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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

This chapter presents the Background and Purpose of the Study, Related

Foreign and Local Literature and Studies, Theoretical Framework, Conceptual

Framework, Statement of the Problem, Hypothesis, Significance of the Study,

and Definition of Terms.

The Background and Purpose of the Study

Nowadays, in a highly technological society, human productivity is made

more efficient through the development of electronic gadgets. Technologies are

important and helpful in everyone’s life. With when systematically arranged in a

room of private home for such collection the advance of such modernization in

education, one way to globalize the process of research is to realize that

technology is advancing at an incredibly fast pace.

A library is a place in which literary and artistic material such as books,

periodicals, newspapers, pamphlets, prints, records, and tapes, are kept for

reading, for reference, or for lending.

It is a collection of such materials, especially. A library management

system is made to have fast process transaction for searching book titles,

borrowing books, returning books, computing penalties and generating an

accurate report. Library is an important part of the academic sector as well as

some professional sectors too like, the efficiency of a library lies on how the

books are arranged and how easily one can get the books of their choice.

Generally, what we see today is the manual library management system where
process of operation is very much hectic. Library is a place in which we get

information in any format and from many sources. This involves the utilization for

processing, accessing and retrieving the information that can effectively support

the process of student’s learning, decision-making and scholastic approaches.

Because of the organized approach and systematic management of the

information, the accessibility and retrieval in the library can be easy.

In addition, schools like Murang’a is one of the schools that is using

Library Management system for them to make their students reserve books in the

library easier and faster. In his modern world of technological advancement, from

the traditional searching process for the books in the libraries, the interactive use

of computers can be now addressed as part of the library system. Now, with the

advent of such modernization in education, our way to globalize the process of

research is to realize that technology is advancing at an incredibly fast pace.

Technology has a systematic and organized way of keeping data records,

computing numbers, accomplishing a lot of transactions and reports.

Muranga is one of the private schools here in Kenya located in Central

Kenya Muranga’a town, with two branches in Town ndinteriol, owned JKUAT.

The department of the branch is pre-school which ranges from the certificate to

degree. Students need a lot of books for their studies. Students often find

problems because books are limited and only few students can have the books.

Students need to fall in line and then ask for the related title of the books.

Through this, some students are not able to follow their lessons.

The answer for this problem is the enhancement of technology by developing the
Library Management System. The efficiency of a library lies on how books are

arranged and how easily one can get the books of their choice. They can easily

control all the students borrowing and returning the books.

A Library Management System (LMS) is a tool to help any libraries which

are still using the old way to manage their library. The old way like searching for

a book using manual work is hassle, fast report generation is not possible,

information about issue/return of the books are not properly maintained, no

central database can be created as information is not available in database. But

by using the LMS, user can overcome all the problems mentioned above. This

system can manage all the happenings of the library. Book transactions including

book searching, availability of the book, details and appearance of the book,

personal book borrowing history and etc. can be very easily handled by this

system. This system is suitable for small to big libraries including medical and

legal libraries, colleges, schools, universities, corporate houses and other

academic resource centers.

Library Management System is a web application which refers to library

system. It is used by librarian to manage the library using a computerized

system where he or she can record various transactions like issue of books,

return of books, addition of new books, addition of new students etc. Books and

student search modules are also included in this system which would keep

track of the students using the library and also a detailed description about the

books. With this computerized system there will be no loss of book

record or member record which generally happens when a non-


computerized system is used. In addition, report module like view returned

books and borrowed books are also included in Library Management

System. All these modules are able to help librarian to manage the library

with more convenience and in a more efficient way as compared to library

systems which are not computerized.

The main purpose of this project is to develop a computerized system that

will manage the activities in the library thereby providing easy access of library

usage for librarian and users of the library; it will also help librarians keep track of

library information etc. This system will also provide electronic means of storage

and help librarians keep track of library information. Library is the best place in

the school where the students review and study. It is the place where students

study so our group aims to improve the manual operation of the library system.

We thought of something that makes the time of students and library personnel

decreases for searching and borrowing of books.

Foreign Literature

According to Mohd Fairuz Anwar Bin Mahadi (2005), The Library

management system will store all the books and members information that

consist book number, book title, author name and racks to the system database.

The system also provides search function to help students find the book by

number of book. Search functions will search through the books database to look

for the book and view where the book is situated. For the administrator user, only

librarians have access to view or edit data from the databases.


