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A. What is PLC?

A PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) is an industrial computer control system that continuously
monitors the state of input devices and makes decisions based upon a custom program to control the state of output

Almost any production line, machine function, or process can be greatly enhanced using this type of control system.
However, the biggest benefit in using a PLC is the ability to change and replicate the operation or process while
collecting and communicating vital information.
Another advantage of a PLC system is that it is modular. That is, you can mix and match the types of Input and Output
devices to best suit your application.
B. How does a PLC Work?
The components that make a PLC work can be divided into three core areas.

• The power supply and rack

• The central processing unit (CPU)
• The input/output (I/O) section
The power supply and rack

The rack is the component that holds everything together. Depending on the needs of the control system it can be
ordered in different sizes to hold more modules. Like a human spine the rack has a backplane at the rear which
allows the cards to communicate with the CPU. The power supply plugs into the rack as well and supplies a
regulated DC power to other modules that plug into the rack. The most popular power supplies work with 120 VAC
or 24 VDC sourceThe most popular power supplies work with 120 VAC or 24 VDC sources.

The brain of the whole PLC is the CPU module. The CPU consists of a microprocessor, memory chip and other
integrated circuits to control logic, monitoring and communications. The CPU has different operating modes. In
programming mode it accepts the downloaded logic from a PC. The CPU is then placed in run mode so that it can
execute the program and operate the process.
Since a PLC is a dedicated controller it will only process this one program over and over again. One cycle through
the program is called a scan time and involves reading the inputs from the other modules, executing the logic
based on these inputs and then updated the outputs accordingly. The scan time happens very quickly (in the
range of 1/1000th of a second). The memory in the CPU stores the program while also holding the status of the I/
O and providing a means to store values.

I/O System
The I/O system provides the physical connection between the equipment and the PLC. There are many different kinds
of I/O cards which serve to condition the type of input or output so the CPU can use it for it’s logic. It's simply a matter
of determining what inputs and outputs are needed, filling the rack with the appropriate cards and then addressing
them correctly in the CPUs program.
Input devices can consist of digital or analog devices. A digital input card handles discrete devices which give a signal
that is either on or off such as a pushbutton, limit switch, sensors or selector switches. An analog input card converts a
voltage or current (e.g. a signal that can be anywhere from 0 to 20mA) into a digitally equivalent number that can be
understood by the CPU. Examples of analog devices are pressure transducers, flow meters and thermocouples for
temperature readings
Output devices can also consist of digital or analog types. A digital output card either turns a device on or off such as
lights, LEDs, small motors, and relays. An analog output card will convert a digital number sent by the CPU to it’s real
world voltage or current. Typical outputs signals can range from 0-10 VDC or 4-20mA and are used to drive mass flow
controllers, pressure regulators and position controls.
Programming a PLC
In these modern times a PC with specially dedicated software from the PLC manufacturer is used to program a PLC.
The most widely used form of programming is called ladder logic. Ladder logic uses symbols, instead of words, to
emulate the real world relay logic control, which is a relic from the PLC's history. These symbols are interconnected by
lines to indicate the flow of current through relay like contacts and coils. Over the years the number of symbols has
increased to provide a high level of functionality.
The completed program looks like a ladder but in actuality it represents an electrical circuit. The left and right rails
indicate the positive and ground of a power supply. The rungs represent the wiring between the different components
which in the case of a PLC are all in the virtual world of the CPU. So if you can understand how basic electrical circuits
work then you can understand ladder logic.
In this simplest of examples a digital input (like a button connected to the first position on the card) when it is pressed
turns on an output which energizes an indicator light.

The completed program is downloaded from the PC to the PLC using a special cable that’s connected to the front of
the CPU. The CPU is then put into run mode so that it can start scanning the logic and controlling the outputs.
C. If a PLC malfunctions, what will you do?

The first thing to check is the integrity of the PLC's power and ground. Visually inspect the power and ground wiring,
looking for loose, corroded, or otherwise questionable connections. The integrity of the ground can be electrically
checked by measuring the voltage between the PLC ground terminal and a known ground. Using a digital meter set on
the lowest scale, both the AC and DC voltages should be zero.

The power supply also can be tested electrically. If the PLC processor has an AC power source, check the input
voltage; it should be within the manufacturer's recommended range. PLC processors actually operate on DC power, so
that also must be checked. Measure each of the outputs of the DC power supply and check if the voltages are within
the recommended ranges.

Also check the DC supplies for AC ripple. This can be done using a digital meter set on a low AC range, and the value
measured should be well below the manufacturer's specifications. Excess ripple has drastic effects on the operation of
the microprocessors and memory devices typically found in PLC processors.

The final power check is to measure the voltage of any batteries in the system. Battery power is often used to prevent
a PLC from losing its program during power outages, and battery voltages should be within recommended values.

Other causes for erratic processor behavior are electro-magnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference
(RFI). Try to correlate the erratic behavior with an external EMI or RFI event like a large motor starting, arc welding in
the area, lightning strikes, or even the use of handheld radio transmitters. Although they may seem harmless, handheld
radios commonly used by maintenance personnel emit powerful RF radiation and can seriously disrupt the operation of
unprotected electronic equipment.

Long-term solutions to EMI and RFI problems usually involve improvements in power conditioning, grounding, and
Power, grounding, and interference problems all can cause the corruption of the PLC memory, so the next step is to
verify that the program is still correct. All PLCs have some method for doing this, most of which involve comparing the
program in the PLC with a backup copy on tape or disk.

Now on to the more common problem of troubleshooting inputs and outputs. The primary goal of I/O troubleshooting is
to find out why the internal status of the PLC (what the PLC thinks is happening) does not agree with the external
situation (what is actually happening). The first thing that must be done is to determine the relationship between
physical I/O modules and the I/O instructions in the PLC program. This is done by using the addressing scheme for the
particular PLC that you are working on, and this scheme differs from one manufacturer to another. Somewhere in the
documentation there will be an explanation of how to determine which physical I/O point a specific program address is
connected to and vice versa. Once this scheme is understood, each problem can be isolated to a single I/O module
and a program monitoring device (usually a handheld unit, terminal, or personal computer) can be used to check the
internal status of the input or output in question.

Troubleshooting digital input modules

The function of a digital input module is to determine the ON/OFF status of a signal or signals in the external world and
communicate that information to the PLC processor.

Determine if the power for the input in question is present, as faults in field wiring and devices can blow a fuse, trip a
breaker, or cause some other power disruption. If input power is not present, determine and rectify the cause of the
failure before proceeding.

If input power is present, connect a voltmeter across the input as shown in Fig. 3, actuate the input device in the field,
and measure the voltage at the PLC input to determine if it changes adequately when the field device changes state. If
it does not, the field device or wiring are most likely at fault.

If a proper voltage change is observed, the power and/or logic indicators on the module should change when the
voltage does, and the addressed location in the PLC, when monitored with the programming device, also should
change state. If the indicators do not properly reflect the state of the input, replace the input module.

If the input module is working properly but the PLC still is not registering the input internally, the problem lies in the
system used to communicate input information from the module to the processor.

Troubleshooting analog input modules

Instead of monitoring the on/off status of an input, analog inputs measure the actual value of a voltage or current and
communicate it to the processor. Analog input modules are available in many DC voltage and current ranges, and
basic troubleshooting is almost identical to that for digital modules.

First determine if the input is isolated or nonisolated, and determine the source of power and verify that it is present.

Next, change the voltage or current level generated by the field device, verify that the change is reflected at the input
module terminals, and verify that the content of the address associated with the input reflects the voltage or current

There are two additional complications introduced by analog modules, however. First, there usually is no indication on
the module to reflect the level of the input, so an external meter must be relied upon. Second is the scale problem: You
must determine what range of voltage or current the module is designed to measure, and what numerical scale is
associated with that range in the PLC. An input with a 1-5 VDC range may be expected to generate a change from 0 to
1000 in a PLC register, for example. Just determining if the number changes when the input does is not enough. A
good approach is to adjust the external voltage or current to minimum, half scale, and maximum values, and to
observe the PLC register to determine if corresponding changes have occurred. In the previous example, 1 VDC
should generate 0 in the PLC register, 3 VDC should generate 500, and 5 VDC should generate 1000. If the field
device cannot be easily manipulated in this manner, it can be temporarily replaced for troubleshooting purposes by a
signal transmitter. The signal transmitter can be connected directly to the input module, and if the module d

oes not respond correctly it should be replaced. If it does respond properly, the problem most likely is in the field device
or wiring.

Field wiring can be tested by temporarily replacing the field device with a signal transmitter and observing the reaction
at the PLC to signal changes.

After that check the digital and analog outputs.

D. What is the principle of a transducer? How does it work?

Any device which is able convert one form of energy into another form is called as a transducer. For example, even a
speaker can be called as a transducer as it converts electrical signal to pressure waves (sound).But an electrical
transducer will convert a physical quantity to an electrical one.

A pressure transducer is a device which converts an applied pressure into a measurable electrical signal.
A pressure transducer consists of two main parts, an elastic material which will deform when exposed to a pressurized
medium and a electrical device which detects the deformation.

The elastic material can be formed into many different shapes and sizes depending on the sensing principle and range
of pressures to be measured. The most common method of utilising the elastic material is to form it into a thin flexible
membrane called a diaphragm. The electrical device which is combined with the diaphragm to create a pressure
transducer can be based on a resistive, capacitive or inductive principle of operation.

Pressure Transducer Types

Strain Gauge :A resistive pressure transducer has strain gauges bonded or embedded into the surface of a diaphragm
so that any change in pressure will cause a change in the electrical resistance of each strain gauge.
Variable Capacitance: A variable capacitance pressure transducer has a capacitive plate bonded to one side of the
diaphragm and another capacitive plate bonded to an unpressurized surface in close proximty to the diaphragm. A
change in pressure will widen or narrow the gap between the two plates which varies the capacitance.
Variable Inductance:An inductive pressure transducer uses the principle of inductance to convert the flexing of a
diaphragm into the linear movement of a ferromagnetic core. The movement of the core is used to vary the induced
current generated by an AC powered primary coil on another secondary pick-up coil.
Resonating Frequency:Other types of pressure transducer utilise the principle of the piezo-electric effect, or material
structures which vary in resonant frequency with strain.
Temperature transducers: RTD and thermocouple types

LVDTs (Displacement Transducers): In its simplest form, the LVDT design consists of a cylindrical array of a primary
and secondary windings with a separate cylindrical core which passes through the centre. (Fig A)
The primary windings (P) are energised with a constant amplitude A.C. supply at a frequency of 1 to 10 kHz. This
produces an alternating magnetic field in the centre of the transducer which induces a signal into the secondary
windings (S & S ) depending on the position of the core.

Movement of the core within this area causes the secondary signal to change (Fig B). As the two secondary
windings are positioned and connected in a set arrangement (push-pull mode), when the core is positioned at the
centre, a zero signal is derived.

Movement of the core from this point in either direction causes the signal to increase (Fig C). As the windings are
wound in a particular precise manner, the signal output has a linear relationship with the actual mechanical
movement of the core.

The secondary output signal is then processed by a phase-sensitive demodulator which is switched at the same
frequency as the primary energising supply. This results in a final output which, after rectification and filtering, gives
D.C. or 4-20mA output proportional to the core movement and also indicates its direction, positive or negative from
the central zero point (Fig D).

The distinct advantage of using an LVDT displacement transducer is that the moving core does not make contact
with other electrical components of the assembly, as with resistive types, as so offers high reliability and long life.


The principle of operation for the magnetic flowmeter is based on the Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction.

An electrical current (I) is applied to a coil package inside the flowmeter.

As a result, a magnetic field (B) is created across the metering pipe.

! When a conductive liquid flows through the magnetic field, a small voltage
(u) is induced. This voltage is proportional to the velocity of the flow and is accurately measured by two stainless steel
electrodes mounted opposite each other inside the metering pipe. The two electrodes are connected to an advanced
electronic input circuitry which processes the signal and in turn feeds it to the a microprocessor inside the electronics
module. The microprocessor then calculates the volumetric flow and controls the various outputs on the terminal board.

E. If you are getting 50Hz supply from the shore at drydock,and your ship is 60 hz what are the consequences?

Motors and hence the pumps will run with reduced rpm and hence reduced efficiency.

F. What are the Explosion proof light requirements?

G. Intrinsic safe circuits?

Intrinsic safety (IS) is a protection technique for safe operation of electrical equipment in hazardous areas by limiting
the energy available for ignition. In signal and control circuits that can operate with low currents and voltages, the
intrinsic safety approach simplifies circuits and reduces installation cost over other protection methods.

The primary concept behind intrinsic safety is the restriction of available electrical and thermal energy in the system so
that ignition of a hazardous atmosphere (explosive gas or dust) cannot occur. This is achieved by ensuring that only
low voltages and currents enter the hazardous area, and that no significant energy storage is possible.

One of the most common methods for protection is to limit electric current by using multiple series resistors (assuming
that resistors always fail open); and limit the voltage with multiple zener devices to ground (assuming diodes always fail

Equipment or instrumentation for use in a hazardous area will be designed to operate with low voltage and current, and
will be designed without any large capacitors or inductors that could discharge in a spark. The instrument will be
connected, using approved wiring methods, back to a control panel in a non-hazardous area that contains safety
barriers. The safety barriers ensure that, no matter what accidental contact occurs between the instrument circuit and
outside power sources, no more than the approved voltage or current enters the hazardous area.

H. ACB overload setting and other safety features

• Thermal Protcetion against " Overload faults " : it can be adjusted " Ir : 0.4 to 1 x In ", where " In " is the
nominal current of ACB like : 2500A or 3200A or 4000A, so, if we adjusted it at " 0.5 " for " ACB – 4000A ",
the thermal protection value is " Ir = 0.5 x 4000 =2000A "
• Magnetic Protection for " Short Circuit Faults " : it can adjusted " Isd : 1.5 to 10 x Ir " or for some
manufacters to " 12 ", so, if we adjusted for the same ACB at " 6 ", the magnetic protection value is " Isd = 6 x
2000 = 12000A ".
• Earth Fault Protection against direct fault between any phase and the protection line, it can be adjusted "
Ig : 0.3 to 1 x In ", so, if we adjusted it for the same ACB at " 0.7 ", the earth fault protection value is " Ig =
0.7 x 4000 = 2800A ".
• -Residual Protection against " Residual Faults " that means against indirect fault where the fault current's
value is normaly small ( a few Amps ), it can asjusted " IΔn : 0.5 to 30A ".
• - Instantaneous Protection against " Short Circuit Faults " when the fault's current value will be very big,
and in the same time we want that ACB trip quickly without delaying, it can adjusted " Ii : 2 to 15 x In " and
we can also switched-off, so, if we adjusted it for the same ACB at " 6 " the instantaneous protection value is
" Ii = 6 x 4000 = 24000A ".
• In some ACB there's also a " Timing Delay " for the thermal protection and for the magnetic protection, where
the " Timimg delay " for thermal protection can be adjusted is " Seconds ", but the " Timing Delay " for the
magnetic protection can be adhusted in " mili-Seconds ", and we use these " Timing Delay " in ACB to realize
the " Discrimination or Selectivuty " between 2 ACB's or between ACB and MCCB .

I. Synchroscope conditions and operation

J. AVR requirement and operation

The function of the AVR is to automatically regulate the voltage of generators. As a load on a generator increases it's
terminal voltage tends to droop.The AVR senses the drop in terminal voltage by measuring the generator voltage and
boosts up the excitation to the field of the generator to maintain the terminal voltage at the set level.Similarly as the
load on the generator falls, the terminal voltage is maintained by the AVR by reducing the excitation to the field.

Basic principles for AVR

A signal proportional to generator terminal voltage obtained from the rectified output of a voltage transformer is
compared to a stabilized reference voltage obtained within the regulator.

If it detected any abnormal,different or error signal, it will amplified and control the excitation supply, increase or
decrease the input to the main field winding or exciter field.The main purpose is to reduce the error signal to zero or an
acceptable value.

Adjustment of the set voltage is obtained either by adjustment of the reference voltage or by adjusting the proportion of
machine voltage compared to the reference voltage. The stabilizing loop is included to prevent hunting.Below
is basic diagram for AVR circuit.

K. E/R crane cutout and regular checks

Following safety trips or cut outs and parts to be periodically inspected.

1. Lifting limit switch

2. Lowering limit switch
3. Forward travel limit switch
4. Aft travel limit switch
5. Port travel limit switch
6. Starboard travel limit switch
7. Limit switches to be tested electrically and mechanically.
8. Most neglected part is the gearing. Make sure that lube oil present in sufficient quantity inside the gear
system. Drain completely and replace whole lube oil once in a year.
9. Brakes are very important as cranes are concerned. In case of power failure, brakes prevent load on hook to
come down because of gravity. Brake lining to be checked for wear and must be within allowable limit.
10. All travelling tracks must be cleaned and greased with proper compounds.
11. Wire rope conditions to be checked for proper strength and no strands to be broken. Wire to be coated with
grease compounds.
12. Condition of the shafts and pulley to be monitored and greased.
13. Hook must be free to rotate, to be checked for any cracks by work hardening. Safety latch to be functioning
14. Check condition of drum where wire rope is wound.
15. Emergency stop location and operation for crane to be familiar for all ship staffs.

L. Brief the Causes for motor winding damage

There are six main causes of electric motor failures:


Low Resistance

Over heating




These causes are briefly explained below:

1. Over-Current (Electrical Overload): In different operating conditions, electrical devices will sometimes start to draw
more current than their overall capacity. This unpredictable event will happen very suddenly and will greatly impact the
motor. To avoid an over-current, there are some devices that need to be installed that can prevent it from happening.
These devices are usually wired in the circuits and will automatically shut down the extra amount of current flowing in
the circuit.

2. Low Resistance: Most motor failures occur due to low insulation resistance. This issue is considered to be the most
difficult one to tackle. In the initial stages of motor installation, the insulation resistance is observed to be more than
one thousand megaohms. After some time, the insulation performance starts to degrade at an alarming level because
the resistance starts to decay gradually.

3. Over Heating Excessive heat in motors can cause a number of performance problems. Overheating causes the
motor winding insulation to deteriorate quickly. For every ten centigrade rise in temperature, the insulation life is cut in
half. Every electric motor has a design temperature. If a motor is started off at a bad current value, it starts operating in
a much warmer condition than the design temperature. It is very important that the motors should be matched with their
ideal current values.

Overheating also occurs when an electric motor is forced to operate in a high temperature environment. This causes
the rate at which heat can be conducted to reduce at an alarming rate. The area where electric motors are operating
must have a proper cooling system and a ventilation system should be there in case the cooling system stops working.

4. Dirt: Dirt is one of the major sources that cause damage to the electric motors. It can damage the motor by blocking
the cooling fan which causes its temperature to raise. It can also affect the insulating value of the winding insulation if it
settles on the motor windings. Proper steps should be taken to prevent the motors from dirt.

5. Moisture: Moisture also affects the performance of electric motors. It greatly contributes in the corrosion of the motor
shafts, bearings and rotors. This can lead to an insulation failure also. The motor inventory should be kept dry all the

6. Vibration: There are a number of possible causes of vibration, such as misalignment of the motor. Corrosion of parts
can also cause the motor to vibrate. The alignment of the motor should be checked to eliminate this issue.

7. Most motor failures stem from damaged bearings or stator windings. Lack of lubrication, over lubrication,
misalignment and bearing (shaft) currents often dramatically shorten bearing life

8. Phase damage due to unbalanced voltage: Thermal deterioration of insulation in one phase of the stator
winding can result from unequal voltage between phases. Unequal voltages usually are caused by
unbalanced loads on the power source, a poor connection at the motor terminal, or a high resistance
contact .
9. Winding damaged by voltage surge: Insulation failures like this usually are caused by voltage surges.
Voltage surges are often the result of switching power circuits, lightning strikes, capacitor discharges and
solid-state power devices.

