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Modern Physics Letters A

The aging problem of twins in Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime

--Manuscript Draft--

Manuscript Number:

MPLA-D-19-00263R2

Full Title:

The aging problem of twins in Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime

Article Type:

Research Paper

Keywords:

Twin paradox; Charged Gravitational source; Reissner-Nordstrom

Corresponding Author:

Himanshu Kumar, Ph.D Dyal Singh College,University of Delhi Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh INDIA

Corresponding Author Secondary Information:

 

Corresponding Author's Institution:

Dyal Singh College,University of Delhi

Corresponding Author's Secondary Institution:

 

First Author:

Himanshu Kumar, Ph.D

First Author Secondary Information:

 

Order of Authors:

Himanshu Kumar, Ph.D

Saurabh ---------, BSc Physics Honours Student

Order of Authors Secondary Information:

 

Abstract:

In this paper,we explore the affect of gravity on the flow of proper time near static spherically symmetric black hole possessing an electric charge.We use the Reissner- Nordstr¨om metric.In the first case,the travelling twin travels away from the black hole and in the second it travels towards it.We then compare it with the case of relativistic kinematics where the static twin ages faster than the travelling twin.

Response to Reviewers:

The response to the reviewer 2's comments have been added in a attachment.The response to the reviewer 3's comments are . ans to query 1: A comma has been added instead of full stop before the word and after equation. 1 ans to query 2:In the line before equation 2 a space has been added between the word coordinates and the triple ans to query 3:In the line after equation 7,the "a " of "twin a" has been made "twin A" ans to query 4:In the line before equation 12 ,a space has been added between equation 10 and that ans to query 5:In the line after equation 13,the earlier line "Eq.(11)shows that Twin age "

faster than Twin B just as

faster than Twin B just as" ans to query 6:The punctuation has now been put at the end of equations ans to query 7:All the typographical errors and the corrections have been made and highlighted in red in the revised manuscript

has been corrected to "Eq.(11) shows that Twin A ages

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to access/download;Manuscript;TwinpardxRessnernordstrom1.te The ageing problem of twins in Reissner-Nordstr o ¨ m

The ageing problem of twins in Reissner-Nordstro¨m spacetime

Saurabh, Himanshu Kumar

Department of Physics,Dyal Singh College,University of Delhi,New Delhi,India

In this paper, we explore the effect of gravity on the flow of proper time near static spherically symmetric black hole possessing an electric charge. We use the Reissner-Nordstr¨om metric. In the first case, the travelling twin travels away from the black hole and in the second it travels towards it. We then compare it with the case of relativistic kinematics where the static twin ages faster than the travelling twin.

twin paradox,reissner-nordstro¨m,proper time,black hole,gravity,charge

I.

INTRODUCTION

We try to explore twin paradox near static spherically symmetric black holes, possessing electric charge. We use the Reissner-Nordstr¨om metric here. The possibility of the travelling twin ageing faster when moving towards weak gravitational fields has been shown in [1]. The twin paradox was studied in ellipsoidal coordinates in [2]. The twin paradox in the cosmological context has been studied in[3].The twin paradox contrary to the classical version has been studied in[4].The twin paradox in compact spaces has been studied in[5].Relativistic ageing has also been studied in [6]. In this paper, we illustrate this effect in a gravitational scenario described by a static, spherically symmetric black hole of mass ’m’ possessing an electric charge ’Q’. We work in the Reissner-Nordstr¨om metric. The Reissner-Nordstr¨om metric near such a black hole is :

ds 2 = 1 2Gm rc 2

Q 2 G + 4π 0 c 4

r 2 c 2 dt 2 1 2Gm

rc 2

Q 2 G + 4π 0 c 4

r 2 1

dr 2 r 2 2 r 2 sin 2 θdφ 2

(1)

and

Q >> r . We here assume that the electrostatic potential dominates the gravity at these distances. This assumption is valid for very large galactic bodies with charge domination on their surface.In such a scenario,the radial distance from the twins to the gravitational source in the electrostatic term will not take into account the distance from the

. We work in the units in which c = 1 and G = 1. We have only studied the case where

