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INTERNSHIP REPORT

(PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT)

SUBMITTED TO:
Mr. Amir Sheikh(Plant Manager-Pure Plant )

SUBMITTED BY:
Muhammad Asad Patel
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

All praises belong to almighty ALLAH who is the supreme Authority Knowing the ultimate
relations underlying all sorts of phenomenon going on in this universe and whose blessings and
exaltation flourished my thoughts and thrived my ambitions.
Before proceeding to the actual report, I would like to thank a few people without whom this
internship would never have been possible. Firstly, I am thankful to the HUMAN RESOURCE
DEPARTMENT LOTTE‐PPTA, for giving me a chance to have a one of a kind work experience in
this world renowned multinational organization.I am very thankful to the following persons,
whose guidance counts a lot for me.
Mr. Amir Sheikh (Plant Manager-pure)
Mr. Umair Siddiqui(My Mentor)
Mr. Arsalan Ahmed(Trainee Engineer- Pure Plant)
Mr. Sohail Akram(Trainee Engineer)

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PREFACE
Industrial models are exceptionally diverse than those
taught in classrooms. One strictly needs an industrial
exposure in order to comprehend the way these ideal,
theoretical tools are applied on practical equipment.
This internship at Lotte Pakistan PTA limited, gained me a
head start toward my practical life. The report reflects
all the knowledge that I got from here.

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Contents
1. Introduction to Lotte Chemical Pakistan Limited: ........................................................................ 5
Health Safety & Environment: .................................................................................................... 5
Employee’s Safety: ...................................................................................................................... 5
Extra Safety: ................................................................................................................................ 6
2. SAFETY MEASURES: .................................................................................................................... 6
Fire Fighting System: ................................................................................................................... 6
Gas Alarms: ................................................................................................................................. 8
Toxic Gas Refugee: ...................................................................................................................... 8
Safety Showers:........................................................................................................................... 8
Eye Wash Fountains: ................................................................................................................... 8
3. Overview of the Plant: ............................................................................................................... 8
Core Area: ....................................................................................................................................... 8
Oxidation Plant: ...................................................................................................................... 8
Purification Plant:.................................................................................................................... 9
Non-Core Area: ............................................................................................................................... 9
Utilities: ................................................................................................................................... 9
Co – Generation (COGEN): ...................................................................................................... 9
4. PURIFICATION PLANT DISCRIPTION: ......................................................................................... 9
TASKS ASSIGNED .......................................................................................................................... 13
Bernoulli Equation:....................................................................................................................... 13
Rupture Disc and Relief valves: ................................................................................................... 15
Breather Valves (Pressure Vacuum Valves): ............................................................................... 16
What are Breather Valves? ........................................................................................................... 16
Why use Breather Valves? ............................................................................................................ 17
Crystallization: .............................................................................................................................. 17
Steam Hammering:....................................................................................................................... 18
Mechanical Seals: ......................................................................................................................... 19
Main Elements of a Mechanical Seals: ......................................................................................... 19
How Mechanical Seals Work? ....................................................................................................... 20

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Mechanical Seals vs Gland Packing:.............................................................................................. 20
Double Mechanical Seal: ............................................................................................................... 21
Control Loop: ................................................................................................................................ 21
Components of a Control Loop: .................................................................................................... 22
Applications of a Control System: ................................................................................................. 22
Cascade Control: ........................................................................................................................... 24
Split Range Control: ...................................................................................................................... 24
Digital Control System of the Plant ............................................................................................. 24
Controlling Perimeters: ................................................................................................................. 25
Interlocking: .................................................................................................................................. 25
Faceplate: ...................................................................................................................................... 25
Flow Measurement ...................................................................................................................... 25
Differential Pressure Flowmeters: ................................................................................................ 25
Flow Gauge used in PTA plant: ..................................................................................................... 27
Lute in Vessels: ............................................................................................................................. 28
Purpose: ........................................................................................................................................ 28
Uses of Lutes: ................................................................................................................................ 28
Pneumatic Pumps:........................................................................................................................ 29
What is a Pneumatic Pump? ......................................................................................................... 29
How do they work? ....................................................................................................................... 29
Primary Features: .......................................................................................................................... 29
Performance of Heat Exchangers: ............................................................................................... 30
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient ‘U’: ........................................................................................... 30
Overall Heat Transfer Efficiency: .................................................................................................. 31
Log Mean Temperature Difference(LMTD): ................................................................................. 31
Fouling in Heat Exchangers: ......................................................................................................... 31
Common Types of Fouling: ........................................................................................................... 32
Corrugated tubes (To minimize fouling): ...................................................................................... 32
Brain Storming Questions: ........................................................................................................... 33

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1. Introduction to Lotte Chemical Pakistan Limited:
Lotte Pakistan PTA Limited is a world-class supplier of purified terephthalic acid, an essential raw
material having purity of 99.8%, used in the polyester industry. Lotte Pakistan PTA Limited is the
single largest foreign direct investment in Pakistan’s petrochemical industry. The plant, located
at Eastern Industrial Zone some 50 kilometers from Karachi, was built using ICI’s state of- the-art
technology. In 1995, ICI group invests in the local (Pakistan) petrochemical industry to capture
the growing local demand of PTA. In 1997 project construction started which was commissioned
in 1998. In 2000, PTA business de-merged from ICI Pakistan Limited into Pakistan PTA limited
(PTA) and separately listed on all stock exchanges in Pakistan. In 2008, Akzo Nobel completed its
acquisition of ICI, subsequently becoming the ultimate holding company of Pakistan PTA Limited.
In 2009, Lotte acquired majority shareholdings in Pakistan PTA Limited (PPTA) making it an official
member of the Lotte Worldwide Group. Subsequently, the name of the company was changed
to Lotte Pakistan PTA Limited. It produces Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) an essential raw
material for Pakistan’s textile and PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) packaging industries and
forms the backbone of polyesters chain including Polyester Staple Fiber, Filament Yarn, and PET
(bottle grade) resin. Within a short time, PPTA’s dedicated and highly motivated team of
professional engineers proved that they could run this complex plant to world standards of
safety, environmental care, product quality, and process efficiency. Since 2002, the plant has
operated above its nameplate capacity of 400,000 tons per annum. One of the goals of the
company was to increase the capacity to 500,000 tons per annum which it achieved in 2009
through process improvements.

Health Safety & Environment:


Pakistan PTA is a responsible organization, governed by a safety, health and environment (SHE)
policy. This accords the highest priority to the safety and health of their employees and the
public. The global policy inherited from IMPERIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES (ICI) also pledges them
to an environment policy that conforms to international requirements and ensures their
operations are acceptable to their local community.