M. Fire alarm power supply arrangements

The fixed fire detection and fire alarm system has a 24 volts DC power supply system. It has a rectifier connected to
the emergency switchboard. The back up is a battery which will ensure continuity of power supply.

N. Types of level sensors

A) Magnetic Float system

B) Dial Liquid level indicators

C) RF Admittance & Capacitance: A constant voltage is applied to a rod or cable (sensing element) in the
process. The radio frequency current which results is monitored to infer the level of the process material

D) Radar: The sensor emits a microwave pulse towards the process material. This pulse is reflected by the
surface of the material and detected by the same sensor which now acts as a receiver. Level is inferred from
the time of flight (transmission to reception) of the microwave signal.

E) Ultrasonic / Sonic : Ultrasonic transmitters work on the principle of sending a sound wave from a peizo electric
transducer to the contents of the vessel. The device measures the length of time it takes for the reflected
sound wave to return to the transducer. A successful measurement depends on reflection from the process
material in a straight line back to the transducer

F) Bubblers : This simple level measurement has a dip tube installed with the open end close to the bottom of the
process vessel. A flow of gas (usually air) passes through the tube and when air bubbles escape from the
open end, the air pressure in the tube corresponds to the hydraulic head of the liquid in the vessel. The air
pressure in the bubble pipe varies proportionally with the change in head pressure.

G) Differential Pressure Transmitter: This device does not really measure level. It measures the head pressure
that the diaphragm senses due to the height of the material in the vessel multiplied by a second variable, the
density of the product. This gives you the resultant force being exerted on the diaphragm, which is then
translated into a measurement of level

O. Hydraulic start of Emcy Generator

Procedure for Hydraulic Start
i. Out the switch in manual mode as stated above and check the pressure gauge for sufficient oil
ii. Open the valve from accumulator to generator.
iii. Push the spring loaded valve and the generator should start.
iv. Check voltage and frequency.
v. Keep the generator running for 10-15 min and check the exhaust temp and other parameters.
vi. Check the sump level
vii. For stopping, use the manual stop button from the panel.
viii.After stopping the generator, pressurize the hydraulic accumulator to desired pressure.
ix. Close the valve from accumulator to generator.
P. Emcy generator starting arrangements
a) Battery b) Hydraulic c) Spring Loaded type d)

Q. FRAMO cargo pumping system – working pressure, transmitter location

The design pressure of the system is 320 bar. But the system is normally running at 260 Bar and the return line is 16
bar. When not in operation the system is kept pressurized at 2 – 6 bar, to prevent impurities from entering the
hydraulic system. This is done by running one of the jockey / feed pumps to circulate the hydraulic oil.

The system pressure is to be 15 – 25 bar above the highest consumer. Never operate the system in such a way that
the system pressure falls below 50 bar. This happens when too many consumers are started.

If system pressure is set excessively higher that consumers’ (Hydraulic motor) pressure the surplus energy will
change into heat and this is loss of energy.

Transmitters: Oil level High & Oil Level Low (Main Hydraulic tank)

R. Difference between Online UPS and Offline UPS

Online UPS supply power to electrical and electronic devices from batteries all the time. The UPS first converts grid
power to charge the batteries and then discharges the batteries to power the load. As the battery power is supplied to
the load at all times, it is known as Online UPS. The grid power is converted from (Alternating Current) AC to DC
(Direct Current) to charge the battery and the battery power is converted from DC to AC to power the load. Therefore
online UPS is also known as Double Conversion UPS.

Offline UPS supplies Mains to the output when power supply is regular and charges batteries as well at the same time. 

When power fails it switches those batteries to produce output for power backup. In OFF line UPS supply will come from
batteries when main line supply fails. Batteries will charge on line.

S. Difference between Analog & Digital

Analog and digital signals are used to transmit information, usually through electric signals. In both these
technologies, the information, such as any audio or video, is transformed into electric signals. The difference between
analog and digital technologies is that in analog technology, information is translated into electric pulses of varying
amplitude. In digital technology, translation of information is into binary format (zero or one) where each bit is
representative of two distinct amplitudes.

T. Why are we not getting shock while touching a metal which is being welded?

ground clamp being part of it, since the path through the ground clamp and your work piece have almost zero ohms,
but also the 'open circuit' voltage. 

Normal welding voltage is only around 18-27 volts.This is much less than household current which is 110 volts. In other
words, welding uses very high CURRENT, but low VOLTAGE. Under normal circumstances, welding voltage is not

It would take quite a lot of consecutive bad judgments, before you'd be in danger of electrocution from a welder. (I
won't say it's never happened though....) 

It is HIGH VOLTAGE which makes electricity dangerous, not high current. Dry human skin is a very good insulator. so it
takes high voltage to overcome the resistance of the skin. 

To understand why this is, I'll indulge you with a little physics. The relationship between voltage and current is known
as "Ohm's Law:" 

V / R = I 

Where V is voltage, R is resistance, and I is current. 

The resistance from hand to hand in a human body can vary a lot. With welding gloves on, I'd estimate that to be >
100,000 ohm. So even at 28 volts, the current would be only 

28 / 100,000 = 0.00028 amps. 

This is far too little current to even be FELT! 

It generally takes about 0.005 amps to be picked up by the nerves, .06 amps is very painful and potentially dangerous,
whereas it would take 0.2 - 1.0 amps to be seriously life threatening, This much current would also cause immediate

With your welding gloves off, with sweaty hands, touching bare metal, your resistance could go down to around 1500
ohms. So, 

28/1500 = 0.02 amps. 

U. Working principle of Megger.

Meggar has two coils namely 'control coil' and 'deflection coil'.The 'Control Coil' will always be kept

energized by the DC Source.If the insulation strength is low then there will be current flow through
the 'deflection coil' and the resulting torque in the coil will produce deviation in the pointer connected
to a permanent magnet.The torque produced by the two coils will be opposite in nature.. 


Resistance to be measured is connected across the test terminals i.e. connected in series with the deflecting
coil and across the generator.When current are supplied to the coils then they have torque in opposite

• If the resistance to be measured is high,no current is flowing through the deflecting coil.The controlling coil will
therefore ,set itself perpendicular to the magnetic axis and hence,set the pointer at infinity.
• If the resistance to be measured is small,a high current is flowing through the deflecting coil and the resulting torque
sets the pointer to zero.
• For intermediate values of resistances,depending upon the torque production,the pointer is set at a point between zero
and infinity.
• The hand driven generator is of permanent magnet type and it is designed to generate from 500V to 2500V

V. Why is megger used to measure insulation resistance and not a multimeter?

The meggar tester /or insulation tester actually uses a high voltage at its terminals to do the measurements thus being
more efficient in driving In a current and then the measurements are made.

Multimeter as the name says is used for a variety of measurements but using basically the same moving coil.when a
high resistance or very small leakage is to be tested using a multimeter it usually fails because of its in ability to drive a
current through a very high resistance circuit and give a correct reading.

With a megger tester,a voltage of not less than 500 volts DC is used for testing the insulation resistance of
windings.With a multi-tester, the voltage used is not more than 3-volts DC. A megger is specifically designed to
accurately measure high impedances. An ordinary multi-meter is designed to measure lower, more finite impedances.
A megger is therefore more accurate for the application.

W. What will happen if we give AC supply to DC motor, and vice versa?

When A.C. supply is given to a D.C. motor,

1)In case of Series connection of armature winding and field winding , it may run. 

2)But, In case of parallel connection , it won't rotate at all and will start humming and will create vibrations, as a torque
produced by positive and negative cycle will cancel out each other. D.C. motor will be heated up.

When D.C. supply is given to an AC. motor , 

1) D.C. supply will not produce rotating magnetic field , hence motor will not run.

2) If rated voltage is given (in D.C. form), there will be only resistance of the winding will affect the D.C. current ,
whereas in case of a.c. supply, impedance will affect the A.C. current. Now, resistance of winding will always be less
than total impedance. Hence, larger amount of current will flow (with compare to A.C. current) through the winding and
will damage the winding.

X. What is Emi filter

An electromagnetic wave that interferes with the operation of electronic devices is called noise. Filters are
used for noise that conducts through conductors, while shields are used for noise that conducts through space.
However, since the conductor through which noise conducts can also work as an antenna, these two types of
conductions are mutually transformed into each other via the conductor as an antenna. Therefore, in order to
completely shut out noise, both filters and shields need to be used at one location.

An EMI filter is a passive electronic device used to suppress conducted interference present on any power or signal
line. It may be used to suppress the interference generated by the device itself as well as to suppress the interference
generated by other equipment to improve the immunity of a device to the EMI signals present within its electromagnetic
environment. Most EMI filters include components to suppress both common and differential mode interference. Filters
can also be designed with added devices to provide transient voltage and surge protection as well as battery

An EMI filter has a high reactive component to its impedance. That means the filter looks like a much higher
resistance to higher frequency signals. This high impedances attenuates or reduced the strength of these signals so
they will have less of an effect on other devices.

1. What will happen if DC supply is given on a transformer?

For D.C, impedance Z=R, as frequency is zero, series inductive reactance  Xl is zero(Xl=2ΦfL), and
parallel capacitive reactance (Xc=1/2ΦfC) is infinity, hence current flow would  be I=V/R, hence the little
voltage applied to primary, would raised the current above rated , and would damage the winding.

If DC supply is given to the primary of Transformer then DC current flows through primary winding which is
constant(time invarient).For production of emf in any winding the current flowing through that must be
sinusoidal since e=L*(dI/dt).So in the given case ie, for DC input,no emf produced in primary winding. So net
voltage in the primary winding will be (Vin-0) more due to which primary winding draws more current which
leads to burning of winding.
2. Even though resistance of coil winding is less, coil does not burn when power is supplied to it. Why?

Magnetic field produced by a coil of wire is much stronger than the field produced when the wire is

When a wire is wound to form a coil by say N times then the strength of the magnetic field is N times
more than the magnetic field produced when the wire is straight. This is because the direction of
current in each turn of the coil is and the field due to each turn adds up to form a stronger magnetic

3. Why humming sound occurs in HT transmission line?

This sound is coming due to ionization (breakdown of air into charged particles) of air around transmission conductor. This
effect is called as Corona effect, and it is considered as power loss.

4. How to check capacitor with the help of multimeter?

A shorted Capacitor will clearly show very low resistance. A open Capacitor will not show any movement on ohmmeter.
A good capacitor will show low resistance initially, and resistance gradually increases. This shows that Capacitor is not bad.
By shorting the two ends of Capacitor (charged by ohmmeter) momentarily can give a weak spark. To know the value and
other parameters, you need better instruments

5. Why the capacitor works on AC only and blocks DC?

Mathematically: The Impedance (Reactance with no Resistance) of the capacitor Xc = 1 / (2*Pi*f*C).For

D.C. frequency f = 0. Then Xc = infinity and D.C. Current is blocked and does not flow.For A.C. f is not
Zero and hence A.C. Current can flow.

 In the case of D.C. the Voltage across the capacitance does not change after full charging and remains
equal and opposite to the D.C. Voltage across it and hence no current can flow through it.

In the case of A.C., after full charging the Voltage across the capacitance decreases and reverses and so
does the A.C. current through the capacitor. 

Consider a circuit with a capacitor, a voltage source, and a switch. Suppose the voltage source is DC and
we flip the switch. If the capacitor is initially uncharged, then at the instant you close the switch current
will flow as if the capacitor was not there. Instead of an electron crossing the capacitor, an electron will
arrive at the negative capacitor plate and another electron will leave the positive plate. So, at first, current
can flow, but as the charge builds up the capacitor begins to oppose the voltage placed on it and
eventually there is no more current in the system because the capacitor is charged and at equal voltage
to the DC voltage source.

Now suppose we did the same thing with an AC source. We close the switch, current flows, the capacitor
starts building up charge to stop the current...but then the voltage flips around and the capacitor no longer
opposes the current, so the current can flow the other way, the capacitor starts to change its polarity, but
as it does the current changes AGAIN...etc.

In short, when a capacitor is placed in a DC circuit it very quickly becomes charged in such a way as to
oppose the applied voltage and all current stops. When the power source is AC, however, the capacitor
never has time to "adapt" to it and so won't build up a charge that opposes the current. It's like you keep
flipping an hourglass back over
6. Can 60 HZ transformer be used at higher frequencies?

higher the line frequency, the lower the core (iron) losses! increasing the frequency also increases the
magnetizing inductance, thus lowering the magnetizing current. should be safe, but may result in higher
voltage drop because of lower magnetizing current and because of higher leakage inductance (the series

Transformers can be used at frequencies above 60 Hz up through 400 Hz with no limitations

provided nameplate voltages are not exceeded. However, 60 Hz transformers will have less voltage
regulation at 400 Hz than 60 Hz. Voltage regulation in transformers is the difference between the no
load voltage and the full load voltage. This is usually expressed in terms of percentage.

7. Can 60 HZ transformer be operated at 50 Hz?

Transformers 1 KVA and larger, rated at 60 Hz, should not be used on 50 Hz service due to higher losses and
resultant heat rise. However, any 50 Hz transformer will operate on 60 Hz service.

The transformer design does not impose any practical upper limit on how much the supply frequency can exceed the rated
frequency, but a supply frequency lower than the rated frequency has the same effect as an overvoltage.

8. Can transformers be used in parallel?

Yes, Transformers can be operated in parallel with the following conditions:

1. Same voltage ratio of transformer.

2. Same percentage impedance.
3. Same polarity.
4. Same phase sequence.
9. Can single phase transformers be used for 3 phase operation?

For three phase system three single phase transformers are required. Three phase
transformation can be done in two ways, by using single three phase transformer or
by using a bank of three single phase transformers. Both are having some
advantages over other. Single 3 phase transformer costs around 15% less than
bank of three single phase transformers. Again former occupies less space than
later. For very big transformer, it is impossible to transport large three phase
transformer to the site and it is easier to transport three single phase transformers
which is erected separately to form a three phase unit. Another advantage of using
bank of three single phase transformers is that, if one unit of the bank becomes out
of order, then the bank can be run as open delta.
10 Why short circuit do not take place when electrode is touched to ground.
Basically during welding we force a short-circuit at the electrode tip. The fault condition produces large magnitude currents.
Greater the Current value have greater I2R heat produced. The arcing energy elevates the temperature & hence melts the
electrode material over the joint.
The transformer is designed to withstand such high currents. But welding is a very complex & detailed phenomenon.
Besides there are many principles on which welding operates. Some may be a welding, dc welding, arc, constant voltage,
constant current etc

11. Why fuse is only for PT and not for CT?

Fuse if given for CT blows off due to a fault then rather than protecting the CT it will make it open circuited hence it will be saturated
& damaged. For PT it gives overload & SC protection.

12. What is class of accuracy of Instruments?

class of accuracy is a figure which represents the error tolerance of a measuring device. This figure is
the percentage of the inherent error of the measuring device with respect to full scale deflection. For
example, if the class of accuracy is 2 that means an error of 2 volts in a full scale 100 volt reading

13. Why are NGR’s (Neutral Grounding resistors) rated for 10 secs?

The grounding resistor may be short time (10-second) rated because fault currents of this magnitude
must be relayed off quickly. Also, the ground fault relaying must be sensitive enough to protect the
grounding resistor on a low level fault. A 10-second rated resistor will carry approximately 10% of its
rating continuously. For example, on a system with a 400 A neutral grounding resistor, the ground
fault relay must pick up at a current lower that 40 amperes. This will protect the resistor and give
greater protection for non-bolted line-to-ground faults.

14. Which supply system is more lethal/dangerous AC or DC?

There are too many variables to give a straight AC or DC answer. Going back to basics V=I x R.
It is usually a Voltage that you will come in contact with that will cause a Current to flow thru
your body. The Resistance of your body will determine how much current will flow thru your
body. This will depend on many factors - skin resistance, sweat, wet fingers, rubber boots, wet
floor etc.

AC is more dangerous that it cause more energy dissipations and the actual levels of AC are √2
times of the given value.

AC, when it causes fibrillation, does so because it interferes with, and destabilizes, the signals
that tell your heart how often to beat. DC almost never causes fibrillation, so death by DC
almost always involves either long-term exposure, preventing normal heart/lung operation, or
tissue damage.

The minimum current a human can feel depends on the current type (AC or DC) as well as frequency for
AC. A person can feel at least 1 mA (rms) of AC at 60 Hz, while at least 5 mA for DC. At around 10
milliamperes, AC current passing through the arm of a 68-kilogram (150 lb) human can cause powerful
muscle contractions; the victim is unable to voluntarily control muscles and cannot release an electrified
object.[5] This is known as the "let go threshold" and is a criterion for shock hazard in electrical regulations.

The current may, if it is high enough, cause tissue damage or fibrillation which leads to cardiac
arrest; more than 30 mA[6] of AC (rms, 60 Hz) or 300 – 500 mA of DC can cause fibrillation

15. What is skin effect and how does it happen?

Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to become distributed within
a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor, and decreases with
greater depths in the conductor. The electric current flows mainly at the "skin" of the conductor, between
the outer surface and a level called the skin depth. The skin effect causes the effective resistance of the
conductor to increase at higher frequencies where the skin depth is smaller, thus reducing the effective
cross-section of the conductor. The skin effect is due to opposing eddy currents induced by the
changing magnetic field resulting from the alternating current.

An alternating current in a conductor produces an alternating magnetic field in and around the conductor.
When the intensity of current in a conductor changes, the magnetic field also changes. The change in the
magnetic field, in turn, creates an electric field which opposes the change in current intensity. This
opposing electric field is called “counter-electromotive force” (back EMF). The back EMF is strongest at
the center of the conductor, and forces the conducting electrons to the outside of the conductor, as shown
in the diagram on the right. [1]

16.Why do we ground the sheath of single core power cables and to avoid grounded at both

A single core cable with a sheath is nothing but a conductor carrying current surrounded by
another conductor (sheath). Hence the Alternative current in the conductor induces voltages in
the sheath or the armour. Hence grounding these cables at both ends will cause the potential of
the armour to be same as ground potential & hence shall become safe for the personnel.

But grounding the cables at both the end will cause a problem. In that case the circulating
currents will start flowing with the armor, the ground & with the two ends of the grounding
completing the circuit. This will also provide path for the fault currents to flow. Hence this whole
thing will cause the cable to produce some I2R losses, hence heating & hence the current
carrying capacity will be de rated. 
When only one end of the cable sheath is grounded then there is no path for the circulating
current to flow. Hence the current carrying capacity of the cable will be good. But in this case
potential will be induced between sheath & ground. This potential is proportional to the length of
the cable & hence this will limit the length of the cable used. This method is called single point
bonding. This is thus used only for short lengths.

There is another system called the cross bonding system in which the sheath are sectionaliosed
& cross connected so that the circulating currents are minimized. Although some potential will
also exist between sheath & ground, the same being maximum at the link boxes where bonding is
done. This method provides maximum possible current carrying capacity with the maximum
possible lengths.
b. How many types of Neutral grounding system are there?

Method of Neutral Earthing:

There are five methods for Neutral earthing.
1. Unearthed Neutral System
2. Solid Neutral Earthed System.
3. Resistance Neutral Earthing System.Resonant Neutral Earthing System.
1. Low Resistance Earthing.
2. High Resistance Earthing.
4. Resonant Earthing System.
5. Earthing Transformer Earthing.

Unearthed Neutral System

In ungrounded system there is no internal connection between the conductors and earth. However, as system,
a capacitive coupling exists between the system conductors and the adjacent grounded surfaces.
Consequently, the “ungrounded system” is, in reality, a “capacitive grounded system” by virtue of the distributed
Solidly Neutral Grounded Systems:

Solidly grounded systems are usually used in low voltage applications at 600 volts or less.
In solidly grounded system, the neutral point is connected to earth.

