5.2 Future Scope


For future applications of speed of a dc motor using PWM:
DC motors are suitable for many applications – including conveyors, turntables and others
for which adjustable speed and constant or low-speed torque are required. They also work
well in dynamic braking and reversing applications, which are common in many industrial
machines.
Their quick acceleration, stopping and reversing – along with their linear-speed torque
curve – make the DC motor a popular choice in many new designs, particularly for
fractional hp applications.

Conclusion:-
I am a third semester student and with a limited amount of depth of knowledge in digital
electronics, network theory, Instrumentation and Electronic devices and Mathematics like
what is applicable and when. I have gain enough experience to solve and find solutions to
barriers that I came across while doing this mini-project. I learnt a lot of things while
making this project like time management, pressure handling, quick response, finding
other ways to come over our own problems. I have gained bit of knowledge of
troubleshooting in the process of producing this project. The new components I came
across while performing this project were as a Hex Inverting Schmitt Trigger IC40106.
Now I can give guarantee that I won’t give an excuse that I am not able to cope up with
this type of technology in future.

References:-
1) https://electronicsforu.com/electronics-projects/hardware-diy/speed-control-dc-
motor-using-pwm
2) http://www.efxkits.co.uk/motor-speed-control-using-pulse-width-modulation-
pwm/
3) https://www.academia.edu/30727855/Speed_control_of_DC_motor_by_using_PW
M_technique_project_report
4) https://www.slideshare.net/ImanulMazarbhuiya/speed-control-of-dc-motor-using-
pulse-width-modulation-technique
5) http://openlabpro.com/guide/speed-control-of-dc-motor-using-pwm/
6) https://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/blog/pulse-width-modulation.html
7) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3To3Zgr1Jao&list=WL&index=7&t=0s
8) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1jP2mvG0Wk&list=WL&index=7
Datasheets of components:-