Employee’s Safety:
The main equipment provided to each and every employee includes;
• Safety shoes
• Safety goggles
• LEP (Light Eye Protect)
• Ear plugs.

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The whole plant has certain lined criteria, where these PPE’s are to be used.
• YELLOW lines are for PLANT AREA.
• GREEN and WHITE lines are for GOGGLE AREA.
• RED AND WHITE is the high noise area so it’s for EAR PLUGS.
• Parallel RED & GREEN lines are for HAZARDOUS AREA.

The other equipments, that are not common but are provided for specific tasks, include;
• Safety harness
• PVC Gloves
• PVC suit
• Leather gloves
• Face shield
• Dust mask
• Respirator/BA sets
• Hearing protection

Extra Safety:
• Smoking is not allowed in any area, particular area is allocated for smoking.
• No battery-operated device is allowed in the plant area like mobile, radio, torch,
• Camera, Calculator etc, as it may cause ignition because a slight spark could cause fire

2. SAFETY MEASURES:
In order to tackle any accident or to minimize other possible hazards, safety measures must be
taken. The plant site of LCPL is equipped with a well-organized safety system; some of its
components are given below,

Fire Fighting System:


Fire Water Pumps

There are four fire water pumps at plant site: G1-2362A (jockey pump), G1-2361A (diesel driven),
G1-2361(diesel driven) and G1-2316C (electric driven). Main fire pumps are sized to deliver 500
m3/h, maintaining a pressure of 10 bar. Two pumps run to supply the maximum demand of 1000
m3/h.
Fire water is stored in the raw water storage tank F1-2364 where 3000 m3 is dedicated for
firewater use. Fire water is distributed around the site in the firewater main, which is kept
pressurized by the firewater jockey pump G1-2362A.The jockey pump runs continuously, a
minimum spill back via an orifice plate being provided for the protection of the pump. On a

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reduction in firewater main, pressure due to use of firewater, the firewater pump auto-start
system will start one or more of the firewater pumps. Two of the firewater pumps are diesel
driven, the diesel pumps are provided with local diesel tanks.
Fixed Foam System
Fixed foam system is installed at para-xylene, acetic acid storage and PAC hall. It contains 3%
foam and 97% water. The system utilizes water directly from the fire main; capacity of the tank
is 3300 liters.
Deluge System
Deluge system is installed at oxidation reactor, HP absorber, feed mix drum, crystallizers and
dehydration column. It involves pipe fittings across the plant, the pipe is painted red, and pipe
has nozzles which sprinkles mixture of foam and water. It is used where use of water as
extinguishing media may cause the fire to expand.
Fire Sprinkles
They are installed at workshop hall area, store hall and substation 1, 2, 3basement. It is equipped
with local bells and fusible bulbs. It sprinkles water in case of fire and melting of any bulb. It is
used where fire can be extinguished by water.
Mac Glasses & Fire Alarms
They are installed across whole plant and buildings. In case of fire, the MAC glass is broken and
alarm button is pressed. It also gives signal on MIMIC panel in DCS room so that the location of
fire can be easily detected.
Fire Hydrants
There are total 41 hydrants all around site, located at no more than 50 m intervals along the
process plot boundaries, 60 m intervals along the non-core area and 90 m intervals along the
admin building. They are painted red.
Fire Water Monitors
Manually operated firewater monitors are provided to cover
the tanker of loading areas and the section of the para-xylene
tank facing the acetic acid tank and located at a minimum
distance of 15 m from the equipment being protected.
Monitors are provided with jet/ spray nozzles capable of
producing a flow of 120 m3/h with an effective range of 40 m
at 7 barg.
Fig. FIRE WATER MONITOR

Hose Boxes
Hose boxes or houses are located at each hydrant.

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Hose Reels
Fire hose reels of swinging arm design each with 30m of 19 mm bore hose and spray jet nozzle
are installed in the following locations.Rotary vacuum filter, boiler, administration building
control, laboratory, engineering building, restaurant, workshop, offices and canteen.
Fire Assembly Points
There are fire assembly points at the site, in case of any fire, workers assemble there and stay
there until all clear is given.
Fire Extinguishers
Fire extinguishers are kept at various points in the plant as well as
other buildings at the site. There are two types of fire extinguishers
used at LCPL.
Gas Alarms:
The plant is also equipped with gas alarms, which in case of gas
leakage, can detect and give signal at MIMIC panel, the toxic gas
alarm can then be activated from there.Also there is emergency
shut off button to stop the supply of natural gas in case of any accident.
Toxic Gas Refugee:
Toxic gas refugees are also located at various
locations at the site, in case of any toxic gas leakage,
workers assemble there to avoid any toxic effect of
gas.
Safety Showers:
Safety showers are located at various points in the
plant. In case of contamination of the protective suit
from any hazardous chemical, it is recommended to
take shower for 30 minutes.
Eye Wash Fountains:
In case of eye contact with any hazardous chemical, eye wash
fountains are provided. Fig. EYE WASH FOUNTAIN AND SAFETY
SHOWER

3. Overview of the Plant:


Plant is divided in to the following two areas
Core Area:
Oxidation Plant:
Paraxylene, acetic acid, and catalyst (Cobalt Manganese Bromide), are mixed to create a feed
which goes to the oxygen reactor to react with compressed air (18 bar). The major proportion of

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Terephthalic Acid produced is precipitated to form slurry in the reactor. This slurry is then passed
through crystallizers where it is cooled to form crystals. It then goes to the ROVAC (Rotary
Vacuum Filter), where it is filtered. After filtering the product, it is dried in the dryer to produce
Crude Terepthalic Acid (CTA) which is 99.7% pure. The residue is treated in Catalyst Recovery Unit
(CRU) to recover acetic acid for reusing it in the reaction. The waste water is sent to Effluent
Treatment Plant (ETP).
Purification Plant:
In PURE the CTA which contains few impurities is purified, resulting in PTA which is 99.98% pure
product. The most problematic impurity is 4-formylbenzoic acid (commonly known in the field as
4-carboxybenzaldehyde or 4-CBA), which is removed by hydrogenation of a hot aqueous solution
of Terepthalic acid. This solution is then passed to the crystallizers where it is cooled to crystallize.
Next it passes through the PTA drier where it is dried to yield the final product, Purified
Terepthalic Acid (PTA).
Non-Core Area:
Utilities:
It consists of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), Cooling Towers, Base Load Generator, Emergency
Diesel Generators, Boilers, Reverse Osmosis Plant. Utilities also provide raw materials used in the
production of PTA, which are as follows:
1. Paraxylene
2. Acetic Acid
3. Catalyst
4. Diesel
5. Demin Water
6. Fuel Oil
7. Caustic Acid
Co – Generation (COGEN):
This plant provides to electricity and steam Co-Gen started from August 2012, before Co-Gen
came into existence, electricity was taken from KESC and steam was taken from the boilers
(which use natural gas as fuel). The total power needed to run the plant is about 25-26MW and
the steam needed is approximately 50 tons/hour.
After Co-Gen, electricity is produced by the Gas Turbine Generator (GTG) and steam is made
using the exhaust heat of the turbine.