Administrator user will handle administrative functions such create new LMS

user account and decide the number of days allowed for the borrowed books. User

needs to enter correct password and user id before user can access this function. From

here, user can add, delete or update the book and borrower database.

According to Donna M. Salinas (2010) Library is the best place in the

school where the students review and study.

It is the place where students study so their group aims to improve the

manual operation of the library system. They thought of something that makes

the time of students and library personnel decreases for searching and borrowing

of books.

According to Goldstein & Dick (1980) an automated library system usually

consists of a number of functional modules, such as acquisitions, circulation,

cataloging, serials, and an OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog). An “integrated”

library system is an automated system, as described above, in which all of the

functional modules share a common bibliographic database. The National Library

of Medicine used the term “integrated” in referring to a system in which all

automated library functions are processed against a single, master bibliographic

file

Local Literature

Foreign Study

JISC & SCONUL LMS conducted a study report during March 2008.

According to them Library management systems has developed in response to

technical advances and user requirements, mainly in developing electronic


interfaces, refining standards and access protocols, purchasing and acquisition

processes and cataloguing systems.

According Neelakdan,B (2010) a sincere attempt has been made towards

finding out ways and means for automating activities in the School of Chemistry

Library.

The objective of this study is to use the Koha Open Source software

system for the automation of the major day today activities of the various section

of the School of Chemistry Library, which is tiresome and cumbersome. After the

investigation, the researcher has found that Koha Software is more suitable for

the library Automation. This project had the basic objective of designing a

bibliographic database for the School of Chemistry library, with which the

automation of circulation routines is carried out.

From this point of view it may be concluded that Koha is a useful package

for the creation of a database and for information retrieval. This set of Manuals

for the automation of circulation section is tested with the database created from

the collection of chemistry department library. A sample database for a few

thousand works and a database of the users/borrowers are created. With that

test sample the Manuals for each function of the circulation section is tested with

the available computer system.

Koha is an integrated software system with all the required models for

small to very large libraries. It is found that this automation projects will serve as

a model for any library.


Sager’s (2001) writings on identifying the skills and attributes needed in library

administration derive from his work as a library executive recruiter. He has conversed

with many library administrators, board members and trustees, search committees, and

job candidates and proposes that successful managers need not only the traditional skills

that have defined a library manager’s role, but also many newer skills as well. Sager

believes that there is “much greater complexity in managing today’s libraries”.

Although his work is based on experience and not research, there is value

in his discussion of what he believes are the most important skills and attributes

because it is based on his extensive interaction with the groups listed above.

Throughout the article “Evolving Virtues,” he also creates his own list of traits that

he believes will emerge in the future and ends the article by listing some methods

for library managers to develop these newer skills. Hernon, Powell, and Young

(2003) conducted research in academic and public libraries to assess the

qualities that library directors need in order to be uccessful in their careers and

have written an effective book on the results of their work.

According to Dio P. Doble (2011) A college strengthens its educational level

through the advancement of its library. The Botolan Community College Computerized

Library System aimed to enhance the procedures of the library, from manually operated

to a computerized system.

This proposal’s purpose was to ease the transactions in the library, i,e. , leading of

books, storing of books, search engine for books, manage members of the library and

secure the library system. The librarian and the library users still use the manual way of
transacting of borrowing and returning of books. The librarian use log books in listing the

books. They use library cards and card catalogues in searching for reading and reference

materials.

Hernon and Rossiter (2006) studied the emotional intelligence concepts

that are relevant to university library directors. Their research involved two

different activities for gathering information. They analyzed all of the job

advertisements for library directors in College & Research Libraries News from

2000 to 2004 and looked for any mention of leadership skills. Then they

interviewed university library directors to compare their career experiences with

the information taken from the advertisements.

By comparing the expectations of search committees with the actual

experiences of the directors, they suggest which emotional intelligence traits are

most useful in academic library management. The authors conclude that

identifying these traits and helping to “cultivate the ones deemed most critical” (p.

274) is important for the development of future leaders. Mullins and Linehan

(2006) provided a public library context for leadership and management in their

study of thirty public library managers in Ireland, Britain, and the United States.

