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Introduction to Internet and Networks.

Internet can be defined as:
“Collection of networks connected with interconnecting devices.”
Uses of internet:
Following are the features of internet.
1. It allows the users to communicate.
2. It helps in the online shopping.

A network is a group of two or more computer system interconnected.
Types of computer network:
Following are the types of computer network.
1. LAN.
2. Intermediate Network Types
3. WAN.
4. PANs.
1. LAN: (Local Area Network)
It is a network that connects computer and other
devices in a relatively small area.

2. WAN: (Wide Area Network)

It is network that connects computer and other devices in a
large geographical area. It consists of two or more
interconnected local area network.

3. Intermediate Network Types:

Following are the intermediate types of LAN.
I. MAN (Metropolitan area network).
II. CAN (Campus area network).
 MAN: (Metropolitan Area Network)
It is a network that connects computer and other devices in a larger area as
compared to LAN but smaller area as compared to VAN.
 CAN: (Campus Area Network)
It is a network to span multiple buildings in the same location, such as campus of
a university.
5. Personal Area Network:
PAN is a network that can be used among personal devices themselves (intrapersonal
communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the internet.
Example: Bluetooth.
Difference between LAN and WAN
 High speed  Slow speed
 Surrounds only one organization.  Surrounds world
 Uses layer 1 and 2 technology  Uses layer 3 technology (routers)
 Control by single user  Control by multiple users
 Lower cost  Larger cost
 Errors of data transfer is less  Error of data transfer is greater
Internet Protocols
Every web page has a unique address called a uniform resource locator (URL).
Parts of URL’s:
Following are the different parts of URL’s:
I. Protocol
II. Host name
III. Domain name.

protocol Domain name

Host name
Examples of domain name:
1. .com commercial
2. .edu educational
3. .gov government
4. .int organization
5. .net network organization
6. .org non-profit organization
7. .mil military.
Navigation Of A Web Page
Movement from one web page to another or from one website to another is said to be
navigation of a web page.
“A link from a hypertext document to another location, activated by clicking on a
highlighted word or image”.

A bookmark is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that is stored for latter retrieval.

Fig.2:Creation of a book mark

Fig.4:Making a new folder of bookmarks and organization of links in bookmark.

Difference between URI and URL

UNIFORM resource identifier Uniform resource name
It encompasses URL,URN URN is a type of URI
A URI identifies a resource either by A URN identifies a resource by name in a
location, or a name, or both given namespace but not define how the
resource maybe obtained

“Set of rules that controls the data transfer”.
Protocols used by internet are called Transmission control protocol/internet protocol
1. TCP: (Transmission control protocol)
 Ensures the reliability of Transmission of data. (packets)
2. IP: (internet protocol)
 Resposible for the receiving, sending and addressing of data (packet).
 Ensures the gateway of data.
Transmission of data
TRANSmission of data is achieved by tansmission protocol.
Pathway of transmission:
Application layer



Network interface

1.Application layer:
Divides the message into packets.
Examples of application layer:
Application layer Abbreviation Functions
Terminal emulation telnet It is used to provide remote access to servers
protocol and networking devices.
Final transfer protocol FTP It is used for the interactive file transfer
between systems.
X.400 X.400 A protocol for international email
Simple network SNMP A protocol for monitoring networks and
management protocol network components.
X.500 X.500 A protocol for file and directory services
across several systems.
Hypertext transfer Http It is used to transfer files that make up the
protocol webpages of world wide web.
Simple mail transfer SMTP It is used to transfer mail messages and
protocol attachments.
2.Transport layer:
In transport layer,message in the form of packets.
Different ports are present for different type of protocols.
 SMTP: Port 25
 Http:Port 80.
 FTP: Port 20.
It place all the packets in order and also deals with the IP (virtual) address.
4.Network interface:
It combines packets in network interface which is called as data grams.
Network converts data grams into frames.
IP address:
A unique string of numbers separated by full stops that identifies each computer using the
Internet Protocol to communicate over a network.