4. PURIFICATION PLANT DISCRIPTION:


In purification section, purification of CTA is achieved from 99.7% to 99.98%. The main impurities
to be removed include 4CBA (4-Carboxy Benzaldehyde), Para-toulic acid, colored impurities

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(mainly DCMY). This is achieved by selective catalytic hydrogenation of an aqueous Solution of
TA.

CTA Feed Preparation:


 The CTA powder from the oxidation plant is transferred to the TA feed hopper.
 TA powder is conveyed into hopper using the dried reactor off-gas.
 TA feed hopper provides buffer storage capacity between the oxidation and purification
plants and allows the feeding of the CTA into the feed slurry drum which is located below
the hopper.
 Conveying gas is roused up into the feed hopper to prevent the bulking of the CTA. This is
called rousing gas.
 The CTA passes through a rotary valve which also controls the feed from feed hopper into
feed slurry drum where it is mixed with water to make slurry at 30%w/w.

Increasing the Pressure and Temperature of the Feed:


 The slurry coming out of the feed drum is pumped to 12-13 bar to provide necessary NPSH
for the Sundyne pumps.
 The Coriolis density meter has a control with rotary valve which controls the inlet of feed
from the hopper.
 5 Sundyne pumps connected in parallel make the pressure up to 120 bar
 5 shell and Tube heat exchangers raise the temperature of the slurry to 165, 205, 231,
234 and 283°C respectively.
 The temperature and pressure of the feed is increased so as to keep the CTA and
impurities in solution form so that the reaction can take place.
 The pressure drop takes place in the heat exchangers and the pressure of the feed after
passing through the exchangers is 80 barg.

Dissolution and Reaction:


 Reactor is a vessel that acts as dissolver and reactor both.
 The upper section of vessel is the dissolver which ensures complete dissolution of the TA
while the lower section is the reactor where hydrogenation reaction would takes place in
presence of catalyst.
 Hydrogen gas is heated by mixing with the HP steam before it is bubbled in the solution
of TA and dissolution takes place.
 Liquid level in the reactor is maintained above the surface of catalyst bed.
 The catalyst used in the reactor is Palladium supported on Charcoal.
 The reaction takes place at 80 bar and 283°C

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Crystallization:
 TA solution from Reaction section now contains Para Toluic Acid and other impurities
which must be removed before attaining the final product
 This is done by first crystallizing the Terephthalic acid in 5 continuous stirred tank
crystallizers.
 TA is crystallized while the impurities are left in solution form.
 The purpose of introducing 5 crystallizers is to grow the size of the crystals.
 The pressure is reduced at each step and water is also flashed off, consequently cooling
the remaining solution and precipitation of PTA.
 Steam vented from the first crystallizer at 238°C and 34barg is condensed on shell side of
the second and third pre-heaters. Inerts and uncondensed vapors are vented into the
vent header.
 Steam from second and third crystallizer at 214°C, 20.5 barg and 195°C, 12.0 barg
respectively is used to preheat the slurry feed in first pre-heater.
 Steam from the fourth crystallizer at 174°C and 8.7 barg is used to heat the water in re-
slurry water heater.
 Steam from the fifth crystallizer at 147˚C and 4.4barg discharges under pressure control
into the vent header.
 Each crystallizer has split range controllers that control the pressure
Pressure Centrifuge:
 Centrifuges are used to separate the crystals from the solution.
 Pressure centrifuges are continuous solid-bowl type machines operating at 147˚C and
4.4bara.
 The bowl rotates at 900rpm.
 Wet cake from centrifuges is mixed with heated process water to again make slurry of
41% w/w which flows with gravity to re-slurry drum at 147˚C and 4.4bara.
 The mother liquor flows under gravity to mother liquor drum from where it is sent to
oxidation plant for filtration with the help of sequence controlled back flush filters and it
is then recycled.

Atmospheric Centrifuge:
 Reslurried PTA is let down to Reslurry feed drum operating at 100˚C and 1.01 bargwhile
vapor is discharged to vent scrubber.
 Atmospheric centrifuges are continuous solid-bowl type machines working at 100˚C and
1.01 bara
 Mother liquor from here flows by gravity towards recycle solvent drum from where it is
recycled to feed slurry drum in feed preparation section.

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 Cake with 10% moisture is obtained from the atmospheric centrifuges is sent to the drying
section.

Drying:
 Dryer is a rotary shell and tube heat exchanger with the steam on the tube side and wet
powder at the shell side.
 Continuously rotating balls avoid the sticking of powder to the walls.
 Dried solid outlet temperature is 120˚C. LP steam is supplied to the tubes while inert gas
is used to remove water vapor.
 The drier outlet gas and evaporated solvent contains a small amount of entrained solids
which are removed in PTA drier condenser separating drum.
 The drier outlet gas exits the top of drier condenser and vented to the atmosphere.
 The powder has 35 mins of residence time in the dryer.
 Dryer has a cascade control with temperature acts as the master control which controls
the moisture of the powder after the tank.

Final Product Handling:


 The product from the dryer is fed into the product batch tanks with the help of conveying
gas which contains N2 as a major component after passing through two rotary valves.
 Product batch tanks are filled in period of 4 hours. When one tank is being filled, the other
one is analyzed for one hour and then the contents are discharged to bulk storage in three
hours.
 The powder is conveyed to bulk storage in PTA Silos through jacketed pipe.

Mother Liquor Treatment:


 Mother liquor from the pressure centrifuges enters into the PTA filter feed drum
 Filter feed drum operates at 100°C and 1.01 bar.
 The pressure and temperature reduction causes some PTA to precipitate out of the
mother liquor solution.
 The remaining liquor is fed to PTA mother liquor filter through the slurry loop.

Vent Scrubbing and Process Water Make Up:


 The vapors and gases obtained from crystallizers and PTA mother liquor filter drum
contain entrained solids and gases are collected in the vent header.
 Vent header is at 1 barg and it is connected with a scrubber at atmospheric pressure, so
the gases rush towards the scrubber.
 It is a venturi type scrubber which operates at 100˚C and 1.01bara.

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 Condensate and vent streams from pre-heaters and Reslurry water heater are also fed
through the vent header
 Steam is condensed with the help of fin fan condenser.
 The scrubbed vapor is fed to the condenser from where the condensate goes to recycle
drum.
 Liquid is recirculate to the venturi by the pump while excess liquid is transferred to recycle
solvent drum which supplies the recycle solvent to feed slurry drum.