Their focus was on whether or not these managers understand and utilize

the differing concepts of leadership and management. According to their findings,

eighty percent of the respondents did not comprehend the difference in these

concepts and focused on administration and management over leadership skills


to accomplish their work. Public librarians who exhibit an aptitude for leadership

should be encouraged to develop and apply their talents in their field of influence.

Local Study

Theoretical Framework

An Integrated Library System (ILS), also known as library management

system (LMS), is a resource planning system for a library, used to track and

manage books in the library (Adebayo 2007). An ILS is usually comprised of a

relational database, software to act on that database, and two graphical user

interfaces (one for patrons, one for staff). Most ILS separate software functions

into discrete programs called modules, which are then integrated into a unified

interface.

Examples of modules include: acquisitions (ordering, receiving, and

invoicing materials), cataloging (classifying and indexing materials), circulation

(lending materials to patron’s and receiving them back), serials (tracking

magazine and newspaper and newspaper holdings), and the OPAC (Public

Interface for Users).

Each patron and item has a unique ID in the database that allows the ILS to

track its activity. Larger libraries use an ILS to order and acquire, receive and

invoice, catalog, circulate, track and shelve materials. Most sizable First World

libraries use an ILS. Smaller libraries, such as private homes or non-profit

organizations (e.g. churches and synagogues), often forego the expense and

maintenance required to run an ILS, and instead use a library computer system.
ILS was often known as library automation systems or automated system in

the 1970’s and early 1980’s. Before the advent of computers, libraries usually

used a card catalog to index its holdings. Computers were used to automate the

card catalog, thus resorting the card catalog, keeping it up-to-date with respect to

the collection, etc. Other tasks automated include checking out and checking in

books, generating statistics and reports, acquisitions and subscriptions, indexing

journal articles and linking to them, as well as tracking interlibrary loans.

Since the late 1980’s windows and multitasking have allowed business

functions to be integrated. Instead of having to open up separate applications,

library staff could now use a single application with multiple function modules. As

the internet grew, ILS vendors offered more functionality related to the internet.

Major ILS systems now offer web-based portals where library users can log in to

view their account, renew their books, and be authenticated to use online

databases.

Shibanda (2002) cited that integrated process of a computerized library

system can keeps the track of all the books and periodicals and keeping the

status updated. Apparently, there are “user IDs” and associated passwords to

make an access in the system. This will keep all the information regarding the

materials updated and monitored. The use of the computerized library system is

a kind of technology that is popular in the developed countries. Perhaps, this is

the right time for the developing countries to show any sign of development and

progress even in the technological approach.


A computerized library system among the universities is just a simple

approach to change the approach of the schools in their one of most busy areas.

Through the use of the necessary infrastructure and implementation of the

process, the computerized library system can be effective. Stephen Abram

(2009) said that traditionally, the library management system or integrated library

system (ILS) was responsible for running libraries efficiently and effectively. Over

the last few years, the role of the ILS has been expanding from meeting library

needs to delivering user experience.

The existing state of library collection and infrastructural facilities of 17

engineering college libraries in West Bengal were examined. Author suggested

the staff training, provision of adequate staff and funds, appropriate infrastructure

in IT and a need based collection. This study requires data for books and

borrowers which will be used for registration, checking records on the database,

view and print book status. Output of the electronic system will be the releasing

of the books, Issuance of receipt and prints other information.

Conceptual Framework

Statement of the Problem

Hypothesis

Significance of the study


Definition of terms

Borrower- The one who borrow books from the library.

Code- This pertain to the process of writing the necessary code required to

develop the prototype Library Management System.

Computerized- To enter, process, or store (data) in a computer or system of

computers.

Data- Is information in a form suitable for use with a computer.

Database- This term mains a large, comprehensive, and significant collection of

data carefully organized and recorded so that information may be derived from it.

Debugging- A process of fixing the errors in a computer program.

Internet- Group of network computer connected around the globe.

Librarian- The primary user of the system. In charge of user’s creation, book

item creation, check –The one who borrow books from the library.

Library- A considerable collection of books kept for use, and not as

merchandise.

Library Managements System (LSM)- Software helps the users to manage a

library.

Manually- Is done with the hands by human labor, not automatic.

Program Testing- Stage in program development process which the

programmer is task to run and test to determine the program errors.

Report- Is a piece of information describing, or an account of certain events

given or presented to sosmenone.


System- Is a group of elements that are integrate with the common purpose of

achieving an object.