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IntroductionIntroduction toto DarwinianDarwinian EvolutionEvolution

ChapterChapter 1818

DefiningDefining EvolutionEvolution

Evolution

Accumulation of inherited changes within populations over time. Changes in the characteristics of populations over the course of generations

Population

Group of individuals of one species that live in the same geographic area at the same time

Species

Group of organisms with similar structure, function, and behavior capable of interbreeding

Evolution is a unifying concept of biology suggesting that all species currently living evolved from a single ancestor

Evolution has 2 aspects: microevolution and macroevolution

Pre-Darwinian Ideas

Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.): saw evidence of natural affinities: “organisms moving toward a more perfect state”

Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519): interpreted fossil rocks as remains of extinct animals

Jean Baptiste de Lamarck (1744–1829)

First to propose that organisms undergo change over time as a result of natural phenomenon

Lamarck ideas discredited when Mendelian genetics theories rediscovered around 1900

CharlesCharles DarwinDarwin (1809(1809--1882)1882)

SonSon ofof aa prominentprominent physicianphysician

StudiedStudied theologytheology atat CambridgeCambridge U.U.

InterestedInterested inin naturalnatural worldworld

U.U. InterestedInterested inin naturalnatural worldworld • • EmbarkedEmbarked onon thethe HMSHMS

EmbarkedEmbarked onon thethe HMSHMS Beagle,Beagle, aa 55--yearyear exploratoryexploratory cruisecruise aroundaround thethe worldworld toto prepareprepare navigationnavigation chartscharts forfor thethe BritishBritish NavyNavy

VoyageVoyage ofof HMSHMS BeagleBeagle

VoyageVoyage ofof HMSHMS BeagleBeagle • The voyage is the Basis for Darwin’s theory of evolution •

• The voyage is the Basis for Darwin’s theory of evolution

• Darwin observed similarities between animals and plants

• Compared biodiversity of Arid Galapagos Islands and Humid South American mainland

Darwinism:Darwinism: formingforming thethe theorytheory

InfluencedInfluenced byby geologistgeologist CharlesCharles LyellLyell thatthat EarthEarth isis constantlyconstantly undergoingundergoing slowslow geologicalgeological activityactivity andand thatthat itit waswas extremelyextremely oldold

InfluencedInfluenced byby farmersfarmers whowho cancan produceproduce aa varietyvariety ofof domesticateddomesticated plantsplants andand animalsanimals withinwithin fewfew generations:generations: artificialartificial selectionselection

AppliedApplied byby clergyman/economistclergyman/economist ThomasThomas MalthusMalthus’’s:s: PopulationPopulation growthgrowth fasterfaster thanthan foodfood supplysupply growthgrowth leadingleading toto conflictsconflicts thatthat limitlimit populationpopulation growthgrowth

VariationVariation withinwithin aa SpeciesSpecies

ArtificialArtificial selectionselection ofof BrassicaBrassica oleraceaoleracea::

cabbage,cabbage, broccoloi,broccoloi, cauliflowercauliflower……etc.etc.

ofof BrassicaBrassica oleraceaoleracea :: cabbage,cabbage, broccoloi,broccoloi, cauliflowercauliflower …… etc.etc.

AdaptationAdaptation

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DarwinDarwin ConcludedConcluded fromfrom MalthusMalthus thatthat inheritedinherited variationsvariations favorablefavorable toto survivalsurvival tendtend toto bebe preservedpreserved,, whereaswhereas unfavorableunfavorable onesones wouldwould bebe eliminatedeliminated

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AdaptationAdaptation isis anan evolutionaryevolutionary modificationmodification thatthat improvesimproves chanceschances ofof survival.survival. ThisThis couldcould bebe achievedachieved onon EarthEarth basedbased onon LyellLyell ideas.ideas.

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BetterBetter--adaptedadapted organismsorganisms andand theirtheir traitstraits areare moremore likelylikely toto survivesurvive andand reproduce:reproduce: NaturalNatural SelectionSelection

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BasedBased 18591859 DarwinDarwin’’ss BookBook ““OnOn thethe OriginOrigin ofof SpeciesSpecies byby NaturalNatural SelectionSelection”” GeneticGenetic variationvariation supportedsupported byby WallaceWallace’’ss 18701870 BookBook ““ContributionsContributions toto thethe TheoryTheory ofof NaturalNatural SelectionSelection””

44 PremisesPremises ofof EvolutionEvolution byby NaturalNatural SelectionSelection

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VariationVariation:: existsexists amongamong individualsindividuals inin aa population:population:

linkedlinked itit toto inheritanceinheritance butbut withoutwithout understandingunderstanding thethe mechanismmechanism

OverReproductionOverReproduction:: (a)(a) ProduceProduce moremore thanthan cancan survive;survive; (b)(b) populationspopulations growgrow exponentiallyexponentially

StruggleStruggle forfor existenceexistence::

LimitedLimited resourcesresources comparedcompared toto populationpopulation growthgrowth

comparedcompared toto populationpopulation growthgrowth 4. DifferentialDifferential ReproductiveReproductive

4. DifferentialDifferential ReproductiveReproductive SuccessSuccess:: BestBest adaptedadapted individualsindividuals willwill survivesurvive andand reproducereproduce successfully.successfully. LessLess--wellwell adaptedadapted subjectssubjects willwill diedie withwith theirtheir traits.traits.