Fig. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM FOR


PURIFICATION

TASKS ASSIGNED

Bernoulli Equation:
It is a statement of the conservation of energy in a form useful for solving problems involving
fluids. For a non-viscous, incompressible fluid in steady flow, the sum of pressure, potential and
kinetic energies per unit volume is constant at any point.
The Bernoulli Equation can be considered to be a statement of the conservation of energy
principle appropriate for flowing fluids. The qualitative behavior that is usually labeled with the
term "Bernoulli effect" is the lowering of fluid pressure in regions where the flow velocity is
increased. This lowering of pressure in a constriction of a flow path may seem counterintuitive,
but seems less so when you consider pressure to be energy density. In the high velocity flow
through the constriction, kinetic energy must increase at the expense of pressure energy.

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This equation was developed first by Daniel Bernoulli in 1738 and is therefore referred to as
Bernoulli’s equation. Each term in the Eq. (13.8) has the dimension of energy per unit mass. The
equation can also be expressed in terms of energy per unit weight as
(13.9)
In a fluid flow, the energy per unit weight is termed as head. Accordingly, equation 13.9 can be
interpreted as
Pressure head + Velocity head + Potential head =Total head (total energy per unit weight).
Bernoulli's Equation with Head Loss:
The derivation of mechanical energy equation for a real fluid depends much on the information
about the frictional work done by a moving fluid element and is excluded from the scope of the
book. However, in many practical situations, problems related to real fluids can be analysed with
the help of a modified form of Bernoulli’s equation as
(13.10)
Where, hf represents the frictional work done (the work done against the fluid friction) per unit
weight of a fluid element while moving from a station 1 to 2 along a streamline in the direction
of flow.
Applications of the Bernoulli Equation:
The Bernoulli equation can be applied to a great many situations not just the pipe flow we have
been considering up to now. In the following sections we will see some examples of its application
to flow measurement from tanks, within pipes as well as in open channels.

1. Pitot Tube:
If a stream of uniform velocity flows into a blunt body, some move to the left and some to the
right. But one, in the center, goes to the tip of the blunt body and stops. It stops because at this
point the velocity is zero - the fluid does not move at this one point. This point is known as
the stagnation point.
The blunt body stopping the fluid does not have to be a solid. I could be a static column of fluid.
Two piezometers, one as normal and one as a Pitot tube within the pipe can be used in an
arrangement shown below to measure velocity of flow.

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A Piezometer and a Pitot tube
2. Time for a Tank to Empty:
We now have an expression for the discharge out of a tank
based on the height of water above the orifice. It would be
useful to know how long it would take for the tank to empty.
As the tank empties, so the level of water will fall. We can
get an expression for the time it takes to fall by integrating
the expression for flow between the initial and final levels.
Tank emptying from level h1 to h2.

Rupture Disc and Relief valves:


What are Rupture Disks?
A rupture disk is a device designed to function by the bursting of a pressure-retaining disk. This
assembly consists of a thin, circular membrane usually made of metal, plastic, or graphite that is
firmly clamped in a disk holder. When the process reaches the bursting pressure of the disk, the
disk ruptures and releases the pressure.
Rupture disks can be installed alone or in combination with other types of devices. Once blown,
rupture disks do not reseat; thus, the entire contents of the upstream process equipment will be
vented.
Purposes of Rupture Disks
Arupture disk is a sensitive relief device
designed to rupture at a pre-determined
pressure and temperature. It is a means of
providing protection for personnel and
equipment. As such, it must be a fail-safe
device. Rupture disks are used where
instantaneous and full opening of a pressure relief Fig. A Rupture Disc
device is required. These devices are also utilized where
"zero" leak-age is required of a relief device. These devices can also be used in series as "quick
opening" valves.

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What is a Pressure Relief Valve?
A pressure Relief Valve is a safety device designed to protect a pressurized
vessel or system during an overpressure event.
An overpressure event refers to any condition which would cause pressure in
a vessel or system to increase beyond the specified design pressure or
maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP).
The primary purpose of a pressure Relief Valve is protection of life and
property by venting fluid from an over-pressurized vessel.

Safety Valve:
A safety Valve is a pressure Relief Valve actuated by inlet static pressure and
characterized by rapid opening or pop action. (It is normally used for steam
and air services.)
Fig. A Typical Relief Valve
 Low-Lift Safety Valve:
A low-lift safety Valve is a safety Valve in which the disc lifts
automatically such that the actual discharge area is determined by the position of the
disc.

 Full-Lift Safety Valve:


A full-lift safety Valve is a safety Valve in which the disc lifts automatically such that the
actual discharge area is not determined by the position of the disc.

Breather Valves (Pressure Vacuum Valves):


What are Breather Valves?
Breather Valves, also known as direct acting Pressure/Vacuum Relief Valves, are special types of
Relief Valves which are specifically designed for tank protection. The range includes pressure
only, vacuum only and combined Pressure/Vacuum Valves. The Valves prevent the build up of
excessive pressure or vacuum which can unbalance the system or damage the storage vessel.

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Why use Breather Valves?
The Breather Valve is a protection device mounted on a nozzle opening on the top of a fixed roof
atmospheric storage tank. Its primary purpose is to protect the tank against rupturing or
imploding.
Without an opening or a controlled opening, a fixed roof
atmospheric tank would rupture under increasing pressure caused
by pumping liquid into the tank or as a result of vapor pressure
changes caused by severe thermal changes. Imploding, or the
collapsing of a tank, occurs during the pumping out procedure or
thermal changes. As the liquid level lowers, the vapor space
pressure is reduced to below atmospheric pressure. This vacuum Fig. A Typical Pressure Vacuum Valve
condition must be alleviated through a controlled opening on the
tank. In short, the tank needs to breathe in order to eliminate the possibility of rupturing or
imploding.

Crystallization:
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process of formation of solid crystals precipitating from
a solution, melt or more rarely deposited directly from a gas. Crystallization is also a chemical
solid–liquid separation technique, in which mass transfer of a solute from the liquid solution to a
pure solid crystalline phase occurs. In chemical engineering crystallization occurs in a crystallizer.
Crystallization is therefore an aspect of precipitation, obtained through a variation of the
solubility conditions of the solute in the solvent, as compared to precipitation due to chemical
reaction.