Resistance earthed systems:

Resistance grounding has been used in three-phase industrial applications for many years and it
resolves many of the problems associated with solidly grounded and ungrounded systems.
Resistance Grounding Systems limits the phase-to-ground fault currents.
Low Resistance Grounded:

Low Resistance Grounding is used for large electrical systems where there is a high investment in capital
equipment or prolonged loss of service of equipment has a significant economic impact and it is not
commonly used in low voltage systems because the limited ground fault current is too low to reliably
operate breaker trip units or fuses. This makes system selectivity hard to achieve. Moreover, low
resistance grounded systems are not suitable for 4-wire loads and hence have not been used in
commercial market applications
A resistor is connected from the system neutral point to ground and generally sized to permit only 200A
to 1200 amps of ground fault current to flow. Enough current must flow such that protective devices can
detect the faulted circuit and trip it off-line but not so much current as to create major damage at the fault
High Resistance Grounded:

High resistance grounding is almost identical to low resistance groundingexcept that the ground fault
current magnitude is typically limited to 10 amperes or less. High resistance grounding accomplishes
two things.
The first is that the ground fault current magnitude is sufficiently low enough such that no
appreciable damage is done at the fault point. This means that the faulted circuit need not be tripped off-
line when the fault first occurs. Means that once a fault does occur, we do not know where the fault is
located. In this respect, it performs just like an ungrounded system.
The second point is it can control the transient overvoltage phenomenon present on ungrounded
systems if engineered properly.

Resonant earthed system:

Adding inductive reactance from the system neutral point to ground is an easy method of limiting the
available ground fault from something near the maximum 3 phase short circuit capacity (thousands of
amperes) to a relatively low value (200 to 800 amperes).
To limit the reactive part of the earth fault current in a power system a neutral point reactor can be
connected between the transformer neutral and the station earthing system.
A system in which at least one of the neutrals is connected to earth through an
Inductive reactance.
Petersen coil / Arc Suppression Coil / Earth Fault Neutralizer.
The current generated by the reactance during an earth fault approximately compensates the capacitive
component of the single phase earth fault current, is called a resonant earthed system.
Earthing Transformers:

For cases where there is no neutral point available for Neutral Earthing (e.g. for a delta winding), an
earthing transformer may be used to provide a return path for single phase fault currents

In such cases the impedance of the earthing transformer may be sufficient to act as effective earthing
impedance. Additional impedance can be added in series if required.

1. How to identify the starting and ending leads of winding in a motor which is having 6 leads in the
terminal box?

The easier method requires a multimeter,current tester and a 3 phase supply. 

find the 3 paths from one end to the other mark them A's B's and C's 

then connect the motor in star one of the A's, B's and C's connected together. 

the other ends of the A's , B's and C's are to the supplys. 

make sure that you only try it long enough to hear it run properly just a few seconds. 

run it and see if the currents are normal. 

if not then swap A leads around and try again. 

if that doesn't work swap back the A leads and repeat with the B leads 

if that doesn't work swap back the B leads and repeat with the C leads 

by now it should work. 

make sure to swap back each phase that you try or you will be chasing your tail all day.

• If it is a single speed motor then we have to identify 6 leads.

• Use IR tester to identify 3 windings and their 6 leads. Then connect any two leads of two winding and apply small
voltage across it and measure the current.
• Then again connect alternate windings of same two windings and apply small amount of voltage (same as before)
and measure current.
• Check in which mode you get the max current and then mark it as a1-a2 & b1-b2. You get max current when a2-
b1 will be connected and voltage applied between a1-b2.
• Follow the same process to identify a1-a2, b1-b2, c1-c2.now we will be able to connect it in delta or star.

2. Why one terminal of current transformer grounded???

The one pole of the CT is earthed to avoid voltages being present due to capacitive coupling
between the CT secondary and the line being monitored (CT Primary). At low voltages CT
Secondary is not earthed but this is always the case with 11Kv and above.

3. Can transformers be operated at voltages other than nameplate voltages?

In some cases, transformers can be operated at voltages below the nameplate rated voltage. In NO case
should a transformer be operated in excess of its nameplate rating unless taps are provided for this purpose.
When operating below the rated voltage the KVA capacity is reduced correspondingly.
4. There are a transformer and an induction machine These two have the same supply> For which device
the load current will be more?

If induction machine refers to an induction motor then the load current will be more for induction motor compared to t/f b'coz
of magnetising current in motor power has to be transferred from stator to rotor through air medium , air act's as some
reluctance path where transformer has less reluctance nd more over induction motor has rotational losses which are purely
absent in transformer
5. Difference between CT class 0.2 and 0.2S?

0.2S is more accurate at low currents than 0.2. While both have maximum errors of +/- 0.2% at 100%
and 120% of rted current, 0.2S has +/- 0.75% at 1%, 0.35% at 5% and 0.2% at 20 % of rated current
while 0.2 has 0.75% at 5% and 0.35% at 20% rated current. These values are found in IEC Standard
60044, Tables 11 and 12.

6. what is the knee point of Current Transformer?

It is generally defined as the voltage at which a further 10% increase in volts at the
secondary side of the CT requires more than 50% increase in excitation current. For most
applications, it means that current transformers can be considered as approximately linear
up to this point.
▪ That point on the magnetizing curve where an increase of 10% in the flux density (voltage) causes an increase of 50% in the
magnetizing force (current).
▪ The ‘Knee Point Voltage’ (Vkp) is defined as the secondary voltage at which an increase of 10% produces an increase in magnetizing
current of 50%. It is the secondary voltage above which the CT is near magnetic saturation.

7. What is Insulation resistance/Polarization index?

Polarisation index is the ratio of IR measured after voltage has been applied for 10 minutes
(R10) to the IR measured after one minute (R1), i.e. PI = R10 / R1

A low value of PI indicates that the windings may have been contaminated with oil, dirt etc or
absorbed moistures. In the test, a relatively high DC voltage is applied between the copper
conductor and the stator or rotor core usually between the winding and ground as the
machine core & body are grounded). By applying Ohm's law, IR (Rt) at time t is then,
R1 = V / It
V is the DC Voltage applied and It is the current flowing in the circuit.

The characteristics of the insulation are such that the current. It is not constant and it varies with

The purpose of measuring PI can be understood by knowing the flow of the different currents in the 
insulator. There are four currents in the insulator.
a) Capacitive Current: Insulator behaves as a capacitor when a DC voltage is applied to a
capacitor, a high charging current first flows and then it decays exponentially. The size of
the capacitor and the internal resistance of the voltage supply, typically a few hundred
kilo ohms, set the currents decay. In case of generator or motor windings, the current
effectively decays to zero in less than 10 seconds. Since the capacitive current contains
little diagnostic information, the initial IR is measured once the capacitive current has
decayed. Hence the first IR measurement has been set as one minute to ensure that this
current does not distort the IR calculation.
b) Conduction Current: This current is due to the flow of electrons between the copper
and the core. This is galvanic current through ground wall. Such a current can flow if the
ground wall has absorbed moisture, which can happen on the older thermoplastic
insulation systems. The current may also flow if there are cracks, cuts or pinholes in the
ground insulation and some contamination is present to allow current to flow.This current
is constant with time. With modern insulation this current usually is zero (as long as there
no damage to the insulation).
c) Surface leakage Current: This is constant DC current that flows over the surface of the
insulation. It is caused by conductive contamination (oil or moisture mixed with dust, dirt,
insects, chemicals etc) on the surface of the windings. This current is also constant with
d) Polarization Current: Electrical insulation is hygroscopic in nature and presence of
moisture will be there either in low quantity or in excess. Water molecules are very
polar. When an electric field is applied across the insulation start absorbing electrons
from the hydrogen molecules causing ionization of hydrogen. In other words, the
molecules constituting water align in the electric field, just as magnetic field. The energy
required to align the molecules comes from the current in the DC test voltage supply.
This current is called polarization current. The water becomes completely polarized
when the absorption of electron from hydrogen merging with oxygen is completed. Once
the molecules are all aligned, the current stops. The approximate time for complete
polarization is 10 minutes. That is why the IR is measured after 10 minutes of applying
Now, the total current is the sum of all above currents, i.e. It = Ic + IR + IL+ 1p

A Polarization Index (PI) test is generally performed at the same voltage as the Insulation
Resistance (IR) test.  Where the IR test is performed for a period of one minute, the PI test is
performed over a period of ten minutes. This gives the absorption (polarization) current ample
time to decay, and reveals a more detailed indication of the total leakage and conduction
current. As such, PI is a good indication of winding contamination, moisture ingress (leakage
currents), and/or bulk insulation damage (conduction currents).

Polarization Index testing is generally performed with an Insulation Resistance (IR) test set
(commonly known as a Megger), immediately after performing the IR test. However, the test
can also be performed utilizing a DC high potential (hipot) test set. The readings produced by
the two instruments are different. A Megger commonly gives readings in ohms of resistance. A
hipot registers the amount of current (typically in microamps (mA). One microamp is equal to
1 x 10-6 amps, or 0.000001 amps.
The Polarization Index is derived by the ratio between the one minute reading and the ten
minute reading. Recommended minimum PI results for suitability for service (or
implementation of high voltage testing) is widely accepted as 2:1 or greater. Any reading
lower than this minimum value is a concern. The windings would be presumed to be wet,
contaminated, and/or compromised in some fashion

8. What is the minimum value of Insulation resistance/Polarization index?

Insulation resistance should be approximately one megohm for each 1,000 volts of operating voltage,
with a minimum value of one megohm. For example, a motor rated at 2,400 volts should have a
minimum insulation resistance of 2.4 megohms

The value of minimum polarizing index is 2.0 for induction motors.

9. Why does the pointer of a Megger go towards zero during the start of the IR test?

It is due to the Capacitive Component. When a DC voltage is applied across in insulator,

because of its dielectric nature there will be an initial high charging current through the insulator
from line to ground. Although this current decays exponentially and becomes zero. The
deflection is due to the absorption of the current by the dielectric medium.

10.In transistor why emitter is heavily doped?

Emitter is heavily doped to provide large no. of majority charge carriers & base and collector are
lightly doped to accept these charge charge carriers from emitter. If they are also heavily doped
then the charges will not flow towards the base or collector and the transistor becomes inactive 

Also Ie = Ib + Ic 

so emitter has more current than collector & base

11.Why flywheel of Ref. compressor is connected through

the motor with the belt and in case of main air
compressor it is directly attached through the coupling
and not through belt?
12. Why relief valve is provided in condenser of reefer system?

 Relief valves are fitted in discharge side of compressor and will lift and safeguard the compressor in the
event of over pressure. One relief valve is also fitted in the condenser refrigerant line to avoid damage to
the condenser if there is high pressure in the discharge line.

13. What will happen to the motor current if the discharge valve of a centrifugal pump is completely shut off?

Centrifugal pumps that are driven by AC induction motors should be started with minimum load on them so as
to limit the starting current. Therefore, it is recommended that radial impeller pumps be started with discharge
valves closed whereas propeller pumps are started with discharge valves fully open.

14. Why battery rating is in AH and not in VA???

generally batteries are power storage devices which supply current for some time based on the
amount of the charge stored..coming to generators they generate power at the moment and the
amount of power they generate depends on them hence the difference in units

Ah is a Time Based Unit and VA is only a quantity of measurement. Ah(Amp hour) is the amount
of energy charge in battery that will allow1 ampere of current to flow for1 hour.

and where VA is apparent power it can be applicable only for those system has power factor.
So it rated to Alternator, UPS, Transformer. (UPS has the Transformer)

15. How to find the value of Burnt resistor?

Method 1
1. Scarp the outer coating.
2. Clean the Burnt Section of the resistor
3. Measure resistance from one end of the resistor to the damaged section
4. Again measure the resistance from damaged section to the other end of the resistor.
5. Add these two value f resistances
6. This is the approximate value of Burn resistor
7. Just add a small value of resistance for damaged section .i.e., suppose the value of
burnt resistor was 1k Ω, but you got 970 Ω. So just add 30 Ω, and you will have 1k Ω.
Method 2

This method also can be used for finding the value of resistors (Also, for connected
resistors in the circuit) if you don’t know about Resistance Color Coding.
1. Connect Resistor to Multimeter and measure voltage drop across Resistor.
2. Now measure the current flowing into the resistor.
3. Multiply both values and you will get the wattage of Resistor (As P = VI)
4. This Wattage must be less than the wattage of the resistor being replaced
Method 3

This method can be better used if you know the expected Output Voltage of the circuit
and you have resistors set of same wattage as burnt resistor. Perform this method if you
don’t know the value of resistor.
1. Start with a high value of resistance and temporarily connect this resistor instead of
burnt resistor
2. Measure the expected output voltage of the circuiti. If you obtained same voltage as
expected voltage then you have done.
3. If you don’t know about the expected voltage, then keep reducing the value of resistor
until you satisfy with work of circuit for which purpose it was designed.
16. What is special about a overload safety?

Electrical circuit overloads happen when more amperage is put across an electrical wire or circuit
than it can handle. For instance, a #14 wire can safely carry 15 amps and should be protected by a
15-amp breaker. If it happens to get connected to a 20-amp breaker instead, the breaker will allow
20 amps of current to flow through a wire that can only handle 15 amps. The wire and breaker start
to heat up and could cause start an electrical fire.

Circuit overloads can also be caused by loose or corroded wires and connections.

There are two kinds of protection for electrical units that need to be considered. The first is
concerned with the protection of the actual electrical wires supplying the circuits against an
overload above their carrying capacity. The second type is concerned with protecting the
individual appliances and electrical equipment connected to a supply circuit from an overload.
Both types of protection involve either fuses or breakers, but are based on different ideas and

First, you need to know the current that the load demands, under all conditions. You then need
to choose a fuse or circuit breaker that will not blow (or trip) when carrying that current, but
with only the smallest safety margin under worst-case conditions. Finally, you must choose
everything in between – cable, switches, plug & sockets, etc – so that each will safely carry the
current that will guarantee that the fuse will blow, or the circuit breaker will trip, under all
conditions (paying particular regard to ambient temperature and the ability of the cable
expecially to stay cool, i.e. it must not be buried in insulation).

A fuse is a piece of wire that has resistance, and mass, and some insulation around it. The
resistance makes it heat up when current flows. The mass regulates how long it takes the
temperature to rise with a given amount of heat going in.

17. Is there any difference between Steering motors and other motors?

Electrical motor overload alarm

When ever hydraulic motor or helesaw pump motor draws excessive current during bad weather, the steering should not
fail. Instead it gives an alarm about excessive current being drawn by the motor. Continued recurrence of this alarm could
mean that the electrical motor might burn up.


The full power failure alarm will be raised if the power fails in black out condition. Emergency power should be arranged
with in 45 seconds and the emergency generator must be capable to give power for at least 30 minutes

18. Is there any specific difference in purifier motors and other motors?

The purifier bowl and its associated bowl parts are really heavy when assembled together. Thus the inertia is huge enough that the machine
cannot be started in the same manner like other pumps or blowers. If such heavy machinery is started with direct coupling, the motor will
trip on overload or may cause severe damage to the worm gear arrangement due to sudden load on the gears. In order to avoid such disaster,
a friction clutch is mounted on the horizontal shaft. The motor shaft has two or more friction pads mounted on it, which is contained within
the friction drum. Thus as the motor starts, the friction pads move out due to centrifugal force, thus causing a friction on the internal surface
of the friction drum. This friction starts to drive the horizontal shaft, gradually increasing its speed. As the motor speed reaches maximum,
the centrifugal force on the pads reach a maximum value, creating maximum friction which gradually brings the horizontal shaft to the rated
speed. Thus the motor does not get overloaded and the high inertia machine is brought to rated speed gradually without any damage.

19. Why megger is used instead of multimeter for insulation testing?

With a megger tester,a voltage of not less than 500 volts DC is used for testing the insulation resistance of
windings.With a multi-tester, the voltage used is not more than 3-volts DC.The former uses high impedance testing
and is therefore more accurate than a multi-tester

20. What are the safeties of MSB?

The Important safety devices fitted on main switch board are:

• Circuit breakers: A circuit breaker is an auto shut down device which activates during an
abnormality in the electrical circuit. Especially during overloading or short circuit, the circuit breaker
opens the supplied circuit from MSB and thus protects the same.

• Fuses: Fuses are mainly used for short circuit protection and comes in various ratings. If the current
passing through the circuit exceeds the safe value, the fuse material melts and isolates the MSB
from the default system.

• Over current relay: OCR is used mainly on the local panel and MSB for protection from high

• Dead front panel: It is another safety device provided on the Main switch board individual
panels wherein you cannot open the panel until the power of that panel is switched off.
• Ebonite Rod

• Rubber mat in front

• 0.6 meter gap behind the switchboard

• Earth fault indicators

• Panel doors are earthed

• No water, steam or oil pipe line to pass in the vicinity

• Under voltage relay

• Reverse power trip

• Preferential trip

• Short circuit trip

• Air chut

21.When does reverse power flow?

Causes of Reverse Power

The failure can be caused to a starvation of fuel in the prime mover, a problem with the speed
controller or an other breakdown. When the prime mover of a generator running in a
synchronized condition fails. There is a condition known as motoring, where the generator
draws power from the bus bar, runs as a motor and drives the prime mover. This happens as in
a synchronized condition all the generators will have the same frequency. Any drop in frequency
in one generator will cause the other power sources to pump power into the generator. The flow
of power in the reverse direction is known as the reverse power .

Another cause of reverse power can occur during synchronization. If the frequency of the
machine to be synchronized is slightly lesser than the bus bar frequency and the breaker is
closed, power will flow from the bus bar to the machine. Hence, during
synchronization(forward), frequency of the incoming machine is kept slight higher than that of
the bus bar i.e. the synchroscope is made to rotate in the "Too fast" direction. This ensures that
the machine takes on load as soon as the breaker is closed.

Setting the Reverse Power Relay

The reverse power relay is usually set to 20% to 50% of the motoring power required by prime
mover. By motoring power we mean the power required by the generator to drive the prime
mover at the rated rpm. This is usually obtained from the manufacturer of the prime mover
(turbine or engine).

22.What is difference between reverse power relay and directional relay in electrical
A reverse power relay is a directional overcurrent relay. Directional relays are relays that sense
power flow in one direction, and include (directional) overcurrent relays, reverse power, and
impedance based relays.

So a reverse power relay is a directional relay, but a directional relay is not necessarily a
reverse power relay.

23.Does engine of alternator rotates in reverse direction during reverse power flowing in
The direction of rotation is not affected by the direction of current flow or torque flow. when the
machine is in reverse power it is trying to turn the prime mover that is supposed to be providing torque to
the generator. In other words, the synchronous machine is providing torque to the prime mover instead of
the prime mover providing torque to the synchronous machine.
This can be very damaging to the prime mover, depending on the type of prime mover. This is really not
good for most steam turbines. They are trying to pull steam into the turbine. Many reciprocating engines
don't like to be rotated by the synchronous machine they are supposed to be rotating.
Heating of the generator rotor and stator can occur with excessive amounts of reverse power.
This usually occurs when there is very low excitation or no excitation.
24.How the protection against reverse power flow is provided?

A reverse power relay is a directional power relay that is used to monitor the power from a
generator running in parallel with another generator or the utility. The function of the reverse
power relay is to prevent a reverse power condition in which power flows from the bus bar into
the generator. This condition can occur when there is a failure in the prime mover such as an
engine or a turbine which drives the generator.

25.How do you test reverse power trip?