Q 2 4 r 2 > φ = 2Gm

r

4π 0 c

centre of the source to the surface of such sources.On the other hand,the gravitational potential will take into account

is >> than 2Gm .This is due to

the distance right from the centre of such sources to the twins.Thus,the term Q

r

r

the fact that the distance from the centre of such sources to their surface can be huge and thereby decreasing the contribution of φ as compared to the electrostatic term.Therefore, we can write the radial contribution to proper time

[1 2Gm

r 2 )] 1/2 . We assume that the duration of deceleration/acceleration is

Q 2 G 4π 0 r

2 ] 1/2

as [1 + 1

2 ( 2Gm

r

Q 2 G 4π 0

r

+

very negligible as compared to the total duration of onward and return journey. Therefore, the magnitude of the non-relativistic velocity of travel ’v’ remains constant. We first see the effect of twin paradox in the frame in which the static twin is at rest at the position (r 1 , θ 1 , φ 1 ) near a gravitational source with metric given by Eq.(1). The twin B travels away from the gravitational source to a point having the coordinates (r 2 , θ 2 , φ 2 ). Here r 2 > r 1 . The duration of the trip referred to the proper time of twin A is:

τ A = 2 g 00 (r 1 ) t 12

.

τ A v 1 2m +

2

r

1

Q

2

r 2 1/2

r

4π 0

r

1

2

dr(1 2m

r

Q

2

r 2 ) 1/2 +

θ

+ 4π 0

θ

1

2

r 2 +

φ

. Thus we get:

τ A v 1 m +

2

r

1

Q

2

8π 0 r 2

1

(r 2 r 1 ) +

Q

2

0 r 2

1

1 1 + m ln r 2

r

r

1

8π

+r(θ 2 θ 1 ) + r sin

θ(φ 2 φ 1 )

φ

1

2

 

(2)

r 2 sin 2 θdφ

(3)

(4)

Electronic address: himanshukumar@dsc.du.ac.in

2

The duration of the time travel of the twin B away from the gravitational source referred to the proper time of twin

.

B is:

τ B vγ (r 2 r 1 ) +

2

Q

4

0

2

1

1 + r(θ 2 θ 1 ) + r sin θ(φ 2 φ 1 )

r

3

1

192π 2

r

3

2

(5)

We then assume that the twin A is at rest at ( r 2 , θ 2 , φ 2 ) and the twin B approaches the gravitational source from

The duration of the trip referred to the proper

.

(r 2 , θ 2 , φ 2 )

time of twin A is:

to (r 1 , θ 1 , φ 1 ) and then turns back to r 2 where r 2 > r 1 .

τ A v 1 m +

2

r

2

Q

2

8π 0 r

2

2

r 1 r 2 +

Q

2

1

1 2 ) + m ln r 1

r

r

2

8π

0 ( r 1

+r(θ 1 θ 2 ) + r sin θ(φ 1

φ 2 )

(6)

.

The duration of the travel from (r 2 , θ 2 , φ 2 ) to (r 1 , θ 1 , φ 1 ) referred to the proper time of twin B is:

τ B vγ (r 1 r 2 ) +

2

Q

4

0

2

1

1 + r(θ 2 θ 1 ) + r sin θ(φ 2 φ 1 )

r

3

2

192π 2

r

3

1

(7)

.

the position (r 1 , θ 1 , φ 1 ) and the twin B travels away from the gravitational source from the point (r 1 , θ 1 , φ 1 ) to the point (r 2 , θ 2 , φ 2 ) i.e.

We now compare the proper time of twin A to that of twin B for the first case where the static twin A is at rest at

.