Modes of Crystallization:
In industrial practice, starting with a saturated binary solution, supersaturation can be generated
in the following ways, depending on the solubility of the solute or more precisely on the slope of
the solubility-temperature curve, dc*/dt

I) For very soluble substances (C* > 0.2 g/g), by cooling the solution;
Ii) For soluble substances (C* < 0.2 g/g), by cooling or evaporating the solution or by combining
them by flash evaporation;
Iii) For substances with a small dc*/dt (< 0.005 g/g.ºc), by evaporating the solution;
Iv) For slightly soluble substances (C* < 0.01 g/g), supersaturation can be created by the chemical
reaction of two or more reactants.
V) In all cases, the addition of a new solvent, miscible with the solvent present, where the solute
is less soluble, can also be applied.

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The choice of method for generation of supersaturation to crystallize a substance also depends
on the product properties desired and economic aspects. In all cases, it is always possible to
establish adequate mathematical expressions for the supersaturation in terms of known
properties

Steam Hammering:
Steam hammering is the sound that is heard as a pinging, rattling, or banging in a steam system
under conditions of Start-up, shutdown, changing loads or even in few cases, steady state full
load operation.

Causes of steam hammering:


Steam hammering is the phenomenon which occurs in steam charging in the pipeline while there
is a presence of condensate in the line. This is because of sudden drop in pressure of steam as it
comes in contact of condensate. This can also occur due to poor heating of steam network before
the steam enters into the system. Poor condensate drainage in pipeline leads to this steam
hammering.

Effects of steam hammering:


The effect of steam hammering can result in following:
 Cracking of steam traps and pressure gauges
 Break pipe welds and even rupture piping systems
 Bend internal system mechanism
 Causes valve failure
 Cause heat exchanger equipment tube failures

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 Failure of pipe supports.

Where air filled traps are used, these eventually become depleted of their trapped air over a
long period of time through absorption into the water. This can be cured by shutting off the
supply, opening taps at the highest and lowest locations to drain the system and then closing the
taps and re-opening the supply.

Mechanical Seals:
In general a mechanical seal is a piece of equipment which enables you to connect the systems
or mechanisms to stop the leakage in a structure which contains pressure. In the fluid handling
business (most often read pumps), the meaning is much narrower. By a mechanical seal we mean
a device which is used to seal shafts of pumps, mixers or
agitators.
Mechanical seals require clean water, or other
compatible liquid, for the lubrication of the seal faces.
The faces in a typical mechanical seal are lubricated with
a boundary layer of gas or liquid between the faces.
Lubrication can be provided from the pumped liquid
itself or from an external source, depending on system
requirements.

Main Elements of a Mechanical Seals:


All mechanical seals are constructed with the following basic sets of parts:
 A set of (very flat) machined and lapped primary sealing faces: The very close (near)
contact between these two flat mating surfaces, which are perpendicular to the shaft,
minimizes leakage. Dissimilar materials are usually used for the faces, one hard and one
softer, in order to prevent adhesion of the two faces. One of the faces is usually a non-
galling material such as carbon-graphite. The other surface is usually a relatively hard
material like silicon-carbide, or ceramic. However, when handling abrasive, two hard
surfaces are normally used:
o One face is held stationary in a housing
o The other face is fixed to, and rotates with the shaft.
 A set of secondary static seals, typically O-rings, wedges and/or V-rings.
o One static seal, seals stationary component(s) to the housing
o The other seal, seals the rotating component(s) to the shaft (it normally moves
axially on the shaft or shaft sleeve)

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 A spring member to maintain face contact, such as a single spring, multiple springs or
metal bellows.
 Other mechanical seal hardware, which includes shaft sleeves, gland rings, collars,
compression rings, and/or pins.

How Mechanical Seals Work?


Where there is a rotating shaft, a shaft seal is involved. The shaft seal prevents leakage of product
into the atmosphere. The pump seal serves as a barrier between the pump casing and the
atmosphere. In the sanitary world especially, we are concerned with minimizing leakage. When
the pump shaft starts rotating, the pressure differential created between the pump chamber and
atmosphere causes the seal faces to separate. The pressure differential draws product between
the stationary and rotating seal faces to create a lubricating film that is 0.00025 mm thick. This
fluid film serves to lubricate and cool the seal faces, preventing wear. If properly designed and
installed, the low pressure and high temperature in
the seal gap will cause seal fluid evaporation and
prevent leakage.
If poorly designed or if seal faces wear, the pump
will leak. The rate of leakage is determined by a
variety of factors including, but not limited to:
surface roughness of seal faces, flatness of seal
Fig. Components of Mech. Seal
faces, vibration and stability of the pump, speed of
rotation, temperature, viscosity, and type of pumped media, pump pressure, and seal design and
assembly.

Mechanical Seals vs Gland Packing:


The older technology is mechanical packing. The problem with this technology is that mechanical
packing requires some leakage to avoid overheating and burning. Mechanical packing is still used
very often with fluids which are not hazardous. Cooling water pumps is a good example where
packing is still used because small controlled leakage of cold water does not present a hazard.
Besides loss of fluid there are other problems associated with mechanical packing in pumps:
 Friction consumes power;

 Friction leads to shaft sleeve wear;


 Friction leads to mechanical packing wear which calls for frequent packing adjustments.

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Due to these reasons mechanical packing is often replaced with mechanical seals even in
applications which are not hazardous. But if we do consider hazardous industries, use of
mechanical packing is prohibited where even small, controlled amount of leakage from a pump
is not acceptable due to environmental or fire safety reasons. The answer is to use a mechanical
seal, of course.

Double Mechanical Seal:


Single seals do not always meet the shaft sealing requirements of today’s pumps, due to the small
amount of required leakage when handling toxic or hazardous liquids; suspended abrasives or
corrosives in the pump age getting between the seal faces and causing premature wear; and/or
the potential for dry operation of the seal faces. To address these situations, the seal industry
has developed configurations which incorporate two sets of sealing faces, with a clean barrier
fluid injected between these two sets of seal faces. The decision to choose between a double or
single seal comes down to the initial cost to purchase the seal vs. The cost of operation,
maintenance and downtime caused by the seal, plus the environmental and user plant emission
standards for leakage from the seal.

The more common multiple seal configuration is called


a Double (dual pressurized) seal, where the two seal face sets
are oriented in opposite directions. The features of this seal
arrangement are:
 Potentially five times the life of a single seal in severe
environments.
 The metal inner seal parts are never exposed to the
liquid product being pumped, which means no need
for expensive metallurgy; especially good for
viscous, abrasive, or thermosetting liquids.
 The double seal life is virtually unaffected by process
upset conditions during pump operation.

Control Loop:
What is a Control Loop?
A control loop is a process management system designed to maintain a process variable at a
desired set point. Each step in the loop works in conjunction with the others to manage the
system. Each step in the loop works in conjunction with the others to manage the system. Once
the set point has been established, the control loop operates using a four-step process.