To test the reverse power relay just reduce the energy flow-rate into the prime mover until the reverse power
relay operated--opening the generator breaker

26. How you test preferential trip on board ship?

Preferential trip is a kind of electrical arrangement on ship which is designed to disconnect the
non-essential circuit i.e. non-essential load from the main bus bar in case of partial failure or
overload of the main supply

The non-essential circuits or loads on ships are air conditioning, exhaust and ventilation fans,
and galley equipments which can be disconnected momentarily and can be connected again
after fault finding.

It can be tested by either by primary injection from a primary injection test set or by secondary injection from a
secondary injection test set. 

If you want to actually test the whole system you would use a primary injection test or if you want to test the

relay(s) only use the secondary injection method. 

These tests should be done by a competent technician trained and used to relay testing

27. How you test under-voltage trip onboard ship? Why is it provided?

Connect voltage from a "step up transformer" across the undervoltage coil to keep that in, and test the
UV coil by reducing that voltage.

No testing would normally be carried out with the Alternator running yet alone on load. The Breaker
would have to be electrically isolated from the Generators and the Main Bus Bars to test it. So it would
usually be "Racked out" of the Board.

Old Breakers have simple electo mechanical trips for overload and undervoltage, and can only be tested
by current injection. This involves connected the low voltage, high current windings of a transformer
across the breaker, the output current, delivered at only a few Volts, is adjusted until the breaker trips.

More Modern breakers have sophisticated Electronic devices to trip the breaker in addition to the electro
mechanical system and sometimes these can be tested by adjusting the set points for undervoltage and
over current to the actual operating conditions and thus causing the breaker to trip.

The Under Voltage trip prevents a generator from being connected until generating full voltage. It
disconnects the generator from the busbar if the generator voltage falls below the set limit.

28.What are the undervoltage settings of a Generator?

Generators are to be provided with an undervoltage protection which trips the breaker if the
voltage falls to 70%-35% of the rated voltage.

The undervoltage release also prevents the closing of the circuit-breaker if the generator
voltage does not reach a minimum of 85% of the rated voltage.

The operation of the undervoltage release is to be instantaneous when preventing closure of
the breaker, but it is to be delayed for selectivity purposes when tripping the breaker.
29.What happens if you press breaker close button on idle generator?

The breaker will not close. The UVT will prevent it from closing.

30.What will you do if you get earth fault alarm?

First action is to check the trueness of the alarm. Usually there will be a test button which when
pressed, resets the alarm and rechecks the condition of the earth fault.
If the ship is having IAS (Integrated Automation System), check on the computer in the list of
events after which the alarm has activated. If IAS facility is not available, there is only one
option of isolating each and every machinery in the 440 V circuit and check whether the earth
fault indication returns back to normal.
Isolation of all machinery, which operates on 440V, is not always possible. Certain critical equipment like
steering gear and lubricating oil pumps cannot be isolated for when the ship is underway. However
changeover can be done from running machinery to the standby one and thus the earth fault can be
Earth Fault alarm sounds on a 220V panel
a) Check the trueness of the alarm.
b) Isolate the complete Group start panel for a lighting division one by one.
c) Check the Earth Fault indicator for status (still faulty or normal).
d) If faulty, then put on the breaker which is put off earlier and isolate other group start panel for lighting
e) Once the group start panel is identified, then individual lighting switches are turned off one by one
and checked for the alarm condition.
f) When any switch when turned off and thus the condition becomes normal, then this lighting circuit is
marked and then inspection is done on the particular light for abnormalities.

31.Where does reactive power (watless) go?

Power in an electric circuit is the rate of energy consumption or production as currents flow through various
parts comprising the circuit. In alternating current circuits, immediate power transferred through
any phase varies periodically. Energy storage elements such as inductors and capacitors may result in
periodic reversals of the direction of energy flow. The portion of power that, averaged over a complete cycle
of the AC waveform, results in net transfer of energy in one direction is known as active power (sometimes
also called real power). The portion of power due to stored energy, which returns to the source in each cycle,
is known as reactive power
"reactive power" is due to the delay between voltage and current, known as phase angle, and cannot do
useful work at the load. It can be thought of as current that is arriving at the wrong time (too late or too early).
To distinguish reactive power from active power, it is measured in units of "volt-amperes reactive" or var.

Energy stored in capacitive or inductive elements of the network give rise to reactive power flow. Reactive
power flow strongly influences the voltage levels across the network.

Reactive power (vars or volt amperes reactive) is power that is a result of capacitive or
inductive reactance. Conductors that are used for transmitting power, as well as motor loads
inherently produce reactive power, either of a purely capacitive or inductive nature, or in the case of
transmission lines, both since there is a reactive component in the makeup of these devices.
Reactive power is not consumed by the customer like real power is, it is basically losses as a result of
the inherent nature of the power consuming device. In the case of customer motors, the inductive
nature of the motor puts inductive vars into the utiility system, which degrades the utility power
system by pulling down the voltage as well as putting inductive, or lagging, reactive loading on the
line (capacitive reactive var power is leading ). Reactive power also takes up capacity on
transmission lines, transformers, etc. These losses cost the efficiency; the more inefficient the
system is, the more expensive power system equipment is since it has to be bought with enough
capacity to allow for the reactive power flow as well as the real power. These losses are also hard on
equipment like transformers, the heat loss generated reduces the life of the equipment, making it
suspectible to premature failure.

. Intrinsic safety (IS) is a protection technique for safe operation of electrical equipment in
hazardous areas by limiting the energy available for ignition. In signal and control circuits that
can operate with low currents and voltages, the intrinsic safety approach simplifies circuits and
reduces installation cost over other protection methods. Areas with dangerous concentrations of
flammable gases or dust are found in applications such as petrochemical refineries and mines.
This is a passive network device that uses Zener diodes, resistors and fuses to safely divert
excess electrical energy to ground and thus prevent sparking in or overheating of equipment in
hazardous areas. Their key benefits are low cost and the ability to operate with data in
analogue DC or high-speed digital forms
An intrinsic safety equipment is connected to a circuit through a Zener barrier that limits the
current, the voltage and the power.
If a fault voltage occurs between the terminals in the non- hazardous area, the Zener diode
(protected by a fuse) limits the voltage that risks appearing in the hazardous area and the
resistor limits the current to an acceptable value.
If a fault voltage occurs between the terminals in the non- hazardous area and the ground, the
voltage of the wires in the hazardous area relative to ground will not exceed Zener-Voltage Vz
provided that the Zener barrier is correctly grounded at (T1).
Suppose the zener voltage is 9 volts,
Current path in normal operation, U <= 9V

Current path in the overvoltage case, U <= 9V

The Zener diode becomes conducting

The fuse protects the Zener diode from destruction
33.What is Lockout/Tagout?
Lockout-tagout (LOTO) or lock and tag is a safety procedure which is used in industry and research
settings to ensure that dangerous machines are properly shut off and not started up again prior to the
completion of maintenance or servicing work.
It requires that hazardous power sources be "isolated and rendered inoperative" before any repair procedure
is started. "Lock and tag" works in conjunction with a lock usually locking the device or the power source with
the hasp, and placing it in such a position that no hazardous power sources can be turned on. The procedure
requires that a tag be affixed to the locked device indicating that it should not be turned on.
When two or more people are working on different parts of a system, the locked-out device is first secured
with a folding scissors clamp that has many padlock holes capable of holding it closed. Each subcontractor
applies their own padlock to the clamp. The locked-out device cannot be activated until all workers have
signed off on their portion of the project and removed their padlock from the clamp.
34. What is doping?

Doping is the process of adding impurities to intrinsic semiconductors to alter their properties.
Normally Trivalent and Pentavalent elements are used to dope Silicon and Germanium. When a
intrinsic semiconductoris doped with Trivalent impurity it becomes a P-Type semiconductors.

In semiconductor production, doping intentionally introduces impurities into an extremely pure

(also referred to as intrinsic) semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical
properties. The impurities are dependent upon the type of semiconductor. Lightly and
moderately doped semiconductors are referred to as extrinsic. A semiconductor doped to such
high levels that it acts more like a conductor than a semiconductor is referred to as degenerate.
In the context of phosphors and scintillators, doping is better known as activation.
35.Explain intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors?

Intrinsic Semiconductor: An intrinsic semiconductor material is chemically very pure and possesses poor
conductivity. It has equal numbers of negative carriers (electrons) and positive carriers (holes). A silicon
crystal is different from an insulator because at any temperature above absolute zero temperature,
there is a finite probability that an electron in the lattice will be knocked loose from its position, leaving
behind an electron deficiency called a "hole".If a voltage is applied, then both the electron and the hole
can contribute to a small current flow.

Extrinsic Semiconductor
Where as an extrinsic semiconductor is an improved intrinsic semiconductor with a small amount of
impurities added by a process, known as doping, which alters the electrical properties of the
semiconductor and improves its conductivity. Introducing impurities into the semiconductor materials
(doping process) can control their conductivity.
The Doping of Semiconductors : The addition of a small percentage of foreign atoms in the regular
crystal lattice of silicon Or germanium produces dramatic changes in their electrical properties,
producing n-type and p-type semiconductors.
Pentavalent impurities : (5 valence electrons) produce n-type semiconductors by contributing
extra electrons.
Trivalent impurities: (3 valence electrons) produce p-type semiconductors by producing a
"hole" or electron deficiency.
N-Type Semiconductor: The addition of pentavalent impurities such as antimony, arsenic or
phosphorous contributes free electrons, greatly increasing the conductivity of the intrinsic
semiconductor . Phosphorous may be added by diffusion of phosphine gas (PH3).
P-Type Semiconductor: The addition of trivalent impurities such as boron, aluminum or
gallium to an intrinsic semiconductor creates deficiencies of valence electrons,called "holes". It
is typical to use B2H6 diborane gas to diffuse boron into the silicon material.
36.What happens to insulation when temperature rises?

INSULATORS are liable to DECREASE their resistance with an increase in temperature. Materials
used for practical insulators (glass, plastic etc.) only exhibit a marked drop in their resistance at very
high temperatures. They remain good insulators over all temperatures they are likely to encounter in

The flow of current is actually the movement of electrons from one atom to another under the
influence of an electric field. Electrons are very small negatively charged particles and will be
repelled by a negative electric charge and attracted by a positive electric charge. Therefore if an
electric potential is applied across a conductor (positive at one end, negative at the other)
electrons will "migrate" from atom to atom towards the positive terminal.

Only some electrons are free to migrate however. Others within each atom are held so tightly to
their particular atom that even an electric field will not dislodge them. The current flowing in the
material is therefore due to the movement of "free electrons" and the number of free electrons
within any material compared with those tightly bound to their atoms is what governs whether a
material is a good conductor (many free electrons) or a good insulator (hardly any free

The effect of heat on the atomic structure of a material is to make the atoms vibrate, and the
higher the temperature the more violently the atoms vibrate.

In a conductor, which already has a large number of free electrons flowing through it, the
vibration of the atoms causes many collisions between the free electrons and the captive
electrons. Each collision uses up some energy from the free electron and is the basic cause of
resistance. The more the atoms jostle around in the material, the more collisions are caused
and hence the greater the resistance to current flow.

In an insulator however, there is a slightly different situation. There are so few free electrons
that hardly any current can flow. Almost all the electrons are tightly bound within their particular
atom. Heating an insulating material vibrates the atoms, and if heated sufficiently, the atoms
vibrate violently enough to actually shake some of their captive electrons free, creating free
electrons to become carriers of current. Therefore at high temperatures the resistance of an
insulator can fall, and in some insulating materials, quite dramatically.

In a material where the resistance INCREASES with an increase in temperature, the material is

When resistance FALLS with an increase in temperature, the material is said to have a

In general, conductors have a POSITIVE temperature coefficient, whilst (at high temperatures)
insulators have a NEGATIVE temperature coefficient.Different materials within either group
have different temperature coefficients. Materials chosen for the construction of the resistors
used in electronic circuits are carefully selected conductors that have a very low positive
temperatur coefficient. In use, resistors made from such materials will have only very slight
increases in resistivity, and therefore their resistance. Using such materials for the manufacture
of resistors creates components whose value changes only slightly over a given range of
Materials chosen as insulators will have a very low NEGATIVE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT
over their working range of temperature.

37.Does current pass through hull during welding?

The earthing should be as far as possible close to the welding transformer to prevent flow of
current through the hull.

38. Why is this reverse power used instead of reverse current in alternators?

In case of a failure of the prime mover, the generator starts motoring and draws power from the
MSB, In this case the Prime mover acts as the load and there is a power flow from the MSB to
the Generator which is motoring the Prime mover now.
39. Why is DC excitation used in a synchronous alternator instead of AC excitation?

Synchronous motor's rotor need to have a magnet, and then only when we have AC applied to
stator, it will pull rotor along with it to rotate at synchronized speed.

For rotor it just has to be fixed magnet. If you apply DC it will work perfectly as we desire.

If AC is applied, its effect is different. During first half cycle, at particular point on rotor if you
take it acts as north pole & next half as south pole. It keeps changing like this 50 times, if you
give 50Hz supply.

Thus rotor may not move at all. Also AC fluctuation lead to varying magnetic strength, which is
not desired.

40.Why excitation provided to alternator is dc? Why not ac?


41. How is the speed of Induction motor varied?

Speed Control From Stator Side

a) By changing the applied voltage: Rotor resistance R2 is constant and if slip s is small then
sX2 is so small that it can be neglected. Therefore, T sE22 where E2 is rotor induced emf
and E2 V

And hence T V2, thus if supplied voltage is decreased, torque decreases and hence the
speed decreases.

This method is the easiest and cheapest, still rarely used because-

1) A large change in supply voltage is required for relatively small change in speed.

2) Large change in supply voltage will result in large change in flux density, hence disturbing
the magnetic conditions of the motor.

b) By changing the applied frequency:Synchronous speed of the

rotating magnetic field of induction motor is given by N=120f/P,

c) Changing the number of stator poles

From the above equation, it can be also seen that synchronous speed (and hence,
running speed) can be changed by changing the number of stator poles. This method
is generally used for squirrel cage induction motors, as squirrel cage rotor adapts
itself for any number of stator poles. Change in stator poles is achieved by two or
more independent stator windings wound for different number of poles in same slots.

For example, a stator is wound with two 3phase windings, one for 4 poles and other
for 6 poles.

for supply frequency of 50 Hz

i) synchronous speed when 4 pole winding is connected, Ns = 120*50/4 = 1500 RPM

ii) synchronous speed when 6 pole winding is connected, Ns = 120*50/6 = 1000 RPM

2. Speed Control From Rotor Side:

a) Rotor rheostat control

This method is similar to that of armature rheostat control of DC shunt motor. But this method is
only applicable to slip ring motors, as addition of external resistance in the rotor of squirrel cage
motors is not possible.

b) Cascade operation

In this method of speed control, two motors are used. Both are mounted on a same shaft so that
both run at same speed. One motor is fed from a 3phase supply and other motor is fed from the
induced emf in first motor via slip-rings.

Motor A is called main motor and motor B is called auxiliary motor.

Let, Ns1 = frequency of motor A

Ns2 = frequency of motor B

P1 = number of poles stator of motor A

P2 = number of stator poles of motor B

N = speed of the set and same for both motors

f = frequency of the supply 

Now, slip of motor A, S1 = (Ns1 - N) / Ns1.

frequency of the rotor induced emf in motor A, f1 = S1f

now, auxiliary motor B is supplied with the rotor induce emf

therefore, Ns2 = (120f1) / P2 = (120S1f) / P2.

now putting the value of S1 = (Ns1 - N) / Ns1

At no load, speed of the auxiliary rotor is almost same as its synchronous speed.

i.e. N = Ns2.

With this method, four different speeds can be obtained

1. when only motor A works, corresponding speed = .Ns1 = 120f / P1

2. when only motor B works, corresponding speed = Ns2 = 120f / P2

3. if commulative cascading is done, speed of the set = N = 120f / (P1 + P2)

4. if differential cascading is done, speed of the set = N = 120f (P1 - P2)

c) By injecting EMF in rotor circuit

In this method, speed of induction motor is controlled by injecting a voltage in rotor circuit. It is
necessary that voltage (emf) being injected must have same frequency as of slip
frequency. However, there is no restriction to the phase of injected emf. If we inject emf which is
in opposite phase with the rotor induced emf, rotor resistance will be increased. If we inject emf
which is in phase with rotor induced emf, rotor resistance will decrease. Thus, by changing the
phase of injected emf, speed can be controlled. The main advantage of this method is a wide
rage of speed control (above normal as well as below normal) can be achieved. The emf can be
injected by various methods such as Kramer system, Scherbius system etc

42. How does an invertor work?

When the AC mains power supply is available.

When the AC mains supply is available: The AC mains sensor senses it and the supply goes to the Relay and
battery charging section of the inverter.AC main sensor activates a relay and this relay will directly pass the
AC mains supply to the output socket.The load will by driven by the line voltage in this situation.Also the line
voltage is given to the battery charging section where the line voltage is converted to a DC voltage(12V DC or
24V DC usually),then regulated and battery is charged using it.There are special circuits for sensing the
battery voltage and when the battery is fully charged the charging is stopped.In some inverters there will be a
trickle charging circuit which keeps the battery constantly at full charge.
When the AC mains power supply is not available: When the AC mains power supply is not available,an
oscillator circuit inside the inverter produces a 50Hz MOS drive signal.This MOS drive signal will be amplified
by the driver section and sent to the output section.MOSFETs or Transistors are used for the switching
operation.These MOSFETs or Transistors are connected to the primary winding of the inverter
transformer.When these switching devices receive the MOS drive signal from the driver circuit,they start
switching between ON & OFF states at a rate of 50 Hz.This switching action of the MOSFETs or Transistors
cause a 50Hz current to the primary of the inverter transformer.This results in a 220V AC or 110V AC
(depending on the winding ratio of the inverter transformer) at the secondary or the inverter transformer.This
secondary voltage is made available at the output socket of the inverter by a changeover relay.
43.Explain an Oscillator with diagram.
An “oscillator” is a device that produces oscillations (back-and-forth) changes - usually an electronic circuit
that produces AC - from a steady (DC) source of power.
• In an LC oscillator circuit, the filter is a tuned circuit (often called a tank circuit; the tuned circuit is
a resonator) consisting of an inductor(L) and capacitor (C) connected together. Charge flows back and
forth between the capacitor's plates through the inductor, so the tuned circuit can store electrical energy
oscillating at its resonant frequency. There are small losses in the tank circuit, but the amplifier
compensates for those losses and supplies the power for the output signal. LC oscillators are often used
at radio frequencies,[2] when a tunable frequency source is necessary, such as in signal generators,
tunable radio transmitters and the local oscillators in radio receivers. Typical LC oscillator circuits are
the Hartley, Colpitts[2] and Clapp circuits.
• In a crystal oscillator circuit the filter is a piezoelectric crystal (commonly a quartz crystal).[2][3] The crystal
mechanically vibrates as a resonator, and its frequency of vibration determines the oscillation frequency.
Crystals have very high Q-factor and also better temperature stability than tuned circuits, so crystal
oscillators have much better frequency stability than LC or RC oscillators. Crystal oscillators are the most
common type of linear oscillator, used to stabilize the frequency of most radio transmitters, and to
generate the clock signal in computers and quartz clocks. Crystal oscillators often use the same circuits as
LC oscillators, with the crystal replacing the tuned circuit;

An oscillator is an electronic circuit that generates repeated waveforms. The exact waveform
generated depends on the type of circuit used to create the oscillator. One of the most
commonly used oscillator circuits is made from a pair of transistors that are rigged up to
alternately turn on and off. This type of circuit is called a multivibrator.