τ τ B A γ 1 m +

r

1

Q

2

8π 0 r 2

1

(r 2 r 1 ) + m ln r 2

(r 2 r 1 ) +

r 1 +

Q

192π 2

2

2

Q

8π 0 (

1

r 2

1

1 ) + r(θ 2 θ 1 ) + r sin θ(φ 2 φ 1 )

r

4

0 (

1

r

3

2

1 ) + r(θ 2 θ 1 ) + r sin θ(φ 2 φ 1 )

r 3

1

The τ A > τ B in the absence of gravity for non-relativistic cases. Therefore:

τ A

1

=

τ B

1

v 2

2

1 + v 2

> 1

. Thus

τ τ B A 1m +

 

Q

2

+ v 2

v

2 Q 2

r

1

8π 0 r 2

1

2

+ 16π 0 r 2

1

(r 2 r 1 ) + m ln r 2

(r 2 r 1 ) +

r 1 +

Q

192π 2

2

0

Q

2

(

1

1

) + r(θ 2 θ 1 ) + r sin θ(φ 2 φ 1 )
1

r

8π

0

r

2

4

(

1

r

3

2

1 ) + r(θ 2 θ 1 ) + r sin θ(φ 2 φ 1 )

r 3

1

(8)

(9)

(10)

. We then compare the proper time of twin A to that of twin B for the second case when the twin A is static at the position (r 2 , θ 2 , φ 2 ) and twin B travels from the point (r 2 , θ 2 , φ 2 ) towards the charged gravitational source to the point (r 1 , θ 1 , φ 1 ) i.e.

τ τ B A 1m +

 

Q

2

+ v 2

Q

2 v 2

 

r

2

8π 0 r

2

2

2

+ 16π 0 r

2

2

(r 1 r 2 + m ln r

(r 1 r 2 ) +

1

r 2 +

8π

0

r

192π 2

2

0

Q

2

(

1

1

) + r(θ 1 θ 2 ) + r sin θ(φ 1 φ 2 )
2

r

1

Q

4

(

1

r 3

1

1 ) + r(θ 1 θ 2 ) + r sin θ(φ 1 φ 2 )

r

3

2

(11)

. We assume that the gravitational potential is very weak as compared to the electrostatic potential at these distances

from the charged black hole source. We see from Eq.(10) that the Twin A will age slower than Twin B for ( r 2 ) > (r 1 )

if

:

.

The trip satisfies the inequality given by :

2m

Q 2

Q 2 v 2

 

r 1

4π 0 r 2

1

8π 0 r 2

1

>

v 2

|

Q

2

0 r 2

1

1 1 | > m ln r 2

r

r

1

8π

(12)

(13)

3

FIG. 1: The plot of conditions of Eq.(12) and Eq.(13)is between velocity (v)vs. gravitational potential(2m/r1)for different

values of the parameter r 2 . The allowed region for a given value of
values of the parameter r 2 . The allowed region for a given value of r 2
is given by the region below the curve.
r
r
1
1

.

Eq.(11) shows that Twin A ages faster than Twin B just as in the non-gravitational case. In the Fig.1 we observe the allowed region of space for the round trip in which the twin A is stationed at (r 1 , θ 1 , φ 1 ) and twin B travels to the point (r 2 , θ 2 , φ 2 ) with a speed v, where r 2 > r 1 and τ A < τ B . The trip satisfies the inequality given by Eq. 12 and Eq. 13.

In Fig.1. we observe the allowed region of space for the round trip in which the twin A is stationed at (r 1 , θ 1 , φ 1 ) and twin B travels towards a point (r 2 , θ 2 , φ 2 ) radially with a speed v, where r 2 > r 1 and τ A < τ B .In this case when r 2 >> r 1 , then τ A > τ B ,just as in the case of the non-gravitational case and the case when the twin A is stationed at (r 1 , θ 1 , φ 1 ) and the twin B moves from the point (r 2 , θ 2 , φ 2 ) towards the gravitational source.This can be seen by using the conditions of the Eq.(12) and Eq.(13) in Eq.(10). The trip satisfies the inequalities given by Eq.12 and Eq.13.

The plots where the gravitational potential 2m (ranges from 0 to 1)and the velocity(ranges from 0 to 0.8c) show that even when the velocity of the travelling partner reaches 75% of the speed of light when moving away from the charged gravitational source, the twin A should approach the Schwarzchild horizon r 1 = 2m so that he does not age more than his partner. This is same as the spherically symmetric pure gravitational source and the ellipsoidal source.[1, 2]

r

1

In the second case where the twin A is stationed at (r 2 , θ 2 , φ 2 ) and twin B travels radially from r 2 to r 1 where r 2 > r 1 , the ageing of twin A is always greater than twin B for all values of velocities and gravitational potential.