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Sense:
Measure the current condition of the process using a sensor, which can be an electronic
(thermocouple, RTD or transmitter) or a mechanical device (thermal system).
Compare:
Evaluate the measurement of the current condition against the set point using an electronic or
electric contact controller.
Respond:
React to any error that may exist by generating a corrective pneumatic or electric control signal.
Affect:
Actuate a final control element (valve, heater or other device) that will produce a change in the
process variable.

Components of a Control Loop:


A controller seeks to maintain the measured process variable (PV) at set point (SP) in spite of
unmeasured disturbances (D). The major components of a control system include: (1) A Sensor,
(2) A Controller & (3) A Final Control Element. To design and implement a controller, we must:
1) Have identified a process variable we seek to regulate, be able to measure it (or
something directly related to it) with a sensor, and be able to transmit that measurement
as an electrical signal back to our controller
2) Have a final control element (FCE) that can receive the controller output (CO) signal, react
in some fashion to impact the process (e.g., a valve moves), and as a result cause the
process variable to respond in a consistent and predictable fashion.

Applications of a Control System:


Following are few Practical examples involving control systems:

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1. Temperature Control:
A home heating system is simple on/off control with many of the components contained in a
small box mounted on our wall. Nevertheless, we introduce the idea of control loop diagrams by
presenting a home heating system in the same way we would a more sophisticated commercial
control application.
The measured temperature PV signal is subtracted from set point to compute controller error,
e(t) = SP – PV. The action of the controller is based on this error, e(t).
The important elements of a home heating control system can be organized like any
commercial application:
▪ Control Objective: maintain house temperature at SP in spite of disturbances
▪ Process Variable: house temperature
▪ Measurement Sensor: thermistor; or bimetallic strip coil on analog models
▪ Measured Process Variable (PV) Signal: signal transmitted from the thermistor
▪ Set Point (SP): desired house temperature
▪ Controller Output (CO): signal to fuel valve actuator and furnace burner
▪ Final Control Element (FCE): solenoid valve for fuel flow to furnace
▪ Manipulated Variable: fuel flow rate to furnace
▪ Disturbances (D): heat loss from doors, walls and windows; changing outdoor temperature;
sunrise and sunset; rain...

2. Cruise Control:
A cruise control system really adjusts fuel flow rate to maintain click rate at the set point value.
With this knowledge, we can organize cruise control into the essential design elements:
▪ Control Objective: maintain car speed at SP in spite of disturbances
▪ Process Variable: car speed
▪ Measurement Sensor: magnet and coil to clock drive shaft rotation
▪ Measured Process Variable (PV) Signal: "click rate" signal from the magnet and coil
▪ Set Point (SP): desired car speed, recast in the controller as a desired click rate
▪ Controller Output (CO): signal to actuator that adjusts gas pedal (throttle)

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▪ Final Control Element (FCE): gas pedal position
▪ Manipulated Variable: fuel flow rate
▪ Disturbances (D): hills, wind, curves, passing trucks…

Cascade Control:
In cascade control loop, the current value of a perimeter is used as the set point of another
perimeter.
Example from PTA plant: While preparing feed for the reactor D1-301 in feed mix drum F1203,
the composition of the feed is maintained by using a flow ratio between paraxylene, acetic acid
and catalytic solution. During control, the flow of paraxylene is measured and this is used to
calculate the amount of acetic acid and catalytic solution to be feed to the drum. Thus in this case
the flow of paraxylene is acting as a set point for the flow of acetic acid and catalyst.

Split Range Control:


Split range is a control configuration where a single PID controller outputs to two control valves
that are usually not the same size, but could be. In most split range applications, the controller
is adjusting the opening of one of the valves when its output is in the range of 0 to 50% and the
other valve when its output is in the range of 50% to 100%.
Example from PTA plant: The pressures in crystallizers D1-1401, D1-1402, D1-1403, D11404 and
D1-1405 of purification plant is maintained to their desired limits by using split range control
configuration. Three valves are used for each crystallizer first valve is opened when pressure is
50%, second is opened for 75% and third is opened for 100%.

Digital Control System of the Plant


In order to ensure that plant operates and the process continues smoothly, it is necessary to
keep a check of the various perimeters which can cause disturbances in the process and also if

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disturbance occurs then how to fix it, this is possible by the use of “Digital Control System (DCS)”.
DCS is used to ensure the stability of the process and to suppress the influence of disturbances.

Controlling Perimeters:
To keep check of process, we have to look at various perimeters such as pressure, level of a tank,
pH, temperature etc, which perimeter is important or critical? It depends on process. For
example if a reaction is taking place at 200°C and 16 bar pressure and the reaction is sensitive to
the changes in pressure and temperature then our controlling perimeters will be temperature
and pressure.

Interlocking:
If a control perimeter change suddenly and that despite of control action, it is not being stabilized
then there we use interlocking. Interlocking is important for safe and stable operation, for
example, if pressure of a vessel crosses its max allowed value and despite of control action is not
stabilizing so it may be hazardous. In order to tackle this situation, we use interlocking so that
the pressures relieve valve opens and the pressure is reduced.

Faceplate:
Faceplate is basically a control tab. It has tag number of the equipment for which it is being used
to control a perimeter of that equipment. It has three bars in it white bar (displaying the set point
of the perimeter), yellow bar (displaying actual reading of the perimeter) and blue bar (displaying
the current position of final control element). It can be operated at manual, automatic or
supervisory mode.

Flow Measurement
Flow measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid movement. Flow can be measured in a
variety of ways. The most common principals for fluid flow metering are:
 Differential Pressure Flowmeters

 Velocity Flowmeters
 Positive Displacement Flowmeters
 Mass Flowmeters
 Open Channel Flowmeters

Differential Pressure Flowmeters:


In a differential pressure drop device the flow is calculated by measuring the pressure drop over
an obstructions inserted in the flow. The differential pressure flowmeter is based on

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the Bernoulli’s Equation, where the pressure drop and the further measured signal is a function
of the square flow speed.
The most common types of differential pressure flowmeters are:
 Orifice Plates

 Flow Nozzles
 Venturi Tubes
 Variable Area - Rotameters

Orifice Meters:
With an orifice plate, the fluid flow is measured through the difference
in pressure from the upstream side to the downstream side of a
partially obstructed pipe. The plate obstructing the flow offers a
precisely measured obstruction that narrows the pipe and forces the
flowing fluid to constrict.
Fig. Orifice Meter Principle

Venturi Meter:
In the Venturi Tube the fluid flowrate is measured by reducing the cross sectional flow area in
the flow path, generating a pressure difference. After the constricted area, the fluid is passes
through a pressure recovery exit section, where up to 80% of the differential pressure generated
at the constricted area, is recovered.