If the circuit is designed to continuously cycle between the two transistors, it's called
an astable multivibrator because the circuit never reaches a point of stability — that is, it
never decides which of the two transistors should be on, so it just keeps flipping back and
forth between the two.

Here is a schematic diagram for an astable multivibrator made from a pair of NPN transistors.

When you first power on this circuit, only one of the transistors turns on. You might think that
they would both turn on, because the bases of both transistors are connected to +V, but it
doesn't happen that way: One of them goes first. For the sake of discussion, assume that Q1
is the lucky one.
When Q1 comes on, current flows through R1 into the collector and on through the transistor to
ground. Meanwhile, C1 starts to charge through R2, developing a positive voltage on its right plate.
Because this right plate is connected to the base of Q2, positive voltage also develops on the base of

When C1 is charged sufficiently, the voltage at the base of Q2 causes Q2 to start conducting. Now
the current flows through the collector of Q2 via R4, and C2 starts charging through R3. Because the
right-hand plate of C2 is bombarded with positive charge, the voltage on the left plate of C2 goes
negative, which drops the voltage on the base of Q1. This causes Q1 to turn off.

C1 discharges while C2 charges. Eventually, the voltage on the left plate of C2 reaches the point
where Q1 turns back on, and the whole cycle repeats. The dueling capacitors alternately charge and
discharge, turning the two transistors on and off, which in turn allows current to flow through their
collector circuits.

Here are a few other interesting things to know about astable multivibrators:

• The time that each half of the multivibrator is on is determined by the RC time constant formed by
the capacitor charging circuits. Thus, you can vary the speed at which the circuit oscillates by
adjusting the capacitor and resistor values.
• You can, if you want, create an astable multivibrator from PNP transistors simply by switching the
ground with the +V voltage source.

• Output from the multivibrator circuit can be taken directly from the collector of either transistor.
For example, you could place an LED or a speaker in series with R1 or R4 to see or hear the
oscillator in action.

• Alternatively, you can use a third transistor to couple the multivibrator with an output load. Just
connect the emitter of one of the multivibrator transistors to the base of the third transistor and
connect the load to the collector.

This arrangement has two advantages. First, the load itself interferes with the multivibrator circuit
if you take it directly from the collector of Q1 or Q2. By using a third transistor, you isolate the
load from the multivibrator circuit. Second, the output is much closer to a true square wave when
the coupling transistor is used; without it, the output isn't a clean square wave because of the
effects of the capacitor charging.

44. How does capacitor block DC supply?

The explanation is in the fact that opposite charges attract each other. A capacitor is a compact
construction of 2 conducting plates separated by a very thin insulator. If you put DC on it one side will
be positively charged and the other side negatively. Both charges attract each other but can't pass the
insulating barrier. There's no current flow. So that's end of story for DC.

For AC it's different. One side will successively be positively and negatively charged, and attract
negative and positive charges resp. So changes on one side of the barrier provoke changes on the other
side, so that it appears that the charges cross the barrier, and that current effectively flows through the
A charged capacitor is always DC charged, i.e. one side has the positive charges and the other side the negative.
These charges are a storage for electrical energy, which is necessary in many circuits.
The maximum voltage is determined by the insulating barrier. Above a certain voltage it will breakdown and
create a short circuit. That can happen under DC but also under AC.

XC = 1/(2pi(f)C) capacitive reactance.

XC is inversely proportional to frequency f. Now for DC f=0. Hence XC is infinite(theoritically). Hence
it blocks DC.

but any how when we connect capacitor to battery there will be dc current flow in circuit as long the
capacitor is fully charged.

45. How does a tubelight work?

a. A fluorescent lamp basically consists of a long glass gas discharge tube. Its inner surface is
coated with phosphorous and is filled with an inert gas, generally argon, with a trace of mercury.
b. The tube is then finally sealed at low pressure with two filament electrodes each at its both ends.
c. These electrode filaments are used to preheat the tube and initiate a rapid conduction of
electrons between the two end electrodes. The process initially requires a relatively high amount
of power.
d. The energy also converts some of the mercury from a liquid to a glass. Electrons then collide
with the gaseous mercury atoms, increasing the amount of energy. As electrons return to their
original energy level, they begin to release light. However, the light they emit is ultraviolet, and
not visible to the naked eye, so another step needs to take place before we can see the light.
e. This is why the tube was coated with phosphorous. Phosphors will give off light when exposed to
light. When exposed to the ultraviolet light, the particles emit a white light which we can see.
f. Once the conduction of electrons between the electrodes is complete, no more heating of the
filaments is required and whole system works at a much lower current.

Here is one example of a tube light fixture consisting of a large heavy square "choke” or “ballast” and a small
cylindrical “starter.” Let’s try to understand how the whole system works. Please refer to the circuit diagram on the
right as you read the following points:
I. The choke is in fact a large inductor. It consists of a long copper winding over iron laminations.
II. An inductor by nature always has a tendency to throw back the stored current in it, every time the
power through it is switched OFF. This principle of the choke is exploited in lighting a fluorescent
tube light.
III. When an AC voltage is applied to a tube light fixture, the voltage passes through the choke, the
starter, and the filaments of the tube.
IV. The filaments light up and instantly warm up the tube. The starter is made up of a discharge bulb
with two electrodes next to it. When electricity passes through it an electrical arc is created between
the two electrodes. This creates light, however the heat from the bulb causes one of the electrodes
(a bimetallic strip) to bend, making contact with the other electrode. This stops the charged particles
from creating the electrical arc that created light. However, now that the heat from the light is gone,
the bimetallic strip cools and bends away from the electrode, opening the circuit again.
V. At this point, the ballast or choke "kick's back" it’s stored current, which again passes through the
filaments and ignites the tube light once again.
VI. If the tube does not sufficiently charge up, subsequent kicks are delivered by the choke due to rapid
switching of the starter, so that finally the tube strikes.
VII. After this the choke only acts like a low impedance current limiter to the tube as long as the light is
kept illuminated.
A common problem associated with these types of fixtures is humming or buzzing. The reason for this lies in the
loosely fitted choke on to the fixture which vibrates in accordance with the 50 or 60 hertz frequency of our AC mains
and creates a humming sort of noise. Tightening the choke's screws may instantly eliminate the problem.
The working principle of today’s modern electronic ballasts is to avoid the use of starters for the preheating
purpose. They are also very light in weight. These inhibit the initial flickering of the tube light as normally seen in the
ordinary tube fixtures by changing the frequency of the mains power to a much higher 20,000 hertz or more.
Moreover, electronic ballasts are very energy efficient.
46. How does a starter in a tube light work?
The most common fluorescent starter is called a "glow tube starter" (or just starter) and contains a small gas (neon, etc.)
filled tube and an optional radio frequency interference (RFI) suppression capacitor in a cylindrical aluminum can with a 2
pin base.

The glow tube incorporates a switch which is normally open. When power is applied, a glow discharge takes place which
heats a bimetal contact. A second or so later, the contacts close and provide current to the fluorescent filaments. Since the
glow is extinguished, there is no longer any heating of the bimetal and the contacts open. The inductive kick generated at
the instant of opening triggers the main discharge in the fluorescent tube. If the contacts open at a bad time, there isn't
enough inductive kick and the process repeats.

47. How does a ballast in a tube light work?

In a fluorescent lighting system, the ballast regulates the current to the lamps and provides sufficient
voltage to start the lamps. Without a ballast to limit its current, a fluorescent lamp connected directly to a
high voltage power source would rapidly and uncontrollably increase its current draw. Within a second the
lamp would overheat and burn out. During lamp starting, the ballast must briefly supply high voltage to
establish an arc between the two lamp electrodes. Once the arc is established, the ballast quickly reduces
the voltage and regulates the electric current to produce a steady light output.

48. How does a sodium vapour lamp work?

Sodium Vapour lamp consists of :

An arc tube which contains the xenon and sodium-mercury amalgam mixture and provides the proper
environment for producing light.

The electrodes, which are made of tungsten, carry a high-voltage, high-frequency pulse to strike the arc and
vaporize the mercury and sodium.

The base of the lamp which provides a means of electrical connection.

Ballasts to regulate the arc current flow and deliver the proper voltage to the arc. HPS lamps do not contain
starting electrodes. Instead, an electronic starting circuit within the ballast generates a high-voltage pulse to the
operating electrodes

The outer bulb shields the arc tube from drafts and changes in temperature, prevents oxidation of the internal
parts, and acts as a filter for most of the UV radiation generated by the mercury vapor.

Some lamps have a phosphor coating on the inner surface of the outer bulb to diffuse the light.

Basic Operation: In a high pressure sodium lamp, a compact arc tube contains a mixture of xenon, sodium
and mercury. The xenon gas which is easily ionized, facilitates striking the arc when voltage is applied across
the electrodes. The heat generated by the arc then vaporizes the mercury and sodium. The mercury vapor
raises the gas pressure and operating voltage, and the sodium vapor produces light when the pressure within
the arc tube is sufficient.
Theory of operation

Diagram of a high-pressure sodium lamp.

An amalgam of metallic sodium and mercury lies at the coolest part of the lamp and provides the sodium and mercury
vapor that is needed to draw an arc. The temperature of the amalgam is determined to a great extent by lamp power. The
higher the lamp power, the higher will be the amalgam temperature. The higher the temperature of the amalgam, the
higher will be the mercury and sodium vapor pressures in the lamp and the higher will be the terminal voltage. As the
temperature rises, the constant current and increasing voltage result in increased power until the nominal power is
reached. For a given voltage, there are generally three modes of operation:

The lamp is extinguished and no current flows.

The lamp is operating with liquid amalgam in the tube.

The lamp is operating with all amalgam evaporated.

The first and last states are stable, because the lamp resistance is weakly related to the voltage, but the second state is
unstable. Any anomalous increase in current will cause an increase in power, causing an increase in amalgam
temperature, which will cause a decrease in resistance, which will cause a further increase in current. This will create a
runaway effect, and the lamp will jump to the high-current state (#3). Because actual lamps are not designed to handle
this much power, this would result in catastrophic failure. Similarly, an anomalous drop in current will drive the lamp to
extinction. It is the second state that is the desired operating state of the lamp, because a slow loss of the amalgam over
time from a reservoir will have less effect on the characteristics of the lamp than a fully evaporated amalgam. The result
is an average lamp life in excess of 20,000 hours.

In practical use, the lamp is powered by an AC voltage source in series with an inductive "ballast" in order to supply a
nearly constant current to the lamp, rather than a constant voltage, thus assuring stable operation. The ballast is usually
inductive rather than simply being resistive to minimize resistive losses. Because the lamp effectively extinguishes at
each zero-current point in the AC cycle, the inductive ballast assists in the reignition by providing a voltage spike at the
zero-current point.

49. Why is capacitor used in rectifier bridge circuit?

The raw rectified DC requires a smoothing capacitor circuit to enable the rectified DC to be smoothed so that it

can be used to power electronics circuits without large levels of voltage variation.

The raw DC supplied by a rectifier on its own would consist of a series of half sine waves with the voltage varying
between zero and √2 times the RMS voltage (ignoring any diode and other losses). A supply of this nature would not be
of any use for powering circuits because any analogue circuits would have the huge level of ripple superimposed on the
output, and any digital circuits would not function because the power would be removed every half cycle.

To smooth the output of the rectifier a reservoir capacitor is used - placed across the output of the reciter and in parallel
with the load.. This capacitor charges up when the voltage from the rectifier rises above that of the capacitor and then as
the rectifier voltage falls, the capacitor provides the required current from its stored charge.
Full-wave rectifier (with capacitor filter).

Another thing to keep in mind is that the ripple component (E r) of the output
voltage is an ac voltage and the average output voltage (Eavg) is the dc
component of the output. Since the filter capacitor offers a relatively low
impedance to ac, the majority of the ac component flows through the filter
capacitor. The ac component is therefore bypassed (shunted) around the load
resistance, and the entire dc component (or Eavg) flows through the load
resistance. This statement can be clarified by using the formula for XC in a
half-wave and full-wave rectifier. First, you must establish some values for
the circuit.
50. Why inductor is used in rectifier bridge circuit?

The inductor is used in a choke filter. In the choke filter an inductor is connected between the rectifier and the
load. As the rectificed DC supply flows from the rectifier to the choke, the choke only allows the DC
component to pass through it and blocks the AC component. Hence the load is fed with a smooth DC.

51. How inductor blocks AC supply?

An inductor blocks AC while allowing DC because it resists a change in current. The equation of an
inductor is ... 

di/dt = V/L

... meaning that the rate of change of current is proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to

If you apply DC across an inductor, it will stabilize to some current flow based on the maximum
current available from the current / voltage source. In this mode, the inductor presents very low
resistance, so it can be said that it allows DC to pass. 

If, however, you apply AC across an inductor, you need to consider its inductive reactance by
integrating the above equation in terms of the circuit conditions. The equation for inductive
reactance is ... 

XL = 2 pi F L 

... meaning that the inductive reactance is proportional to the frequency and to the inductance. 

Thus, the higher the frequency, the higher the reactance. Since reactance is a phasor measure of
resistance, it can be thus said that an inductor will block AC.

52. What is Synchronous condenser?

Synchronous motors load the power line with a leading power factor. This is often usefull in cancelling out
the more commonly encountered lagging power factor caused by induction motors and other inductive
loads. Originally, large industrial synchronous motors came into wide use because of this ability to correct
the lagging power factor of induction motors.

This leading power factor can be exaggerated by removing the mechanical load and over exciting the field
of the synchronous motor. Such a device is known as a synchronous condenser. Furthermore, the leading
power factor can be adjusted by varying the field excitation. This makes it possible to nearly cancel an
arbitrary lagging power factor to unity by paralleling the lagging load with a synchronous motor. A
synchronous condenser is operated in a borderline condition between a motor and a generator with no
mechanical load to fulfill this function. It can compensate either a leading or lagging power factor, by
absorbing or supplying reactive power to the line. This enhances power line voltage regulation.

The efficiency of long power transmission lines may be increased by placing synchronous condensers
along the line to compensate lagging currents caused by line inductance. More real power may be
transmitted through a fixed size line if the power factor is brought closer to unity by synchronous
condensers absorbing reactive power.

The ability of synchronous condensers to absorb or produce reactive power on a transient basis stabilizes
the power grid against short circuits and other transient fault conditions.

53. If the AVR is defective, can it handle additional load?

When the load increases, the current drawn from the stator windings increases. This current drawn
flowing from the stator winding provides a rotating magnetic field. This field rotates at the same
speed as the rotor. The field lies across the rotor field and exerts a torque or pull over the rotor and
tries to pull the rotor backwards. The rotor slows down as a result of the magnetic torque
exerted.The governor detects this reduction in speed and opens the throttle to increase the fuel to
the prime mover. The throttle is opened up until the frequency returns to normal. Now the ;prime
mover develops enough power to maintain the correct speed and meet the KW demand.

KVAr component of the load imposes no power demand on the prime mover as the energy flow
during KVAr loading is backwards and forwards between the generator and the load. The stator
current again sets up a rotating magnetic field. But in this case the rotating magnetic field is in line
with the rotor field and hence does not exert a torque on the rotor.

The magnetic field is acting in the opposite direction to the rotor field which results in large reduction
of flux in the machine and hence reduced flux mens reduced output voltage.

The AVR responds to the fall of the output voltage and increases the excitation current to rotor to
increase the flux. The excitation is increased until the voltage is brought back to normal.
In case the AVR is defective,if the generator is running solo, the system voltage will collapse thus
resulting in a blackout situation.

If it is running in parallel, then the reduction in flux continues which will further reduce the terminal
voltage and with a total loss of excitation, the generation will run as an induction generator drawing
its excitation from the running generator. Both the generators currents will rise rapidly with the
serviceable one having a LAGGING POWER FACTOR and the other one having a LEADING
POWER FACTOR. A LOSS OF EXCITATION trip or OVERCURRENT trip should trip the generator
causing an overload on the serviceable generator.

Alternatively the serviceable generator will trip on Overcurrent that will deprive the other generator of
excitation and its breaker will trip on undervoltage.

54. What safety precaution you will take during battery maintenance ?
Proper ventilation inside the compartment.

Prevent any source of ignition.
The tools used for maintenance should be rubberized coating to prevent any chance of short
circuit and any kind of spark generation when the tool falls on the floor.
The paint used in the battery room and materials for ducting should be corrosion resistant
No metal jugs should be used for filling distilled water inside the batteries.
Prevent usage of naked lamps and avoid smoking in the battery room.
The battery should not be placed in the emergency switchboard room as arcing of the circuit
Wear goggles while working with batteries
Wear gloves
55. What safety precaution you will take before entering battery room?

The battery room of a ship is always under explosion risk as batteries release hydrogen during charging.
Hydrogen is a highly explosive gas and it is therefore important to take necessary steps or actions while
working inside the battery room during maintenance.

1) Providing proper ventilation inside the compartment.

2) By preventing any source of ignition.

Moreover, the ventilation is provided with the help of ventilation fans. The ventilation
arrangement should be such that there is no accumulation of hydrogen in the space. The
hydrogen is lighter than air and thus tends to accumulate in the top of the compartment. The
fans should be of non sparking type and should not produce any static charge.

The ventilation ducts should be below the battery level which would help in forcing the gases
out. The motor used should be of a standardized approved type so that there is no chance
of spark from the motor.
The tools used for maintenance should be rubberized coating to prevent any chance of short
circuiting by mistake. The coating would also prevent any kind of spark generation when the
tool falls on the floor.

The paint used in the battery room and materials for ducting should be corrosion resistant.
56. Where is it mentioned in Solas about battery maintenance and regulation?

57.Working principle of Salinometer.

Water purity, in terms of the absence of salts, is essential where it is to be used as boiler feed. Pure
water has a high resistance to the flow of electricity whereas salt water has a high electrical
conductivity. A measure of conductivity, in Siemens, is a measure of purity.

The salinity measuring unit ( shown in Figure ) uses two small cells each containing a platinum and
a gunmetal electrode. The liquid sample passes through the two cells and any current flow as a
result of conductance is measured. Since conductivity rises with temperature a compensating
resistor is incorporated in the measuring circuit. 

The insulating plunger varies the water flow in order to correct values to 20 degree C for a
convenient measuring unit, the microsiemens/cm3 or dionic unit. A de-gassifier should be fitted
upstream of this unit to remove dissolved carbon dioxide which will cause errors in measurement.

58. If all air bottles are at low pressure and there is black out how will you start the generators?

Start the Emergency generator and take it on load. Start the No.1 Main Air compressor which is
connected to the ESBD. Fill up the Auxiliary Air reservoir. Start one generator and start all the main air
compressors and charge the main air bottles and then you can start the other machineries including the
2nd generator and main engine.

59. Why are generator and motor bearing insulated?

The magnetic field inside a motor or generator is not completely uniform. Thus as the rotor turns, a
voltage is developed on the shaft longitudinally (directly along the shaft). This voltage would cause
microcurrents to flow through the lubricant film on the bearings. These currents, in turn, would
cause minor arcing, heating, and eventual bearing failure. The larger the machine is, the worse the
problem becomes.
To avoid this problem, the rotor side of the bearing body is often insulated from the stator side. In
most instances, at least one bearing will be insulated, usually the one farthest from the prime mover
for generators and farthest from the load for motors. Sometimes, both bearings are insulated.