NaturalNatural SelectionSelection && SpeciationSpeciation

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OverOver timetime accumulatedaccumulated changeschanges inin geographicallygeographically separatedseparated populationspopulations produceproduce newnew species.species.

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DarwinDarwin notednoted thatthat GalapagosGalapagos islandsislands havehave evolvedevolved thisthis way:way: aa singlesingle commoncommon ancestorancestor fromfrom thethe SouthSouth AmericanAmerican mainlandmainland foundfound itsits wayway intointo thethe islandsislands whichwhich increasedincreased inin numbernumber

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TheThe isolatedisolated islandsislands alalongong withwith changeschanges inin thethe environmentalenvironmental conditionsconditions didivergedverged thethe ancestorancestor intointo differentdifferent species.species.

GalapagosGalapagos DivergedDiverged FinchesFinches

GalapagosGalapagos DivergedDiverged FinchesFinches 1970s P & R. Grant Studi es on Galapagos Finshes: Variation in

1970s P & R. Grant Studies on Galapagos Finshes:

Variation in their beaks is the result of adaptation to different kinds of food.

ModernModern SynthesisSynthesis

SyntheticSynthetic theorytheory ofof evolution:evolution:

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BeganBegan inin 1930s1930s andand 1940s1940s

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CombinesCombines principlesprinciples ofof MendelianMendelian inheritanceinheritance andand DarwinianDarwinian naturalnatural selectionselection

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MutationMutation providesprovides geneticgenetic variabilityvariability onon whichwhich naturalnatural selectionselection actsacts

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IncorporatesIncorporates expandingexpanding knowledgeknowledge inin genetics,genetics, systematics,systematics, andand otherother scientificscientific fieldsfields

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ScientistsScientists areare nownow tryingtrying toto understandunderstand thethe combinedcombined effecteffect ofof ChanceChance andand NaturalNatural SelectionSelection onon evolutionevolution

EvidenceEvidence ofof Evolution:Evolution:

FossilFossil RecordRecord

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RemainsRemains oror tracestraces ofof ancientancient organismsorganisms

FoundFound inin SedimentarySedimentary rockrock

LayersLayers occuroccur inin sequencesequence ofof depositiondeposition wherewhere recentrecent layerslayers onon toptop ofof olderolder onesones

DirectDirect evidenceevidence ofof evolutionevolution comescomes fromfrom fossilsfossils

EvidenceEvidence showsshows progressionprogression fromfrom earliestearliest unicellularunicellular organismsorganisms toto organismsorganisms ofof todaytoday

ShowsShows lifelife hashas evolvedevolved throughthrough timetime

FossilFossil RecordRecord

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FewFew organismsorganisms thatthat diedie becomebecome fossilsfossils

OccursOccurs whenwhen anan organismorganism’’ss remainsremains areare coveredcovered withwith sedimentsediment ofof finefine soilsoil particleparticle inin water.water.

RemainsRemains thenthen hardenharden andand mineralsminerals replacereplace remainsremains showingshowing detailsdetails ofof structurestructure

MoreMore recordsrecords inin aquaticaquatic organisms:organisms: biasbias

Sedimentary Rock
Sedimentary Rock
ofof structurestructure MoreMore recordsrecords inin aquaticaquatic organisms:organisms: biasbias Sedimentary Rock

FossilsFossils

Petrified trees 2 M years Insect in Amber Dinosaur’s footprint Transitional Whale Evolution Ancient echinoderms
Petrified trees
2 M years
Insect in
Amber
Dinosaur’s
footprint
Transitional Whale Evolution
Ancient echinoderms
Petrified trees 2 M years Insect in Amber Dinosaur’s footprint Transitional Whale Evolution Ancient echinoderms

DeterminingDetermining thethe AgeAge ofof FossilsFossils

Index Fossils

• Geologists identify specific sedimentary rocks by their position and mineral content.

• Index fossils characterize a specific layer over a large geographic area

Radioisotope Decay

• Radioactive elements decay with a specific half-life

• Carbon 14 to Carbon 12 ratio is the same in atmosphere and organisms, decay is constant

• Carbon 14 used to estimate age of fossils

Carbon 12 ratio is the same in atmosphere and organisms, decay is constant • Carbon 14

EvidenceEvidence forfor evolutionevolution fromfrom comparativecomparative anatomyanatomy

HomologousHomologous FeaturesFeatures

BasicBasic structuralstructural

similaritiessimilarities

DerivedDerived fromfrom samesame structurestructure inin commoncommon ancestorancestor

IndicateIndicate organismorganism’’ss

evolutionaryevolutionary

affinitiesaffinities

evolutionaryevolutionary affinitiesaffinities ExampleExample limblimb bonesbones ofof mammals:mammals:

ExampleExample limblimb bonesbones ofof mammals:mammals: humans,humans, cats,cats, whales,whales, allall havehave strikingstriking similaritysimilarity inin bonebone arraarrangementngement althoughalthough havehave differentdifferent locomotionlocomotion modesmodes

ComparativeComparative AnatomyAnatomy (cont.)(cont.)

