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BMMA 1323 SEM 2 2018/2019


Chapter 1: Intoduction to Engineering Design

1. What is Engineering Design (according to American Board of Technology)?

Engineering design is the process of devising a system, component, or process to meet

desired needs. It is a decision-making process (often iterative), in which the basic sciences,
mathematics, and the engineering sciences are applied to convert resources optimally to
meet these stated needs

2. Explain what is the The Four C’s of Design?

 Creativity - Requires creation of something that has not existed before or has not existed
in the designer’s mind before
 Complexity - Requires decisions on many variables and parameters.
 Choice - Requires making choices between many possible solutions at all levels, from
basic concepts to the smallest detail of shape.
 Compromise - Requires balancing multiple and sometimes conflicting

3. Engineering design can be undertaken for many different reasons, and it may take
different forms. Differentiate between the 5 types of design. Give an example for each type.

 Original Design: Innovative design It employs an original, innovative concept to achieve a

need. Examples: The first car, walkman, computer, microcontroller etc (at that time)
 Adaptive Design: Adapts a known ' solution to satisfy a different need to produce a novel
application. Example: Stand fan blade use for car radiator fan etc.
 Redesign (Variant design): Improve an existing design. New product variations can be
derived in response to specific customer proposals. Examples: Car model with different
variant etc.
 Selection design: Design task consists of selecting the components with the needed
performance, quality, and cost from the catalogs of potential vendors. Example: choosing
a proper bearing for a wheel from catalogue etc.
 Industrial design: Improving the appeal of a product to the human senses, especially its
visual appeal, more artistic / aesthetic than engineering. Design aspects include the
overall shapeof the object, the location of details with respect to one another
(proportion), colors, texture, sounds, and aspects concerning the use of the product
ergonomics. Example: to design new taillights, bumpers etc (aesthetically) for an
automotive facelift.

4. By sketching a diagram, explain the relationship between design knowledge and design
 When one is creating an original design, very little is known about its solution so
the degree of design freedom is high.
 As the design team proceeds with its work; it acquires more knowledge about the
technologies involved and the possible solutions, however the design team is forced
to make many decisions about design details
BMMA 1323 SEM 2 2018/2019
 the freedom of the team to go back and start over with their newly gained
knowledge (experience) decreases greatly as their knowledge about the design
problem grows
 The paradox comes from the fact that when the design team finally masters the problem,
their design is essentially frozen because of the great penalties involved with a change.
 Solutions:
a. learn as much about the problem as early in the design process as it possibly can
b. Document in detail what has been done, so that the experience can be used by
subsequent teams in future projects.

5. Describe the first three phases of the engineering design process.

6. Draw a flowchart of steps involved in conceptual design phase.

Refer the chart

BMMA 1323 SEM 2 2018/2019
Chapter 2 : Formulating Design Problem

1. Differentiate between the following terms:

a) Customer requirements vs company requirements
b) Must have requirements vs desirable requirements
c) Function vs form

a) Customer requirements - Particular characteristics and specifications of a product or

service as determined by a customer – what the customer wants
Company requirements – The company particular plan/target for a product or service

b) “must have” requirements = become design constraints

“desirable” requirements = weighted by importance

c) Customer or company requirements will define ”Function” of the product

A “design” ready for manufacture will create the “Form” of the product
“Form” is a solution to the “function”

2. Describe at least (3) ways of gathering informations from customers

Interviews with customers: Active marketing and sales forces should be continuously
meeting with current and potential customers. They report information on current product
strengths and weaknesses that will be helpful in product upgrades.
Focus groups: A focus group is a moderated discussion with 6 to 12 customers or targeted
customers of a product. The moderator is a facilitator who uses prepared questions to guide
the discussion about the merits and disadvantages of the product.
Customer complaints: A sure way to learn about needs for product improvement is from
customer complaints. These may be recorded by communications (by telephone, letter, or
email) to a customer information department, service centre or warranty department, or a
return centre at a larger retail outlet.

3. When designing a new electric coffee maker, we learn that our customers require the coffee
maker to “produce hot, delicious coffee.” Define an engineering characteristic to quantify
this customer requirement. What units could it have? What limits might be imposed?

Temperature of the coffe, degrees Celsius 50 deg C< T < 70 deg C (suggested answer)

4. Quality Function development (QFD) also known as House of Quality. Briefly describe in
details about QFD.
 Planning and team problem-solving tool
 Focusing a design team’s attention on satisfying customer needs throughout the
product development process.
BMMA 1323 SEM 2 2018/2019
 Aids a design team in systematically identifying all of the elements that go into the
product development process and creating relationship matrices between key parameters
at each step of the process.
 tool for multiple stages of the design process
 Provides input to guide the design team.

5. Briefly explain how the quality function is deployed throughout the whole company using
cascading houses of quality.

 The output of the product planning HoQ is used as input to the part design HoQ.
 The output of the part design HoQ is used as input to the process planning HoQ.
 The output of the process planning HoQ is used as an input to the production
planning HoQ.
 The voice of the customer is thereby deployed throughout the company.

6. Summary of Responses from Customer Survey for CD Case are shown as below:

List of questions:
BMMA 1323 SEM 2 2018/2019

a) Based on your judgment choose 3 (three) most prominent response to be set as the
customer requirement and identify the engineering characteristic for each of the

1. A more Crack – resistant case

2. Make it so cases interlock so they stack on each other without slipping (Easy of
3. Easier to take out leaflet describing contents of the CD.

Engineering characteristics:
1. Material of the case
2. External dimensions of the case
3. Type of internal positioning feature for the Leaflet

b) Based on the answer given in Question 4 (a)by using the tools that accpetable by the
industry define the rank of the engineering characteristic.
BMMA 1323 SEM 2 2018/2019
Chapter 3 & 4: Concept Generation & Concept Evaluation

1. Fill in the blank with appropriate answers

Product Design

Concept Design


Archives, People
Internet, Creative methods

1 order calculations
Proof of concept tests
Bench test, Pilot plant

no Will not violate laws of nature

Feasible? Likely to satisfy “must” customer requirements
Likely to satisfy company requirements


BMMA 1323 SEM 2 2018/2019
2. Sketch a product component decomposition diagram of a toy that uses an electric motor.
(Note: many alternative decomposition diagrams can be drawn)

3. Sketch a product component decomposition diagram of a wheelbarrow.

(Note: many alternative decomposition diagrams can be drawn)

4. Prepare a simplified functional decomposition for a wheelbarrow used for landscaping.

5. List five literature sources for “generating” concepts

trade magazines, journal magazines, monographs, encyclopedias, textbooks, vendor

6. Examine the spreadsheet below. Note that the design team has decided upon a rating for each
of the four alternatives. Complete the weighted-rating calculations.
BMMA 1323 SEM 2 2018/2019

Concept Evaluation Using Weighted Rating Method

Alternatives Concepts/Embodiments
Gears V-belts Chain Linkages
Wt. Wt. Wt. Wt.
Weight(%) Rating rating Rating rating Rating rating Rating rating
Cost 20 3   4   4   4  
weight 15 2   4   3   4  
size 15 3   2   3   3  
reliability 9 4   3   4   4  
efficiency 8 4   3   4   3  
force 8 4   3   4   4  
braking 10 4   3   4   3  
appeal 15 2   1   4   3  

Rank the alternatives based on their weighted rating