60. State the maximum safe current a human body can tolerate

The amount of current that a body can tolerate depends on the frequency, duration and physical condition of the
body. Generally for a the threshold of perception is 1 mA. A current of 9 – 25 mA makes it difficult for a person to
release their grip from a power circuit, and at 30mA muscular contradictions can make breathing difficult. At higher
currents a person’s heart can cease to function.

a. In terms of electric current there is a sensation that shock is occurring when the value is about 1 mA.

b. The upper limit of safe or harmless range of electric current is 5 mA.

c. In terms of electric current at the let-go threshold the victim cannot shake loose from the source of shock
and perspires,,this is approximately at 10 – 20 mA.

d. There is sustained muscle contraction and cramping when the value of electric shock (Current) is 30 – 40

e. There is Extreme pain, physical exhaustion, fainting, irreversible nerve damage, possibility of ventricular
fibrillation (Heart) repiratory arrest when the value of electric (shock) current is 50 – 70 mA.

f. There is ventricular fibrillation and death if the current in excess of 100mA passes through the body trunk.

61. State the first aid to be administered to a person exposed to electric shock

Separate the Person From Current's Source

To give your casualty the optimum chance of survival you must quickly assess their
levels of response. Check whether the casualty is conscious
Ask “hello, can you hear me” and call their name if you know it.

Ask in both the casualty’s ears to open their eyes.

Pinch an ear lobe or gently tap the shoulders.

Shout for HELP!

DO NOT move the casualty unless the environment or situation is dangerous.
If alone call for help. If someone responds to your call ask them to stay with you whilst you assess the
Airway and Breathing.

For an unresponsive casualty open the airway

Look in the mouth to ensure there are no obvious obstructions.

2. Open the airway by lifting the chin and tilting the head back. This will free
the tongue from the back of the throat.

3. If neck/spinal injury is suspected, put one hand on the stomach to feel if it
rises and falls. This indicates normal breathing.
Assess for breathing
LOOK for the rise and fall of the chest. 

2. LISTEN for sounds of breathing. 

3. FEEL for air on your cheek. 

4. Carry this out for up to 10 seconds.
Breathing normally
If breathing is present go straight to the Recovery Position section.
Not breathing
If the casualty is not breathing normally, commence full Cardio-Pulmonary
Resuscitation (CPR). If you are alone, leave the casualty at this stage and call for
help. Return to the casualty and commence CPR (Cardio-Pulmonary
5) Unconscious – Not Breathing
To commence CPR:
For an unresponsive casualty
Ensure the casualty is on a firm, flat surface

2. Place your hands one on top of the other in the centre of the casualty’s

3. Compress the chest (up to a maximum depth of approximately 4-5cm) 30
times at a rate of 100 compressions per minute. The compressions and
releases should take an equal amount of time

4. After 30 compressions, open the airway again using head tilt/chin lift

5. Seal the nostrils with your thumb and forefinger.

6. Blow steadily into the mouth until you see the chest rise, take about a
second to make the chest rise. It is advisable to have Resuscitation
Equipment at this stage such as a face shield.

7. Remove your mouth to the side and let chest fall. Inhale some fresh air,
when breathing for the casualty

8. Repeat so you have given 2 effective rescue breaths in total

9. If chest does not rise after the second breath, go back to 30 compressions
then try again with 2 breaths.

10. Return your hands to the correct position on the chest and give a further
30 chest compressions.
Continue with CPR until:
The casualty shows signs of recovery

If the casualty is breathing normally

Check for any other obvious injuries.

2. Remove sharp objects from pockets.

3. Turn the casualty into the recovery position.

4. Place the nearest arm at a right angle to the body.

5. Draw the furthest arm across the chest and place the back of the hand
across the cheek.

6. Keep this here whilst you raise the furthest leg by grasping the top of the

7. Gently pull on the knee so that the casualty pivots over onto their side facing

8. The casualty should be fully over and stable.

9. Re-check the airway, breathing and circulation.

10. Draw up the leg at a 90 degree angle.

11. Check for continued breathing.


Exposure to electricity can cause burns to the skin and, in severe cases, internal
organs. In such cases the electricity may, for example, enter via a hand and leave
via the feet causing ‘entry’ and ‘exit’ burns.
Conscious casualties
Cool burns for a minimum of 10 minutes under cold water.

Action in the event of a major seizure

The casualty will almost definitely collapse during a major seizure. Try to
control the fall.

2. Ensure the safety of the casualty by removing any objects that may cause
injury if they are struck.

3. Place padding under the head of the casualty. Improvise if necessary by
using clothing.

4. DO NOT place anything in the casualty’s mouth.

5. Loosen any clothing that may restrict the airway.

6. When the seizure has subsided:

7. Check the casualty’s Airway, Breathing and Circulation (ABC).

8. If unconscious and breathing normally or semi-conscious, place the casualty
in the recovery position (see above). Perform CPR if not breathing.

9. Can also put a blanket over casualty to preserve modesty, also time the

10. Reassure the casualty whilst continuing to monitor the ABC and any other

62. Describe the CO2 system

A Co2 system of machinery spaces consists of a bank of Co2 bottles that can be operated from a remote place located away
from the machinery spaces. The system also consists of pilot Co2 cylinders which control the activation of the bank of Co2

The Co2 from the pilot cylinders will open the system's main stop valve. The main stop valve has a piston which gets depressed
due to the Co2 gas pressure and allows the pilot gas to flow to the bank of CO2 cylinders. This pilot gas operates the cylinders'
valves. These valves are known as Klem valves. All these valves have an actuator which gets operated by the pilot pressure.

.Though the opening of control box operates an alarm, the main decision for Co2 flooding is taken by the Chief engineer, after
due consultation with the master of the ship. Before releasing Co2 into the fire affected space, it should be made sure that
everybody is out of the place and the place is fully enclosed i.e all skylights and ventilators are closed air-tight. Pumps
supplying fuel oil should also be stopped in order to prevent re-ignition.

Separate levers for each and every space are present inside the main controlling cabinet. The operating of a particular lever
activates the pilot bottles, which helps in releasing the complete bank of bottles designated for that place. With the opening of
the master valve, Co2 is flooded inside the fire affected space, which then smothers the fire with the help of blanket effect.

Precaution to be taken after the fire is extinguished.

After the fire is extinguished by the flooding system, all the doors,hatches,vents and other openings should be opened in order to
ventilate the space properly, before any entry is made into the space.

The space should not be approached with any type of open flames as it might contain flammable vapours, which can lead to fire or

Checks on the system

a. Pipes leading to the spaces should regularly be blown with air to ensure that they are not blocked.
b. The level in the Co2 bottles should be checked on regular basis. If in a particular check, the difference is 10% of the total volume,
the bottle should be replaced as soon as possible.
c. Sensors should be checked periodically.
d. Cabinet door alarms should also be checked on regular interval of time.
e. All the pipings and connections at the CO2 bottles should be checked regularly.

63. State how sensors are tested for air flow, feed water and flame in boiler

64. Describe the boiler operation monitoring devices

65. Explain the term “manual call station”

Manual call station or Manual call points are part of the Fire alarm system onboard a ship. These are
installed to raise an alarm immediately on seeing a fire.

It contains of a push button which is mounted inside a casing and is kept in the depressed by a glass
cover. Whenever somebody who spots a fire wants to raise an alarm has to just break the glass. When
the glass Is broken the push button is released and an electrical signal is given to the main fire alarm
panel and the Fire alarm buzzers and sounders. The buzzers and sounders start ringing drawing the
attention of the other people. The main panel will display the address of the manual call point which has
been activated. The push button in the manual call point may be NC or NO depending on the circuit

66. Demonstrate systematically the tests that are made on the unmanned machinery space (UMS) alarm

Deadman alarm system..27 mins Pre alarm and after 1 minute dead man alarm

Engineer’s call alarm

Alarm tested in all engineer’s cabins and common places like Officer’s mess and smoke room, Crew
mess and smoke room, Bridge.

67. Simulate auto slow-down and emergency shut down

68. Explain the types of main engine revolutions per minute (RPM) pick-up sensor SENSING
Various kinds of principles are employed in speed sensors. Some of them are listed below
1. Variable reluctance based
2. Hall effect based
3. Eddy Current based
4. Radar Doppler based
5. LIDAR based
6. Accelerometer based
7. Pitot tube based.
8. Pitometer based.
Variable Reluctance (VR) sensors convert mechanical motion to electric energy without
direct contact when positioned near a gear, shaft, rotor, or other regularly moving device.
The output signal can be fed electronic circuit. The sensor provides a uncomplicated,
accurate, reliable, inexpensive transducer for highly sophisticated control systems.
Variable Reluctance sensor consists of a coil of wire wound around a cylindrical magnetic
material, typically a ferrous material and is referred to as a pole piece. A magnet is attached
behind the pole piece, creating a magnetic field through the pole piece and winding. This
magnetic field projects out from the pole piece front, also known as the sensor tip.
As the ferromagnetic material, e.g., gear teeth, flywheel or other target features, pass by the
sensor tip, the magnetic field is disrupted. The amount of magnetic flux passing through the
magnet, and consequently the coil, to varies. Due to the time varying flux, a voltage is
induced in the coil.
When the target feature is moved close to the sensor, i.e. the air gap between the sensor
and the target is reduced, the flux increases. When the target is moved further away, the flux
reduces. Thus, the motion of the target feature results in a time-varying flux that induces a
proportional voltage in the coil. The amplitude and frequency of the induced voltage is
proportional to the speed of the target feature.
This voltage signal is fed to the electronic circuitry that processes it to output the signal in
the desired format.
· Variable reluctance sensors are passive sensors as they don’t require external power
· As the wire and magnets used are pretty inexpensive, these sensors are low cost
· They are light weight, robust and can work in harsh(high temperature and high
vibration) environments

· Target material must be ferrous only.
· As the magnitude of the induced voltage in these sensors is proportional to target
speed, it becomes difficult to design circuitry appropriate for very low speed signals. Thus
Variable Reluctance sensors have a definite lower limit on the speed of the target.
· Though sensors themselves are cheap, the cost advantage is offset by the additional
electronic circuitry required to process the low amplitude induced voltages.

The Hall Effect

The basic principle is that when a bias voltage is applied to the silicon plate via two current contacts, an
electric field is created and a current is forced. If the plate is then exposed to a perpendicular magnetic
induction , the Hall electric field gives rise to the appearance of the Hall voltage between the two sense
contacts. This Hall voltage, Vh, is proportional to the amount of magnetic field applied normally to the
plate. This basic principle is the foundation for all Hall effect sensors today.

Figure 1: The Hall Effect.

Because Hall effect ICs detect the strength of a magnetic field, sensing is accomplished by changing the
magnetic field passing through the IC. This is commonly accomplished through linear or rotary motion of
a multi-pole magnet.

The position and rotation of ferrous gear teeth can be detected using the Hall effect by measuring the
changes induced by the gear at the face of an opposing magnet. The presence of the ferrous gear alters
the reluctance of the magnetic circuit and creates a concentration effect at the magnet surface. These
changes can be measured by using a Hall effect sensing element located on the magnet face1.

Eddy Current based Principle of Operation An eddy-current probe works by passing an

alternating current through a coil of wire and measuring the coil’s impedance. This impedance
changes when the probe is brought near an electrically conductive material and the impedance
change is proportional to the physical gap between the coil and the conductive target. The sensing
electronics in turn convert this impedance change to a voltage, providing an electrical output directly
proportional to physical gap

69.What is a proximity switch?

Proximity sensor is a device which detects objects nearby without any physical contact up
to nominal range or sensor’s vicinity. In brief we can also say that Sensors which convert
information on the movement or presence of an object into an electrical signal are called
proximity sensors.

An Inductive Proximity Sensor consists of an oscillator, a ferrite core with coil, a detector circuit,
an output circuit, housing, and a cable or connector.

The oscillator generates a sine wave of a fixed frequency. This signal is used to drive the coil.
The coil in conjunction with ferrite core induces a electromagnetic field. When the field lines are
interrupted by a metal object, the oscillator voltage is reduced, proportional to the size and
distance of the object from the coil. The reduction in the oscillator voltage is caused by eddy
currents induced in the metal interrupting the field lines. This reduction in voltage of the
oscillator is detected by the detecting circuit.


There are several types of proximity sensor which are used according to the need, material
detection and many other things. To classify them here are its types:

INDUCTIVE PROXIMITY SENSORS: Device which generates output signal or electrical signal
when metal objects are either inside or entering into its sensing area from any direction. The
metal objects above includes iron, aluminum, brass, copper, etc with varied sensing distances.

CAPACITIVE PROXIMITY SENSORS: It can also detect metals but along with it can also
detect resins, liquids, powders, etc. This sensor working can vary accordingly covering material,
cable longness, noise senstivity. Its sensing distance also vary according to factors such as the
temperature, the sensing object, surrounding objects, and the mounting distance between
Sensors. Its maximum range of sensing is 25 mm.
MAGNETIC PROXIMITY SENSORS :Name is saying its sensing object – magnets. Magnetic
Proximity Sensors have no electrical noise effect and it can work on DC, AC, AC/DC, DC. Again
sensing distance can vary due to factors such as the temperature, the sensing object,
surrounding objects, and the mounting distance between Sensors. This type of sensors have
highest sensing range upto 120 mm.

70.What is the Difference Between Star and Delta

The basic difference between star and delta is that star generates a high voltage at a low
current, and delta generates a low voltage at a high current. The total (no load) power
generated is the same.

To calculate the output AC voltage and current of a three-phase alternator wired in star or delta
it is only necessary to measure the voltage and current of one of the coils. Multiply the voltage
of one coil by the number of coils per phase to obtain the phase voltage. The square root of the
number of phases (3) = 1.732 can be used to calculate the total outputs with either

For example, if you have one phase which gives 20 Volts at 12 Amps:

Star - Voltage = 20 * 1.732 = 34.6V, Current is unchanged at 12 Amps.

Delta - Voltage is unchanged at 20 Volts, Current = 12 X 1.732 = 20.8 Amps.

Note that since power is equal to the voltage multiplied by the current, in both cases the power
is around 415 Watts in the example above.

Star and Delta in the Real World

Since star and delta wiring both give the same power, why does it matter which is used? Well
a wind turbine alternator will generate a higher voltage at lower RPM and will therefore start
charging thebattery bank sooner if star is used. An alternator wired in delta requires more effort
(wind or water power) to get it turning in the first place compared to star. However at high RPM
the voltage generated in star can be too high whereas in delta a good current is generated at a
lower voltage.

Ideally an alternator would start off wired in star so it starts spinning easily and the high voltage
output would start charging sooner, but then at a certain RPM would switch to Delta to output a
big current at a not too high voltage. Switching in this way maximises the amount of power
actually sent to the batteries and therefore the overall efficiency of the system. Most large
commercial wind turbine generators do exactly this switching from star to delta when optimal
to do so. The technology is very simple since it is essentially the same as that used to soft-
start motors - starting in star and then switching to delta when everything has got going.
Perhaps the greatest advantage of the ∆-connected source is its fault tolerance. It is possible
for one of the windings in a ∆-connected three-phase source to fail open without affecting load
voltage or current. The only consequence of a source winding failing open for a ∆-connected
source is increased phase current in the remaining windings.

If dual voltages are needed (e.g. 120/208) or preferred for lower line currents, Y-connected
systems are

∆-connected three-phase voltage sources give greater reliability in the event of winding failure
than Y-connected sources. However, Y-connected sources can deliver the same amount of
power with less line current than ∆-connected sources.

71.What is Mains failure relay?

72. What is sequential starting

Following is the general sequential starting of machineries.

05 Sec after main power is restored: 1) Stern Tube Luboil pump 2) Main LO Pump

10 Secs after main power is restored: 1) MCSW P/P 2) LT CW P/P 3) M/E JCW P/P

15 Secs after main power is restored: 1) Deck seal water P/p 2) Aux. Blr. & Comp. Blr Feed P/P

20 Secs after main power is restored: 1) All E/R fans 2) Fire & GS Pump

73. Why overcurrent does not trip during starting of motor when motor draws heavy current?

The motor starting or "inrush" current, which is also called "locked rotor current," is only present during
the acceleration period at the moment the motor is started. The inrush current decreases rapidly as the
motor begins to rotate. The motor branch-circuit overcurrent protection easily handles these currents
within the limitations of the motor branch circuit conductors.

74. Why power factor of motor is low during induction motor starting?

Reactive power is required for the magnetization of a motor but doesn't perform any action. The reactive
power required by inductive loads increases the amounts of apparent power - measured in kilovolt amps
(kVA) - in the distribution system. Increasing of the reactive and apparent power will cause the power
factor - PF - to decrease.
A low power factor is the result of inductive loads such as transformers and electric motors. Unlike
resistive loads creating heat by consuming kilowatts, inductive loads require a current flow to create
magnetic fields to produce the desired work.

 Reactive current will be high if motor require more magnetic field to develop. Reactive power consumption
depend on size of the motor.

Inductive reactance depends on the frequency and the slip. When the rotor is not turning, the slip
frequency is at maximum and so is the inductive reactance. When the motor starts rotating the slip
is 100 % and the motor current is at maximum. The slip and motor current start reducing as the motor
starts running.

The inductive reactance will change with the slip since the rotor impedance is the phase sum of the
constant resistance and the variable inductive reactance.
When the motor starts rotating the inductive reactance is high and impedance is mostly inductive. The
rotor has a low lagging power factor. When the speed increases the inductive reactance goes down
equaling the resistance.
75. What is Aldis lamp?
It is a signal lamp (named after Arthur Cyril Webb Aldis who invented a widely used design). It
is a visual signaling device for optical communication (typically using Morse code).
76. How does current gets affected by starting delta motor in star?

An induction motor is similar to a poly-phase transformer whose secondary is short circuited. Thus,
at normal supply voltage, like in transformers, the initial current taken by the primary is very large for
a short while. If an induction motor is directly switched on from supply, it takes 5 to 7 times its full
load current, and develops a torque which is only 1.5 to 2.5 times the full load torque.

This large starting current will produce large voltage drop in line, which may affect the operation of
other devices connected in the line. From the torque equation of induction motor, it can be seen that
starting torque can be improved by increasing the rotor resistance. Rotor resistance can be easily
increased in case of slip-ring induction motors, but for squirrel cage motorsstarting current can be
controlled by applying reduced stator voltage.

When stator winding is star connected, voltage over each phase in motor will be reduced by a factor 1/
(sqrt. 3) that it would be for delta connected winding. The starting torque will 1/3 to that of it will be for
delta connected winding. Hence a star-delta starter is equivalent to an auto-transformer of ratio 1/(sqrt.
3) or 58% reduced voltage.electrically interlocked and preferably mechanically interlocked as well.
! The star contactor serves to initially short the
secondary terminal of the motor U2, V2, W2 for the start sequence during the initial run of the motor
from standstill. This provides one third of DOL current to the motor, thus reducing the high inrush
current inherent with large capacity motors at startup.

Controlling the interchanging star connection and delta connection of an AC induction motor is
achieved by means of a star delta or wye delta control circuit. The control circuit consists of push button
switches, auxiliary contacts and a timer.

Control Circuit of Star-Delta Starter (Open Transition)

77.What is under voltage protection for motors?

An undervoltage relay which removes a motor from service when a lowvoltage condition develo

so that the motor will not drawexcessive current, or which prevents a large induction or synchro

motor from starting under low-voltage conditions.

The principle is simple, it will check for voltage at all times. If the voltage falls below a preset.
Relay will not work and the LED is a warning.
As AC main in normal level, the relay will apply AC line to motor. And if voltage falls to less than
10% of normal voltage the relay will cut off load at once. Until the voltage is restored to its
original condition.
78. What is synchronous and super synchronous motor?

The name “super synchronous” has been given to a certain type of motor, not because the

operates above synchronous speed but because it has the ability to develop super torque in
There has been a demand for a long time for some type of synchronous motor that would

during the starting cycle a torque as great or greater than that of an induction motor of the
wound-rotor,external-resistance type. The first applications of synchronous motors, where
considerable starting torque was required, were accomplished by the use of friction clutches.