HomoplasticHomoplastic FeaturesFeatures EvolvedEvolved independentlyindependently SimilarSimilar functionsfunctions inin distantlydistantly relatedrelated organismsorganisms DemonstrateDemonstrate convergentconvergent evolutionevolution organismsorganisms withwith separateseparate ancestriesancestries adaptadapt similarlysimilarly toto comparablecomparable environmentsenvironments

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VestigialVestigial StructuresStructures NonfunctionalNonfunctional oror degeneratedegenerate remnantsremnants ofof structuresstructures functionalfunctional inin ancestralancestral organismsorganisms StructuresStructures occasionallyoccasionally becomebecome vestigialvestigial asas speciesspecies adaptadapt toto differentdifferent modesmodes ofof lifelife Example:Example: molarmolar teethteeth inin humanshumans

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Convergent evolution: mammals who eat ants and termites

Aardvark (Orycteropus afer) Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) Giant anteater
Aardvark (Orycteropus afer)
Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata)
Giant anteater

BiogeographyBiogeography

Biogeography is the study of past and present geographic distribution of organisms

Darwin was interested in biogeography and why species in ocean resemble those in nearest mainland

Darwin concluded that species from neighboring continent migrated to islands where they adapted to new isolated environment and evolved separately

In 1915 Wegener postulated that all the continents were part of one landmass, that he called Pangaea, which separated by a Continental Drift

Continental drift has played a major role in evolution by affecting climate and ocean and atmospheric currents

Areas separated from the rest of the world contain organisms evolved in isolation, are unique to those areas

ContinentalContinental DriftDrift

• Earth crust is composed of 7 large plates that float on the Mantle. •
• Earth crust is composed of 7 large
plates that float on the Mantle.
• Continents are sitting on these
plates
• Plates mouvement is called Plate
Tectonics

EvolutionaryEvolutionary ChangesChanges

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EvolutionaryEvolutionary changeschanges resultresult ofof genegene mutationsmutations thatthat affectaffect eventsevents inin developmentdevelopment

EvidenceEvidence forfor evolutionevolution frfromom developmentaldevelopmental biology:biology:

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TheThe GeneticGenetic codecode isis universaluniversal

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ProteinsProteins andand DNADNA containcontain recorecordrd ofof evolutionaryevolutionary change:change:

conservedconserved sequencessequences ofof AAAA andand nucleotidesnucleotides

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ChangesChanges atat thethe AAAA sequencesequence andand DNADNA sequencesequence recordsrecords timetime ofof divergencedivergence

EstablishingEstablishing PhylogeniesPhylogenies

•• PhylogenyPhylogeny:: EvolutionaryEvolutionary historyhistory ofof groupgroup ofof relatedrelated speciesspecies

•• PhylogeneticPhylogenetic treestrees:: DiagramsDiagrams showingshowing lineslines ofof descentdescent basedbased onon molecularmolecular datadata analysisanalysis andand DNADNA SequencingSequencing andand otherother characteristicscharacteristics

••ThisThis diagramdiagram showsshows thatthat whaleswhales shouldshould bebe classifiedclassified withwith artiodactyls,artiodactyls, withwith closeclose relatiohshiprelatiohship toto hippopotamuseshippopotamuses

withwith artiodactyls,artiodactyls, withwith closeclose relatiohshiprelatiohship toto hippopotamuseshippopotamuses

CalibratingCalibrating MolecularMolecular ClocksClocks

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AA molecularmolecular clockclock isis aa genegene usedused toto estimateestimate thethe timetime ofof divergencedivergence betweenbetween closelyclosely relatedrelated speciesspecies

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MolecularMolecular clocksclocks helphelp toto establishestablish phylogenyphylogeny

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ScientistsScientists considerconsider molecularmolecular clocksclocks thatthat areare basedbased onon severalseveral genesgenes toto bebe moremore accurateaccurate

genesgenes toto bebe moremore accurateaccurate The The clock clock is is calibrated calibrated by by

TheThe clockclock isis calibratedcalibrated byby comparingcomparing thethe numbernumber ofof nucleotidenucleotide thethe differdiffer betweenbetween thethe speciesspecies withwith thethe datesdates ofof evolutionaryevolutionary branchbranch pointspoints knownknown fromfrom fossilfossil recordsrecords

TestingTesting EvolutionaryEvolutionary Hypotheses:Hypotheses:

ReznickReznick andand EndlerEndler

•• StudiedStudied effectseffects ofof predationpredation intensityintensity onon evolutionevolution ofof guppyguppy populationspopulations inin laboratorylaboratory andand naturenature

•• PredationPredation patternspatterns affectedaffected evoluationevoluation ofof thethe guppyguppy praypray

•• PredationPredation patternspatterns affectedaffected evoluationevoluation ofof thethe guppyguppy praypray
•• PredationPredation patternspatterns affectedaffected evoluationevoluation ofof thethe guppyguppy praypray