Fig. Venturi Meter


Principle

With proper instrumentation and flow calibrating, the Venturi Tube flowrate can be reduced to
about 10% of its full scale range with proper accuracy.

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Flow Nozzles:
Flow nozzles are often used as measuring elements for air and gas flow in industrial applications.
The flow nozzle is relative simple and cheap, and available for many applications in many
materials.

Fig. Flow Nozzle Principle

Rotameter:
The rotameter consists of a vertically oriented glass (or plastic) tube with a larger
end at the top, and a metering float which is free to move within the tube. Fluid
flow causes the float to rise in the tube as the upward pressure differential and
buoyancy of the fluid overcome the effect of gravity. The float rises until the
annular area between the float and tube increases sufficiently to allow a state of
dynamic equilibrium between the upward differential pressure and buoyancy
factors, and downward gravity factors.
Flow Gauge used in PTA plant:
The height of the float is an indication of the flow rate. The tube can be calibrated Fig. Rotameter Principle
and graduated in appropriate flow units. Magnetic floats can be used for alarm
and signal transmission functions.

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Fig. Flow Gauge employing magnetic Fig. Magnetic Flow Transmitter
float.

Lute in Vessels:
Liquid lutes are a simple and reliable way of sealing a gas system.
Purpose:
The lute pot itself is a small vessel which is partially filled with a
liquid. The void space at the top of the pot is connected to the gas
system. The liquid is drained via a U-bend.

If the gas is under a positive pressure, there will be a pressure


difference between the gas and atmospheric pressure. This will
result in a difference in level between the liquid in the pot and the
liquid in the leg of pipe. This difference in level is denoted by ‘h’.
As the gas system pressure increases, the difference in liquid level,
h, will become bigger.
Fig. Lute connected to a vessel

Uses of Lutes:
Lutes are often used to prevent the build-up of pressure in a gas system. As gas pressure
increases, the liquid height difference becomes larger until it is greater than that available in the
liquid leg. When this happens, the liquid seal is blown out providing a passage to vent gas to
atmosphere. (Lutes can also be used to prevent a vacuum – in this case, the liquid seal is sucked
in).
The relative levels in the lute pot have to be carefully calculated. If the level difference is too low,
the gas will blow prematurely. If the level difference is too high, excessive pressure could build-

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up in the system before the lute blows. Lute seals are really only suitable for low pressure
applications – up to about 1 bar. Higher pressures result in impractically long liquid legs.

Pneumatic Pumps:
What is a Pneumatic Pump?
Pneumatics are a branch of technology that uses the force of compressed
gases to generate mechanical effects. Pneumatic pumps, in particular, use
compressed air to create force that is used to move fluids through a piping
system. Their system of operation is very similar to that of hydraulic
pumps. Essentially, pneumatic pumps use air in the same way that
hydraulic pumps use fluids. Both are capable of creating extremely
amplified levels of pressure that can generate surprisingly large amounts
of power.
Fig. A Typical Pneumatic Pump

How do they work?


These pumps use a double piston system, with one piston having a substantially larger diameter
than the other. Between the two pistons are an airtight chamber filled with either liquid or
another compressed gas. The compressed gas from the outside pushes on the larger-diameter
piston, which in turn pushes against the gas or liquid in the intermediate chamber. Because there
is no pressure lost between the larger piston and the smaller one, the smaller piston receives a
highly amplified level of force, which can translate into powerful mechanical action.

Primary Features:
Pneumatic pumps are used in only a few types of applications, most notably for moving slurry
through chromatography columns. However, where they are used, these pumps are appreciated
for the simplicity of their design, their low maintenance, and their relatively high safety ratings.
The main disadvantages are the storage needed for the compressed gas tanks, and the fact that
hydraulic pumps use very similar mechanisms to create even greater force.
 No electrical sparkles,as pneumatic pump not use electrical as its driving source.
 Have self-suction ability.
 Can be operate in empty state.
 Can be used as submersible pump
 No lubrication,easy maintenance.
 Can be used as submersible pump.

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Performance of Heat Exchangers:
Engineers are continually being asked to improve processes and increase efficiency. These
requests may arise as a result of the need to increase process throughput, increase profitability,
or accommodate capital limitations. Processes which use heat transfer equipment must
frequently be improved for these reasons.
Increasing heat exchanger performance usually means transferring more duty or operating the
exchanger at a closer temperature approach. This can be accomplished
without a dramatic increase in surface area. This constraint directly
translates to increasing the overall heat transfer coefficient, U. The
overall heat transfer coefficient is related to the surface area, A, duty,
Q, and driving force, ∆T.
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient ‘U’:
The overall heat transfer coefficient ‘U’ is a measure of the overall
ability of a series of conductive and convective barriers to transfer heat.
In short, the overall heat transfer coefficient, or U-value, refers to how
well heat is conducted over a series of mediums. Its units are the
W/(m2°C) [Btu/(hr-ft2°F)].
The overall heat transfer coefficient is influenced by the thickness and thermal conductivity of
the mediums through which heat is transferred. The larger the coefficient, the easier heat is
transferred from its source to the product being heated. In a heat exchanger, the relationship
between the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) and the heat transfer rate (Q) can be
demonstrated by the following equation:

Where,
Q = heat transfer rate, W=J/s [btu/hr]
A = heat transfer surface area, m2 [ft2]
U = overall heat transfer coefficient, W/(m2°C)
[Btu/(hr-ft2°F)]
ΔTLM = logarithmic mean temperature difference, °C
[°F]

Several equations can be used to determine the U value, one of which is:

Where,

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h = convective heat transfer coefficient, W/(m2°C) [Btu/(hr-ft2°F)]
L = thickness of the wall, m [ft]
λ = thermal conductivity, W/(m°C) [Btu/(hr-ft°F)]
Overall Heat Transfer Efficiency:
The concept of efficiency is used in many areas, particularly engineering, to assess the
performance of real components and systems. Efficiency is a comparison between the actual real
and ideal best performances and is typically defined to be less than or at best equal to 1. The
ideal behavior is generally known from modeling, and the limitations dictated by physical laws,
particularly the second law of thermodynamics.
The heat exchanger efficiency is defined as the ratio of the heat transferred in the actual heat
exchanger to the heat that would be transferred in the ideal heat exchanger
F = q /UA[LMTD]
Log Mean Temperature Difference(LMTD):
The logarithmic mean temperature difference is used to determine the temperature driving force
for heat transfer in flow systems, most notably in heat exchangers. The LMTD is a logarithmic
average of the temperature difference between the hot and cold feeds at each end of the double
pipe exchanger. The larger the LMTD, the more heat is transferred.
LMTD = (ΔT1 - ΔT2) / ln(ΔT1/ΔT2)
Counter-current Flow:

ΔT1= (T_Hot_In) – (T_Cold_Out)


ΔT2= (T_Hot_Out) – (T_Cold_In)
Co-current Flow:

ΔT1= (T_Hot_In) – ( T_Cold_In)


ΔT2= (T_Hot_Out) – (T_Cold_Out)

Fouling in Heat Exchangers:


Fouling is generally defined as the
deposition and accumulation of
unwanted materials such as scale, algae,
suspended solids and insoluble salts on
the internal or external surfaces of
processing equipment including boilers
and heat exchangers. Fouling on process
equipment surfaces can have a
significant, negative impact on the
operational efficiency of the unit. On

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most industries today, a major economic drain may be caused by fouling.