Requirements for medium sized AC electric motors are fulfilled satisfactorily by conventional
machines of the synchronous or squirrel-cage induction type. They have, among other
advantages, a very simple form of construction resulting from the absence of electrical
connection to the rotor. However, they have a limitation in that the rotor speed cannot exceed
the supply frequency (e.g., 3600 r.p.m. for 60 Hz). Described is a synchronous motor in which
the self-contained rotor, not much more complicated than a squirrel-cage, runs at twice
synchronous speed.

79. How vibration protection is provided for NER on board ship?

for the purpose of preventing undue vibration of the element and increasing its resistance to deformation.
Insulating spacers I9, which are clearly illustrated in Figs. l and 2, may be provided, comprising a plurality of
spaced apart fingers 20 which may be disposed between the adjacent straight portions of the resistance element,
near the central portion thereof, to further increase the rigidity thereof. Connection may be made to the resistance
element I4 in any suitable manner, such as by connecting a bus bar 22 directly to the resistance element by
suitable means, such as the bolts 23, which may be reinforced by welding if desired.

80.What type of overload protection is provided in steering gear system?

In case of an overload, an alarm will be sounded inn the Engine room and Wheelhouse
the overload. However, the steering gear motor will not stop and will keep running until the
has been investigated and remedial action is taken.

81.What alarms are provided for steering gear system?

Phase failure

Motor overload

Hydraulic oil tank low level

Oil temperature high

Isolation valve operated

82.Can we store leadacid and alkaline battery in same room? Yes or no …give reason

We cannot store them together due to the fumes that may be poisonous and explosive in

83.What is called a "memory effect" ??

Memory effect means is that when a NiCad battery is only partially discharged before charging,
the battery "forgets" that it has the capacity to further discharge all the way down.
If you, on a regular basis, fully charge your battery and then use only 40% of its capacity before
the next recharge, eventually the battery will become unaware of its extra 60% capacity which
had remained unused. Your battery will remain functional, but only at 40% of its original
The way to avoid the dreaded "memory effect" is to fully cycle your NiCad battery at least once
a month. In other words, fully discharge your battery and then fully charge it.
84. What is SVDR? What information is fed into SVDR?

Passenger ships and ships other than passenger ships of 3000 gross tonnage and upwards
constructed on or after 1 July 2002 must carry voyage data recorders (VDRs) to assist in
accident investigations, under regulations adopted in 2000, which entered into force on 1 July
The mandatory regulations are contained in chapter V on Safety of Navigation of the
International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS).
Like the black boxes carried on aircraft, VDRs enable accident investigators to review
procedures and instructions in the moments before an incident and help to identify the cause of
any accident.
The simplified voyage data recorder, S-VDR is not required to store the same level of detailed
data as a standard VDR, but nonetheless should maintain a store, in a secure and retrievable
form, of information concerning the position, movement, physical status, command and control
of a vessel over the period leading up to and following an incident.
SVDR is used for safe collection and storage of voyage data such as ship position, movements, physical condition,
bridge commands etc. for a defined time period, with an available playback function.

85.Difference between VDR and S-VDR

There is no principle difference between a voyage data recorder (VDR) and a simplified voyage data
recorder (S-VDR). The difference is the amount of information required to be recorded. The VDR
requires more data to be recorded than the S-VDR.

Data types
• Date and time: Referenced to UTC with an indication of the source. The source could be the GPS
• Ship’s position: In latitude and longitude with the datum used. The source could be the GPS
• Speed: Through water or speed over ground with indication of which it is. The source could be the
speed log
• Heading: As indicated by the ship’s compass. The source could be the gyro compass
• Bridge audio: As picked up by one or more microphones positioned on the bridge so that conversation
at or near the conning stations, radar displays, chart tables, etc., is adequately recorded. As far as
practicable, the positioning of microphones should also capture intercom, public address systems and
audible alarms on the bridge
• VHF communications: Relating to ship operations should be recorded
• Radar data: Electronic signal information from within one of the ship’s radar installations with recording
of all the information which was actually being presented on the master display of that radar at the time
of recording
• AIS data: If it is impossible to obtain radar data by using a commercially available interface then AIS
target data should be recorded as a source of information regarding other ships. If radar data is
recorded, AIS information may be recorded additionally as a beneficial secondary source of information
on both other and own ship. AIS data is not mandatory, but an option when it is impossible to obtain
radar data by means of a commercially available interface
• Additional data: Items listed by IMO with the requirements set out in resolution A.861(20) should be
recorded when the data is available in accordance with the international digital interface standard
NMEA0183 using approved sentence formatters. The additional data listed by IMO with the
requirements in resolution A.861(20) are: 

– Echo sounder

– Main alarms

– Rudder order and response

– Engine order and response

– Hull openings status

– Watertight and fire door status

– Accelerations and hull stresses

– Wind speed and direction

The additional data (any or all) shall only have to be recorded if the data are available on the bridge
and the data signals are available in NMEA0183 format. Hence, the principle difference between
VDR and S-VDR lays in the requirements for recording of additional data

86.What is Doppler log? How it works?

A doppler speed log measures ship's speed by utilizing the principle of the Doppler
effect, which defines that a signal emitted from a moving object is heard
with its frequency shifted at stationary locations and the degree of the frequency shift is
proportional to the speed of the moving object.

The doppler effect is a physical phenomenom which affects waves in motion.

The standard example is the effect on a fire engine siren as it quickly drives
past. When it movestowards you the sound waves are compressed, and so the
frequency becomes higher, and when it moves away from you the frequency
becomes lower.

87.What is autopilot? How does it work?

The main task of an autopilot is to lock the heading of the boat to a predefined reference
course. This is the course the boat has when you press the auto button. In the auto mode the
autopilot constantly compares the boats true heading given by the compass with the wished
reference course in the same way that any control system does. If there is deviation, the
autopilot applies power to the steering system and the rudder turns the boat and get it back on
track. The rudder angle is feed back to the system. There is a trade off between the accuracy of
holding the reference course and the activity of the rudder movements.

Modes of Operation

An autopilot can work in one of several modes dependent on what you want to do with it. At
start up it will always go in to manual or stand-by mode. The different modes are explained

Manual Mode, the autopilot is standby and the boat is under manual steering. The display
shows the actual heading


Auto Mode, the autopilot is activated and steers the boat to the reference course which is then
shown on the display. The refence course will be the course the boat has when auto mode is
selected. You can change this desired reference course by pressing the arrow buttons on AP47
and AP55 or by rotating the course knob on AP4 and AP9.

GPS Mode. In this mode the autopilot gets steering information from a separate GPS unit. All
Autopilots with GPS connected for navigation can follow a track to a distant bearing and can
follow a route of multiple way points and automatically turn to a new reference course when
switching to next way point. In the picture at right you can see how it looks on a GPS plotter.
Note that the boat will not cross the waypoint, when it’s close enough to the waypoint the
autopilot will automatically turn to the next waypoint.

88. Draw a typical circuit of navigational light.

89.What is radar? How does it work?

Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or
velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships.

We can see objects in the world around us because light (usually from the Sun) reflects off
them into our eyes. If you want to walk at night, you can shine a torch in front to see where
you're going. The light beam travels out from the torch, reflects off objects in front of you, and
bounces back into your eyes. Your brain instantly computes what this means: it tells you how far
away objects are and makes your body move so you don't trip over things.
Radar works in much the same way. The word "radar" stands for radio detection and ranging—
and that gives a pretty big clue as to what it does and how it works.
A radar set needs the same basic set of components: something to generate radio waves,
something to send them out into space, something to receive them, and some means of
displaying information so the radar operator can quickly understand it.
The radio waves used by radar are produced by a piece of equipment called a magnetron.
Radio waves are similar to light waves: they travel at the same speed—but their waves are
much longer and have much lower frequencies. Light waves have wavelengths of about 500
nanometers (500 billionths of a meter, which is about 100–200 times thinner than a human
hair), whereas the radio waves used by radar typically range from about a few centimeters to a
meter—the length of a finger to the length of your arm—or roughly a million times longer than
light waves.
Once the radio waves have been generated, an antenna, working as a transmitter, hurls them
into the air in front of it. The antenna is usually curved so it focuses the waves into a precise,
narrow beam, but radar antennas also typically rotate so they can detect movements over a
large area. The radio waves travel outward from the antenna at the speed of light (186,000
miles or 300,000 km per second) and keep going until they hit something. Then some of them
bounce back toward the antenna in a beam of reflected radio waves also traveling at the speed
of light. The speed of the waves is crucially important.
The antenna doubles up as a radar receiver as well as a transmitter. In fact, it alternates
between the two jobs. Typically it transmits radio waves for a few thousandths of a second, then
it listens for the reflections for anything up to several seconds before transmitting again. Any
reflected radio waves picked up by the antenna are directed into a piece
of electronic equipment that processes and displays them in a meaningful form on a television-
like screen, watched all the time by a human operator. The receiving equipment filters out
useless reflections from the ground, buildings, and so on, displaying only significant reflections
on the screen itself. Using radar, an operator can see any nearby ships or planes, where they
are, how quickly they're traveling, and where they're heading.
The antenna doubles up as a radar receiver as well as a transmitter. In fact, it alternates
between the two jobs. Typically it transmits radio waves for a few thousandths of a second, then
it listens for the reflections for anything up to several seconds before transmitting again. Any
reflected radio waves picked up by the antenna are directed into a piece
of electronic equipment that processes and displays them in a meaningful form on a television-
like screen, watched all the time by a human operator. The receiving equipment filters out
useless reflections from the ground, buildings, and so on, displaying only significant reflections
on the screen itself. Using radar, an operator can see any nearby ships or planes, where they
are, how quickly they're traveling, and where they're heading.

How does radar work?

Here's a summary of how radar works:
1. Magnetron generates high-frequency radio waves.
2. Duplexer switches magnetron through to antenna.
3. Antenna acts as transmitter, sending narrow beam of radio waves through the air.
4. Radio waves hit enemy airplane and reflect back.
5. Antenna picks up reflected waves during a break between transmissions. Note that the
same antenna acts as both transmitter and receiver, alternately sending out radio waves
and receiving them.
6. Duplexer switches antenna through to receiver unit.
7. Computer in receiver unit processes reflected waves and draws them on a TV screen.
8. Enemy plane shows up on TV radar display with any other nearby targets.
90. Why we should switch off synchroscope after synchronizing alternators?

It should not be left in circuit for more than 20 minutes as it is not continuously rated.

91.What is bus coupler?

Bus coupler is a device which is used to couple one bus to the other without any interruption in power
supply and without creating hazardous arcs. Bus coupler is a breaker used to couple two busbars in
order to perform maintenance on other circuit breakers associated with that busbar

92.Explin the principle of operation of various detectors in fire alarm system

Ionisation Smoke Detector
An ionisation type smoke detector# is the earliest form of smoke detection originally developed by
Swiss physicist Walter Jaeger in 1930. The ionisation smoke detector operates on the principal that,
under normal circumstances, air in a chamber is ionised by the radioactive element (Americum 241)
which causes the free and equal flow of electrons between two adjacent electrodes. When smoke
particles enter the chamber between the electrodes, the normal flow of electrons is interrupted
causing an alarm actuation.

The ionisation chamber is very sensitive to temperature and air pressure, which is overcome by have
a second reference chamber.

Ionisation smoke detectors require a very low power to operate and traditionally have been the most
regularly used residential smoke alarms. Ionisation smoke detectors are most effective for invisible
particles of combustion such as those found in fast flaming fires.

Photo-electric Smoke Detector

As the name suggests the photo-electric smoke detector is an optical device comprising a transmitter
and receiver. The transmitter and receiver are mounted inside a black chamber with the transmitter
and receiver in an offset arrangement. Under normal circumstances, the transmitter emits a focused
light beam into the chamber. The projected light is absorbed by the black walls of the chamber and
the receiver receives no light.

When visible smoke particles enter the chamber the projected light is scattered in all directions. When
this scattered light is detected by the receiver it will activate an alarm.

There are two main types of photoelectric smoke detectors, namely the projected beam type and the
reflected beam type. Photoelectric smoke detectors work on basis of the presence or absence of light.

The projected beam type consists of a photoelectric sensor with light falling on it from a source located at
holds or other protected space on the ship. When there is the presence of smoke, the light intensity of the
beam that is received in the photoelectric cell decreases due to it being obscured by the smoke particles.
This reduced level of light intensity causes the electrical circuit to the photocell to be unbalanced, and
hence activating the alarm.

The reflected light beam type smoke detector consists of a light source, a light catcher positioned
opposite to the light source and also a photoelectric cell fixed normal to the light source. When smoke
particles enter into the light beam region, some light is being reflected onto the photoelectric cell. This
creates a closed circuit, and hence setting off the alarm.

Photoelectric detectors are commonly used to protect storage areas and high value compartments, and
also to provide smoke detection for air ducts and plenum areas.

However, the downside of this type of photoelectric smoke detector is that the smoke has to be thick
before it can be detected. This is due to its relatively low sensitivity. The plus side of this type of smoke
detectors is that there will be fewer false alarms.

Flame Detectors
These detectors comprise an electronic circuit with an electromagnetic radiation receiver. Flame
detectors are actuated when they receive electromagnetic radiation from one or more defined wave
lengths are received according to their design in the ultra-violet or infrared spectrum.

Heat Detectors
The most common form of heat detector is an electronic device with a thermistor acting as the heat
sensitive element. A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance changes significantly according
to temperature. These detectors can operate as a fixed-temperature and a rate-of-rise device or both
depending on their intended design. These detectors may also include features to reduce the
possibility of deceptive phenomena causing false alarms.

93.Which sensor other than smoke, flame and heat sensor used onboard ship?
a) Flammable Gas Detector

Flammable gases are gases that at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a flammable mixture with
air at a concentration of 13 percent by volume or less. Some examples of flammable gases that are
commonly found in ships are hydrocarbon gases, hydrogen sulphide and oxygen.

Flammable gas detectors will draw samples of air periodically, and analyse them for mainly hydrocarbon
gas and also other flammable gases. If the gas concentration is above the pre-set alarm threshold, an
alarm will sound off immediately.

Flammable gas detectors, though not mandatory, are commonly installed in enclosed spaces which can
hold high volumes of flammable gases. The danger of cargo leaks into void spaces and ballast tanks, and
the risk of explosions associated with a build up of hydrocarbon gas is something to be taken seriously.

Flammable gas detectors are sometimes also installed at accommodation air conditioning inlet. This is to
prevent fire outbreaks to happen in areas where there are constant human activity.

b) Refrigerant Gas Leak Detector

Refrigerant gases are chemical products used in freezers, refrigerators, air conditioning units. These
gases have low evaporation points, hence they will condense under pressure to chill the air. The repeated
process of evaporating and condensing the gases pulls heat out of the air, thus reducing the temperature
of the in the unit. There are many different types of refrigerant gas, and the more common ones include
chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC), hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), perfluorocarbon
(PFC), and blends made from ammonia and carbon dioxide.
However, cases of leakage of refrigerant gases is a common sight. Some refrigerant gases are
detrimental to our environment. For example, when CFC is released into the atmosphere, a chemical
change will take place due to its exposure to the UV light. This reaction will result in the production of
green house gases, and also depletes the ozone layer. Being able to detect refrigerant gas leakage can
help cut down on unnecessary expenses and also help protect the environment.

According to MARPOL Annex VI Regulation 12 - ozone depletion substances, refrigerant gas detectors
are to be installed to monitor and detect any leakages of refrigerant gases. Refrigerant gases are
continually monitored by fixed gas sensors. When the detector detects that the refrigerant gas
concentration exceeds a certain prefixed limit (e.g. 25 ppm for ammonia, 300 ppm for halogenated
fluorocarbons), the alarm will be set off, alerting whoever manning the system.

Refrigerant gas detectors are usually located in places where the refrigerant are likely to leak, such as the
centralised cargo refrigeration systems, centralised air conditioning systems and centralised domestic
refrigeration systems.

c) Water Level Detector

Water leakage and ingress may happen onboard ships. When cargo holds or bulkhead are filled with
excess water, it will damage the cargo onboard and also severely affect the buoyancy and stability of the
ship. Worst case scenario would be the flooding of the ship, leading to it sinking. Hence, water detectors
are of high importance, and are used to detect if the water level, in any compartment, exceeds over a
predetermined height.

Water detectors are positioned at a predetermined height at the aft end of each individual cargo hold or
compartment. The height position specifications are different between bulk carriers and cargo vessels.
When the water level in any particular compartment reaches the alarm level, the detector will detect it,
and the alarm will be set off. The picture below is an illustration of the position of the water detector

94.What type of signal is between fire alarm panel and sensor? Voltage or current?
Fire Alarm Loop

In a fire alarm system, a loop is a pair of wires. It carries power and signals between the circuit
boards inside the control panel and the off-panel devices in the field. 

The loop:

As an Initiating Device Circuit (IDC), carries signals from the input devices to the panel

As a Notification Appliance Circuit (NAC), carries signals and power from the panel to the fire horns,
speakers, and strobes, causing the devices to make noise and flash lights, telling the occupants of
the alarm.

IDC (Initiating Device Circuit)

The IDC is a pair of wires connecting the panel to the input sensing devices. 

Smoke Detectors, flame detectors, Heat Detectors, Manual call Stations

The Initiating Device Circuit is two way communication. The fire alarm panel provides
voltage for supervision, the circuit uses resistance to affect current telling the panel - normal,
alarm, trouble.

NAC (Notification Appliance Circuit)

Wired similar to the IDC Class A or Class B loop, the NAC carries power to operate the "Notification
o Fire horns

o Strobes

o Bells

o Chimes

o Speakers

In alarm, the voltage on the loop is forward biased; the electrical current provided by the panel goes
through the notification appliances, letting people know about the alarm. They are notified.

SLC (Signaling Line Circuit)

The Signaling Line Circuit (SLC) carries signals both to and from the panel; it uses data to carry the
signals out from the panel to field devices, and data to carry the signals back from the field devices
to the panel. 

The SLC also provides a small amount of power to operate the field devices. 

Field Devices Connected to an SLC


▪ Smoke Detectors

▪ Heat Detectors

▪ Combination Smoke/Heat Detectors

▪ Pull Stations

▪ Alarm and Supervisory Input Module


Control Relays

NAC Riser Modules

▪ Audible

▪ Visible

▪ Combination Audible/Visible

▪ Audio for Speakers

95.Explain in brief fixed foam system.

In all the ships requiring foam as an extinguishing agent, mechanical foam is generally used.
Mechanical foam is formed by mixing foam making material with large quantities of water. But
just the ingression of this mixture in the fire affected area is not sufficient. Violent agitation of the
mixture into the air is required to create large amount of air bubbles in the foam.
Automatic Foam Induction System

A foam induction system is used to monitor and control the whole foam generating
process. The main parts of the system are :
a. Automatic Inductor unit
b. Foam Compound tank
c. Fire Pumps
d. Hydrants

The automatic inductor unit monitors the main function of the system and ensures that
correct mixing of water and foam compound in order to generate adequate amount of foam.
The mixing of the foam compound and water takes place inside a foam compound tank,
which is sealed from all the sides to prevent the deteriorating of the mixture formed. This
mixture is then pumped through the hydrants with the help of fire pumps. The Foam
compound tank also has linked compound supply and air vent valves, which are used to
control the flow of water, air and the foam mixture.
When the system is to be operated, first of all, both the linked valves are opened. The
mixing of the foam producing compounds and water is carefully metered using a automatic
inductor unit. Once the mixing is done, air under pressure in forced into the tank to produce
foam. The foam is then pumped out using fire pumps. It is of utmost importance that both,
the fire pumps and compound tanks are located away from the engine room and at a well
protected area.