II.

CONCLUSION

Here we conclude that the ageing of twin A is greater than that of his travelling parter in the gravitational scenario where the travelling twin moves towards the source, just as in the non-gravitational case. In the other case, where the

travelling twin travels away from the charged gravitational source, the twin A just like the pure spherically symmetric and ellipsoidal gravitational sources ages slowly than that of his travelling partner. The allowed region for a given

of the curves, where the twin A will age slower than his travelling twin partner B. It should be emphasized

that for a charged gravitational scenario even when the travelling twin reaches speeds close to 75% of the speed of light moving away from the charged gravitational source, the static twin can approach the Schwarzchild horizon r 1 = 2m to avoid ageing more than his travelling twin.

value of r 2

r 1

4

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank our institution for providing the access to journals.

[1] Gasperini M., ,2014,Mo. Phys. Lett.,A 29,1450149 [2] Kumar et al, 2015,Mo. Phys. Lett.,A ,vol.30,No 34,1550168 [3] Gron O.& Braeck S,2011,Eur. Phys.J. Plus ,126:79 [4] Abramowicz Marek A. & Batjlik S.,2009,arXiv:0905.2428v1[physics.clss-ph] [5] Barrow John D. & Levin J.,2001,arXiv:gr-qc/0101014v1 [6] McCrea W.H.,1957,Nature,179,909-910

response to reviewer 2

Resonse of author to reveiwer’s queries

August 19, 2019

1 reviewer’s queries

1. The author considers a length scale where charge dominates over gravity. The author should subsequently discuss the implications of this assumption explicitly.

2. From the plot, it is not clear what happens when r 2 >> r 1 . The author should discuss this point.

3. The manuscript still contains many typographical errors. In par- ticular, it is to be noted that there should be a full-stop at the end of each equation.

4. The references should also be updated and corrected.

2 Author’s corrections

The answer to it has been added between lines 9 and 15 of introduc- tion.The answer is as follows:

We here assume that the electrostatic potential dominates the gravity at these distances. This assumption is valid for very large galactic bodies with charge domination on their surface.In such a scenario,the radial distance from the twins to the gravitational source in the elec- trostatic term will not take into account the distance from the centre

of the source to the surface of such sources.On the other hand,the grav- itational potential will take into account the distance right from the

centre of such sources to the twins.Thus,the term Q

is >> than 2Gm

r

r

.This is due to the fact that the distance from the centre of such sources to their surface can be huge and thereby decreasing the contribution of φ as compared to the electrostatic term.

1

The answer to the query 2 has been given between the lines 6 and 9 below the fig 1. of the manuscript.The answer is as follows: In

the case when r 2 >> r 1 , then τ A > τ B ,just as in the case of the non-gravitational case and the case when the twin A is stationed at

moves from the point (r 2 , θ 2 , φ 2 ) towards

the gravitational source.This can be seen by using the conditions of

the Eq.(12) and Eq.(13) in Eq.(10)of the manuscript

(r 1 , θ 1 , φ 1 ) and the twin B

The typographical errors have been further corrected and a full stop has been put after each equation

4 new reeferces realted to the subject have been added.

2

response to reviewer 3

The response to the reviewer 3's comments

The response to the reviewer 3's comments are . ans to query 1: A comma has been added instead of full stop before the word and after equation. 1 ans to query 2:In the line before equation 2 a space has been added between the word coordinates and the triple.

ans to query 3:In the line after equation 7,the "a " of "twin a" has been made "twin A".

ans to query 4:In the line before equation 12 ,a space has been added between equation 10 and that.

ans to query 5:In the line after equation 13,the earlier line "Eq.(11)shows that Twin age faster than "

Twin B just as

as". ans to query 6:The punctuation has now been put at the end of equations.

has been corrected to "Eq.(11) shows that Twin A ages faster than Twin B just

ans to query 7:All the typographical errors and the corrections have been made and highlighted in red in the revised manuscript.