Domain name:
Domain name server translates domain name into number form.
Network Topology
Refers the layout of network. Tells us how different computers are connected to each other.
Types of network topology:
1.Physical topology:
How physically (wires) computers are connected to each other.
Types of physical topology:
I. Linear BUS topology:
All the computers attaches linearly with the main line. At both ends terminators are present
which terminates the data due to which data wastage reduces.
 Cost efficient
 Easy to understand.
II. Star topology:
All computers connects directly to the main.
It requires larger wire length as compared to linear BUS. Maintenance cost is greater
as compared to linear.
III. Ring topology:
Computers are connected in ring form. Cheap to install. If main line disturbs then
error in the whole hub
IV. Tree topology:
Combination of linear and star topology. Depends on the main line if main line
disturbs whole hub will be disturbed.
V. Mesh topology:
Divided into following:
 Partial mesh topology
 Full mesh topology
2.Logical topology:
Tells about the transfer of data between different computers.
These are the small documents that stores all the websites, preferences and information.
Who can read your cookie:
Embedded sites takes that information.
Cookies are dangerous or not:
They take virus along with them so in this way they are dangerous.
Paths to delete cookie:
In Google chrome:
Google right side top corner (toolbar) settings show advanced settings
privacy content settings all cookies and size data delete cookie.
In Mozilla fire fox:
Firefox button option privacy firefox will use costom settings for
history show cookies remove cookie.
Nonselective removing in fire fox:
Firefox button history menu clear recent history select everything for
time range to clear click on downward arrow.
For internet explorer:
Press start internet explore

Control panel settings

Internet option

General (tab) delete temporary files delete cookies (check)

Delete button ok
Types of cookies:
There are two types of cookies
 Sessional cookies: temporary storage
 Persistent cookies: permanent storage.
Components or tools of MS WORD:
1. Title bar 2. Quick access toolbar

3. Ribbons 4. Tabs

5. Groups

Home tab has following groups:
1. Bold the letters 2. Italic 3. Underline

4. Change font colour 5. Text highlighter color 6. Change case

7. Clear all formatting 8. Dialogue box launcher. 9. Line and paragraph spacing

10. Indentation: 11. Borders: Add or remove borders from

Move paragraph away or towards margins your selection.
12. Alignments. 13. Shading: change the colour behind the text

 Select the first word of paragraph
 Select the font style and font size

 Click on the format painter in the clipboard and move the pointer to the rest of the
paragraph and select the whole paragraph.
Insert tab has following groups:
1.Cover page: document will make a great first impression with a stylish cover page.

2.Table: 3. Shapes: Draw different shapes e.g circle,

square and arrows.

4. Smart art: Insert a smart art graphic to 5. Chart: It helps to spot patterns and trends
Visually communicate information. In data by inserting a bar, area or line chart.

6. Hyperlink: Create a link in your document for quick access to webpages and files.

7. Book mark: Bookmarks work with hyperlink to let us jump to a specific place in your
Select the content wanted to jump inert a bookmark add a hyperlink.
8. Cross refrence: It refers to specific places in your document, such as headings, figures
and tables.

9. Page number
10. Equation 12 10
11. Symbols 0
12. Signature line 11

13. Quick parts: Insert preformed text, auto text, document properties anywhere in the

Design tab has following groups:
1. Theme: Theme gives a document instant style.
2. Theme color.
3. Theme fonts.
4. Paragraph spacing
5. Water mark: Add a ghost text, such as urgent or confidential behind the content on the
6. Page color: add a splash of colour to the document. 6
7. Page borders. 3 4
2 5 7

Page layout
1. Margins: adjust the margin sizes for the entire document or the current section.

2. Orientation: give page a portrait or landscape orientation.

3. Size: choose a paper size.
4. Columns: split your text into two or more columns.
5. Breaks: add a break at our current location.
6. Line numbers: give number to each line in a document.
7. Indent: it helps to move the paragraph either away from left or right margins.
8. Spacing: it helps to adjust the spacing between paragraphs.
9. Selection pan: see a list of all our objects. This makes easier to select objects, change their
order or change their visibility.

2 3 4 7 8 9
1. Spelling and grammar: check our spelling and grammar.
2. Word count: count the words, characters and lines of a document.

1 2

3. Comment: Add a note to specific part of a document.

4. Show comment: See all the comments alongside the document.

3 4

5. Track changes: Keep track of changes made to the document.

Track changes change anything in the doc. Reviewing pan

1. Read layout: it helps to read the document easily.
2. Print layout: check out how document will look when its printed.
3. Ruler: show ruler next to our document.
4. New Window: open a second window to your document so we can work in different
places at the same time.
1 2 4

5. Arrange all: Stack open windows so we can see all of them at once.

6. Split: Helps to see two sections of document at the same time.

7. Macros: Help to view, record or pause a macro. Main function is to increase the speed of