Common Types of Fouling:


Chemical Fouling:
When chemical changes within the fluid cause a fouling layer to be deposited onto the tube
surface. This is outside the control of the heat exchanger designer but can be minimized by
careful control of the tube wall temperature in contact with the fluid. When this type of fouling
occurs it must be removed by either chemical treatment or mechanical de-scaling processes.
Biological fouling:
This is caused by the growth of organisms within the fluid which deposit out onto the surfaces of
the heat exchanger. This is once again outside the direct control of the heat exchanger designer
but it can be influenced by the choice of material. Can normally be removed by either chemical
treatment or mechanical brushing processes.
Deposition fouling:
This is when particles contained within the fluid settle out onto the surface when the fluid velocity
falls below a critical level. This is to a large extent within the control of the heat exchanger
designer as the critical velocity for any fluid/particle combination can be calculated to allow a
design to be developed with minimum velocity levels. Mounting the heat exchanger vertically
can also minimize the effect as gravity would tend to pull the particles out of the heat exchanger
away from the heat transfer surface even at low velocity levels. When this type of fouling occurs
it is normally removed by mechanical brushing processes.
Corrosion fouling:
This is when a layer of corrosion products build up on the surfaces of the tube forming an extra
layer of, usually, high thermal resistance material. By careful choice of materials of construction
the effects can be minimized as a wide range of corrosion resistant materials based on stainless
steel and other nickel based alloys are now available to the heat exchanger manufacturer.

Corrugated tubes (To minimize fouling):


The use of corrugated tubes has been shown in be beneficial in minimizing the effects of at least
two of these mechanisms, deposition fouling because of an enhanced level of turbulence
generated at lower velocities and chemical fouling because the enhanced heat transfer
coefficients produced by the corrugated tube result in tube wall temperatures closer to the bulk
fluid temperature of the working fluids.

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Brain Storming Questions:
Question No.1: Why did we use five crystallizers? Can we add a 6 th crystallizer to the current
purification process?
Answer: We used five crystallizers to depressurize the solution step-by-step. A sudden
depressurization is against safety and also difficult to handle.We cannot add a 6 th crystallizer as
the temperature in the 5th crystallizer is 147C. Cooling slurry below this temperature, will result
in precipitation of Para-toulic acid which is totally undesirable.

Question No.2: Why did we connect 5 H.P pumps (which are in parallel to each other) in series
with only 1 L.P pumps (connected in parallel to each other)?
Answer: Purpose of connecting pumps in series vs parallel: We know that pumps are connected
in parallel to give higher capacity than a single pump could give and in series to give higher head
than a single pump provides
So, Pumps in Series,
Hp = Hp1 + Hp2 +….. , Qp = unchanged
Pumps in parallel,
Qp = Qp1 + Qp2 +…… ,Hp = unchanged
Reason:
HP pumps give high capacity because they have high head. While LP pumps have more capacity
as they have less head. This is also clear from performance curve of a pump.

Question No.3: Why did we use filter in TA batch hopper PTA product silos, while a MOP section
is employed for TA-feed hoppers?
Answer: In TA feed hopper, the presence of impurities (like benzoic acid) , make the use of filter
inapplicable. Benzoic acid forms a sticky mess which may block the filter, so a complete scrubbing
section(MOP section) is employed for TA feed hoppers.

Question No.4: What is Radiation Risk as mentioned on different vessels in plant premises?
Answer: Radiation risk is due to the use of Radioactive type Level Transmitters which are used in
different vessels mostly handling slurry. As for slurries Differential Pressure Cell(DP cell) cannot
be used for level measurement.

Question No.5: Internal vs External Level Transmitters Radioactive source?


Answer: Internal LT sources are used in vessels where vessels handling slurries are fairly wide or
operate under high pressure. External LT sources may be used otherwise.

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Question No.6: Why Hydrogen is heated before entering the reactor?
Answer: If cold hydrogen is allowed to enter the reactor, it will cool down the solution resulting
in precipitation of TA, 4CBA on the catalyst bed, ruining the reactor completely.

Question No.7: What is the purpose of Condensate Pot collecting condensate from heat
exchangers (before it goes to Vent Header)? And why condensate enters condensate pot from
the bottom?
Answer: The purpose of Condensate Pot is to maintain a level of condensate in it. The condensate
is then sent to Vent Header on level control. This ensures a positive head on the condensate
entering Condensate Pot from the bottom and so, the steam loss decrease. That is also the reason
why condensate enters this vessel from the bottom.

Question No.8: What is the difference between fan, blower and compressor?
Answer: A fan moves large amounts of gas with a low increase in pressure: you'll find these in
your home. A blower is a machine used for moving gas with a moderate increase of pressure: a
more powerful fan, if you will. By changing the angle of the blades, a blower will be able to push
air in any direction you want it. A compressor is a machine for raising gas to a higher level of
pressure, actually making the air denser by cramming air into a small space.

Question No.9: Can hammering occur in dryer steam tubes?


Answer: We know that the interaction of steam and condensate result in hammering. In dryer
steam tubes condensate and steam flow in the same tube in the opposite direction but no
hammering occur. This is because of the design of the dryer tubes(steam manifold) that there is
no sharp bent in the tubes. Furthermore, the steam in contact with its saturated condensate
undergoes uniform transfer between the phases, which eliminates the chances of hammering.

Question No.10: How to identify inlet & outlet line of seal water?
Answer: The inlet & outlet line of seal water can be identified by following checks:
1. Flowrate of seal water in inlet line is slightly greater than outlet line of seal water.
2. Outlet line is warmer than inlet line.
3. A globe valve is usually used at outlet of seal water line.

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Question No.11: Why globe valve is usually connected to the outlet of seal water line?
Answer: A globe valve is usually used at outlet of seal water line because even if the valve gets
almost shut, the seal water will be present in the system (at rest). But if the valve at the inlet gets
shutoff, the system will have no more seal water (i-e. line will be empty) resulting in severe
damage.

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