96. How fire alarm sensors connected to Hyper mist system. Explain with diagram

The engine room employs fire detection systems which have a master control panel on the bridge with
auxiliary panels in the engine control room and the fire control station. The system consists of different
types of fire detectors located at various places as per the risk of the type of fire. There are three
phenomena associated with a fire: smoke, flames, and heat. These are employed for the detection
purposes. There are three type of detectors used in engine room, which are infrared flame detectors,
smoke detectors, and heat detectors. We cannot go into the details of the different types of the fire
detectors as it is outside the scope of this article, however, the placement of the fire detectors is as
• In work shop where there is always welding works going on and smoke and naked flame are always
present, a heat detector would be placed or none at all as it is a certified hot work area.
• In engine control room smoke detectors are used.
• Near boilers and incinerators where abnormal conditions can produce a naked flame, an infrared
flame and an ionization type smoke detector is used.
• Generally smoke detectors are used throughout the engine room. The flame detectors are used near
fuel handling units like purifiers, hot filters, refiners, conditioners.
Upon the detection of a fire, an audible alarm is sounded throughout the ship, with the control panel and
alarm systems showing the location of the fire. If two types of fire detectors, i.e. flame and smoke, are
simultaneously triggered they would activate the Hyper-Mist system in that zone automatically.
97. What is the pressure of hyper mist pump?

High-pressure water is injected through a special nozzle working within pressure range of 4 to 10 MPa
(depending upon the design of the system), which breaks the water droplets into fine mist. The diameter
of the water mist particle range from 50 to 200 µm which improves the fire extinguishing effect and
efficiency of the system. The distance between any two nozzles is very critical as area covered by one
nozzle must be such that no space is left unsprayed in the fire affected area.

98.What type of pump is used in hyper mist?

99.H2S sensor working principle.

Electrochemical Detectors In an electrochemical sensor the cells combine enclosed electrodes and
electrolyte. H2 S diffuses through a permeable membrane, the volume of H2 S increases in the air, an
oxidation or reduction reaction occurs at one of the electrodes, and as a result, a linear current change
occurs. This enables a display or an amplifier device to generate an indication of the H2 S level. These
detectors also have high sensitivity and repeatability, which has established this as the toxic detection
technology of choice in a wide variety of applications. The use of electrochemical sensors in desert and
arctic regions is not the ideal solution though. The detector’s lack of resilience in high and low
temperatures and the effect of humidity on the detector’s performance are serious considerations. The
capability of the sensor and its performance life will likely be affected due to evaporation of electrolytes
in dry, hot conditions. Extreme cold conditions may also reduce the detector’s speed of response.
Normally one can expect a T90 response in around about 30 seconds in temperate conditions. When
you start to approach -20 °C the detector’s speed of response reduces significantly, as temperatures
continue to lower the output will decrease even further.

Optical Sensing Technology: In an optical H2 S sensor, the signal is absorbed by the H2 S gas as it
passes through the detector’s optical path. The sensor will record the signal reduction and a micro-
processor will calculate a corresponding gas value. Because the sensor uses positive feedback at its
zero gas level, this technology is inherently fail safe. Any internal damage to the detector results in an
impact on processing so they must continuously perform valuable fault diagnostics to ensure optimum
performance, which also compensates effectively for temperature and humidity.

Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Sensors: The typical construction of an MOS sensing element
includes a platinum heater element, an insulation medium and the sensing element itself, which is a gas-
sensitive resistive film. When H2 S comes into contact with this film there are measurable changes in
the electrical conductivity. These changes are typically amplified in a transmitter device. MOS detectors
have a long life compared to electrochemical sensors and continue to operate in wide ranging
temperatures, particularly high temperatures, as well as in extremely dry conditions. Similar to
electrochemical detectors, MOS detectors are not fail-safe and a change in oxygen levels may affect
their output.

100.Carbon monoxide working principle

Semiconductor : Thin wires of the semiconductor tin dioxide on an insulating ceramic base provide a
sensor monitored by an integrated circuit. This sensing element needs to be heated to approximately
400 °C in order to operate. Oxygen increases resistance of the tin dioxide while carbon monoxide
reduces resistance. The integrated circuit monitors the resistance of the sensing element. Lifespans are
approximately five to 10 years.

The large power demand of this sensor means that it is usually powered from the mains. A battery-
powered, pulsed sensor is available with a lifetime in months.

Electrochemical : This is a type of fuel cell that instead of being designed to produce power, is
designed to produce a signal current that is precisely related to the amount of the target gas (in this case
carbon monoxide) in the atmosphere. Measurement of the current gives a measure of the concentration
of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere. Essentially the electrochemical cell consists of a container, two
electrodes, connection wires and an electrolyte - typically sulfuric acid. Carbon monoxide is oxidized at
one electrode to carbon dioxide while oxygen is consumed at the other electrode. For carbon monoxide
detection, the electrochemical cell has advantages over other technologies in that it has a highly
accurate and linear output to carbon monoxide concentration, requires minimal power as it is operated
at room temperature, and has a long lifetime (typically commercial available cells now have lifetimes of
five years or greater).

Opto-chemical : The detector consists of a pad of a coloured chemical which changes colour upon
reaction with carbon monoxide. They only provide a qualitative warning of the gas however. The main
advantage of these detectors is that they are the lowest cost, but the downside is that they also offer the
lowest level of protection.

Biomimetic sensor technology reproduces CO's effects on hemoglobin in the blood. In a biomimetic
sensor, a gel changes color as it absorbs CO. A separate sensor detects the color change and alerts the
detector's processor to sound the alarm. Once a biomimetic sensor has changed color, it must be placed
in a CO-free environment to reset itself. Biomimetic sensors can also be used on portable CO detector
cards -- if you see the disc on the card turn dark, there's a dangerous amount of CO in the air.

101.Working principle of Hydrocarbon sensor.

IR GAS SENSING TECHNOLOGY : The IR method of measuring gas concentration is based on the
absorption of IR radiation at certain wavelengths as the radiation passes through a volume of the gas. IR
hydrocarbon gas detectors can be classified into two types known as point detectors and open path
detectors. For point detectors, the absorption path length is fixed, and is determined by the instrument
design to be a few inches. For the open path IR detectors, the absorption path length can be as long as
130 meters as opposed to the few inches of the point detector. Instruments based on IR technology use
two wavelengths, one at the gas absorbing wavelength and the other at a wavelength not absorbed by
the gas; neither wavelength is absorbed by the other atmospheric constituents such as water vapor,
nitrogen, oxygen, or carbon dioxide.

Point combustible gas detectors are used to monitor the presence of flammable levels of hydrocarbon
gas or vapor in industrial environments such as refineries and chemical plants. If the concentration of
the hydrocarbon gas or vapor exceeds its Lower Explosive Level (LEL), the gas can be ignited and lead
to an explosion. Point combustible gas detectors are therefore located at several dozen sites to monitor
for gas leaks. In the point IR detector, the concentration of hydrocarbon gas is measured via the infrared
absorption of an optical beam known as the active beam.

A second optical beam known as the reference follows the same optical path as the active but contains
radiation at a wavelength not absorbed by the gas. This second beam provides for the fail-to-safe
operation of the point IR detector

The two wavelengths are generated by two infrared sources which have the active and reference filters
attached to them, are pulsed alternately and guided by the optics onto a common optical path. A
detector receives the two optical pulses after they have traversed the optical absorption path. All the
components of the instrument are mounted inside an explosion-proof housing with infrared transparent
optical windows.

The signals from the IR detector are converted into digital format and processed by a microprocessor
with the help of a gas concentration lookup table and a correction factor for ambient temperature
variations. The instrument outputs a 4-20 mA analog signal as well as a RS485 serial output.

Open Path IR Detectors In open path IR gas detectors, the concepts of the point IR detector are
expanded to a gas sampling path which can be as long as 130 meters as opposed to a few inches
internal to the instrument.

Catalytic Detectors
Catalytic detectors are based upon the principle that when gas oxidizes it produces heat, and the sensor
converts the temperature change via a standard Wheatstone Bridge-type circuit to a sensor signal that is
proportional to the gas concentration. The sensor components consist of a pair of heating coils
(reference and active). The active element is embedded in a catalyst. The reaction takes place on the
surface of the catalyst, with combustible gases reacting exothermically with oxygen in the air to raise its
temperature. This results in a change of resistance.

There is also a reference element providing an inert reference signal by remaining non-responsive to
gas, thereby acting as a stable baseline signal to compensate for environmental changes which would
otherwise affect the sensor s temperature.

Infrared Detectors

The Infrared (IR) detection method is based upon the absorption of infrared radiation at specific
wavelengths as it passes through a volume of gas. Typically two infrared light sources and an infrared
light detector measures the intensity of two different wavelengths, one at the absorption wavelength and
one outside the absorption wavelength. If a gas intervenes between the source and the detector, the
level of radiation falling on the detector is reduced. Gas concentration is determined by comparing the
relative values between the two wavelengths. This is a dual beam infrared detector.
Infrared gas detection is based upon the ability of some gases to absorb IR radiation. Many
hydrocarbons absorb IR at approximately 3.4 micrometers and in this region H2O and CO2 are relatively
transparent. As mentioned earlier, there are some hydrocarbons and other flammable gases that have
poor or no response on a general purpose IR sensor. In addition to aromatics and acetylene, hydrogen,
ammonia and carbon monoxide also cannot be detected using IR technology with general purpose
sensors of 3.4 micron specifications
102.What is the pressure of Hyper mist pump?
About 40 to 100 kgf/cm2. FOGTEC pump systems operate at a pressure of 120 bar.

103.What type of pump used for water mist system?

It uses centrifugal pump type to maintain pressure of 120 kg/cm2

104.How much maximum time you should take to lower free fall life boat?

Every passenger ship lifeboat shall be so arranged that it can be boarded by its full complement of
persons in not more than 10 minutes from the time the instruction to board is given. Every cargo ship
lifeboat shall be so arranged that it can be rapidly boarded by its full complement of persons in not
more than 3 minutes from the time the instruction to board is given. The recovery time of a rescue
boat shall not be greater than 5 minutes. Ready so that 2 crew members can prepared for embarking
and launching in less than 5 minutes

105.When should we change life boat fall?

The falls shall be turned end for end at intervals of not more than 30 months and be renewed when
necessary, due to deterioration of the falls or at intervals of not more than five years, whichever is the

106.What does intrinciscally safe mean?

Intrinsic safety is a design technique applied to electrical equipment and wiring for hazardous locations.
The technique is based on limiting energy, electrical and thermal, to a level below that required to ignite
a specific hazardous atmospheric mixture.

Intrinsically safe equipment and wiring shall not be capable of releasing sufficient electrical or thermal
energy under normal or abnormal conditions to cause ignition of a flammable or combustible
atmospheric mixture in its most easily ignitable concentration.
107.What does Explosion proof mean?
Electrical apparatus (such as compressors, motors, and switches) designed to contain explosions
or flames produced within them (due to arcs, sparks, or flashes) without igniting the surrounding
(external) flammable gases or vapors. 

It is the enclosures ability to prevent an internal spark or explosion from causing a much larger blast.
108.What is the voltage and current of intrinsically safe equipments?

The basic design of an intrinsic safety barrier uses Zener Diodes to limit voltage, resistors to
limit current and a fuse. 29 volts 400mA.

109.How you connect input to PLC? What is input interface between input card and input terminals?

Input devices such as switches, pushbuttons and sensors are wired to input module points and
output devices such as indicator lights, solenoids and motor starter coils are wired to output module

Many types of inputs and outputs can be connected to a PLC, and they can all be divided into two
large groups analog (discrete) and digital. Digital inputs and outputs are those that operate due to a
discrete or binary change - on/off, yes/no. Analog inputs and outputs change continuously over a
variable range - pressure, temperature, potentiometer.

A digital input card is chosen to handle discrete devices such as push-buttons, micro-switches,
selector switches, photocells and proximity sensors which give a signal that has only two states.
They are either on or off.

Analogue devices can also be input devices to PLCs, but due to how PLCs work, they needs a
special card to translate their infinitely variable signal (which could be voltage or current) into
something the CPU can understand. Analogue signals need to be, what's called digitised before the
CPU can deal with them.
This simply means converting say a 0V to 10V DC signal that you might get from load cell or speed
control potentiometer into a value. For example if 10V DC equalled a value of 4000 then 2.5V DC
would equal 1000 and 5V 2000.
An I/O interface is required whenever the I/O device is driven by the processor. The interface must
have necessary logic to interpret the device address generated by the processor. The processor can
communicate with an I/O device through the interface. If different data formats are being exchanged,
the interface must be able to convert serial data to parallel form and vice versa.
It would not be practical for every I/O device to be wired to the computer in a different way, so we
must have a scheme where the hardware connections are fixed, and yet the communication with the
device is flexible, so that the widely varying needs of devices can all be met.
An I/O device, from the viewpoint of the CPU, is a set of registers. The CPU communicates with and
controls the I/O device by reading and writing these registers. The registers in the I/O devices are
connected to the CPU using buses. We need an address bus to specify which I/O device register is
to be accessed. We need control lines to specify what kind of access is desired (read, write, reset,
etc.) Finally, we need a data bus to transfer the data between the CPU and the device.
Whereas memory is just a large pool of slow, inexpensive registers for storing data, each I/O device
register has a unique purpose in controlling a specific I/O device. This does not affect how the CPU
accesses them at the hardware level, but it does affect how they are used by software.
Since I/O devices are of a very different nature than CPU circuits, there must be interface hardware
to connect each device to the CPU.
Input/Output modules (I/O modules) are interface cards where data is transferred to accomplish a
function. They receive input data from sensors. I/O modules comprise I/O logic (module between
CPU and I/O module), data lines (for data transfer between system bus and I/O module) and input/
output interface (to control device operation).

Major functions of I/O modules are:

• Control and timing

• Processor communication
• Device communication
• Data buffering
• Error detection

Types of I/O modules are classified as:

• Analog I/O modules
• Digital I/O modules
• PCI I/O modules


I/O modules are needed to overcome certain problems when:

there is a mismatch between CPU and input devices speed it is improper to use slow peripheral on a
high speed system bus

numerous I/O devices are to be connected to a single system bus but it is highly difficult as flexibility
is reduced

the I/O data format differ from that of CPU format

I/O modules have data buffering capability to remove mismatch between speed of I/O devices and
CPU, and in built error detector mechanism for checking mechanical and communicational errors.

110. What is hazardous area?

Gases, vapours, mists and dusts can all form explosive atmospheres with air. Hazardous area
classification is used to identify places where, because of the potential for an explosive atmosphere,
special precautions over sources of ignition are needed to prevent fires and explosions.

a place where an explosive atmosphere may occur in quantities that require special precautions to
protect the health and safety of workers as hazardous. A place where an explosive atmosphere is
not expected to occur in quantities that require such special precautions is deemed to be non-
hazardous. For these purposes “special precautions” means precautions to control potential ignition
sources within a hazardous area, particularly in relation to the construction, installation and use of

111.How explosion meter, oxygen meter works?

The explosion meter, also called a combustible gas detector, operates on the principle of resistance
proportional to heat—a wire is heated, and a sample of the gas is introduced to the hot wire. Combustible
gases burn in the presence of the hot wire, thus increasing the resistance and disturbing a Wheatstone
bridge, which gives the reading.

A flashback arrestor is installed in the device to avoid the explosimeter igniting the sample external to the

Zirconia sensor
A planar zirconia sensor (schematic picture)

The zirconium dioxide, or zirconia, lambda sensor is based on a solid-state electrochemical fuel
cell called the Nernst cell. Its two electrodes provide an output voltage corresponding to the quantity of
oxygen in the exhaust relative to that in the atmosphere.

An output voltage of 0.2 V (200 mV) DC represents a "lean mixture" of fuel and oxygen, where the
amount of oxygen entering the cylinder is sufficient to fully oxidize the carbon monoxide (CO), produced
in burning the air and fuel, into carbon dioxide (CO2). An output voltage of 0.8 V (800 mV) DC represents
a "rich mixture", one which is high in unburned fuel and low in remaining oxygen.

Electrodes: The Clark-type electrode is the most used oxygen sensor for measuring oxygen
dissolved in a liquid. The basic principle is that there is a cathode and an anode submersed in
an electrolyte. Oxygen enters the sensor through a permeable membrane by diffusion, and is reduced at
the cathode, creating a measurable electric current. There is a linear relationship between the oxygen
concentration and the electric current. With a two-point calibration (0% and 100% air saturation), it is
possible to measure oxygen in the sample

A dissolved oxygen meter for laboratory use

112.How will you connect speed sensor to PLC in purifier starter? What is the interface between them?

Speed sensor that provides a 4-20 mA signal that is directly proportional to the rotational speed is
generally used. Since both the 4 mA and 20 mA calibration points are programmable the user can
also if desired operate the system with the 4 mA offset from 0 RPM. They are connected either
through Analog module or PCI MODULE (Peripheral Component Interconnect)

113.What is PID controller? Explain in brief

PID controller consists of three terms, namely proportional, integral and derivative control. The combined
operation of these three controllers gives control strategy for process control. As a feedback controller, it
delivers the control output at desired levels. Before microprocessors were invented, PID control was
implemented by the analog electronic components. But today all PID controllers are processed by the
microprocessors. Programmable logic controllers also have the inbuilt PID controller instructions. Due to
the flexibility and reliability of the PID controllers, these are used in process control applications

All control applications don’t need all the three control elements. Combinations like PI and PD controls
are very often used in practical applications.

Proportional or P- controller gives output which is proportional to current error e (t). It compares
desired or set point with actual value or feedback process value. The resulting error is multiplied with
proportional constant to get the output. If the error value is zero, then this controller output is zero. It
never reaches the steady state condition. It provides stable operation but always maintains the steady
state error.


I-Controller : Due to limitation of p-controller where there always exists an offset between the process
variable and set point, I-controller is needed, which provides necessary action to eliminate the steady
state error. It integrates the error over a period of time until error value reaches to zero. It holds the value
to final control device at which error becomes zero

! PI controller

D-Controller: I-controller doesn’t have the capability to predict the future behavior of error. So it reacts
normally once the set point is changed. D-controller overcomes this problem by anticipating future
behavior of the error. Its output depends on rate of change of error with respect to time, multiplied by
derivative constant. It gives the kick start for the output thereby increasing system response.
! PID controller

114.What is DP sensor? Explain in brief

This sensor measures the difference between two pressures, one connected to each side of the
sensor. Differential pressure sensors are used to measure many properties, such as pressure drops
across oil filters or air filters, fluid levels (by comparing the pressure above and below the liquid) or
flow rates (by measuring the change in pressure across a restriction).

Unlike Gauge or Absolute pressure transmitters, Differential Pressure Transmitters do not attempt to
fix the reference. Importantly an increase in differential can be the result of increasing one of the
pressures or decreasing the other.
An increase in differential pressure would occur if P1 became smaller OR if P2 became larger. In a
similare way, a decrease in differential pressure would occur if P1 became larger OR if P2 became
smaller. The differential pressure measurement is not concerned whether the lower of the two
pressures is at a vacuum, atmospheric or some other pressure. It is only interested in the difference
between the two pressures being measured.
It is often the basis of other measurements such as flow, level, density, viscosity and even
temperature. The most common being level and flow.
DP Flow rate measurement (Fig-5) is one of the most common applications for differential pressure
transmitters. By measuring the difference in fluid pressure while the fluid flows through a pipe it is
possible to calculate the flow rate.

The output signal from and industrial DP transmitter is likely to be 4-20mA, but it may also
include digital communications such as HART, Profibusm Fieldbus, Modbus 485 RTU or one
of many other communication protocols. The objective being to provide an electrical signal for
transmission to a remote process control instrument.
The most common and useful industrial pressure measuring instrument is the differential
pressure transmitter. This equipment will sense the difference in pressure between two ports
and produce an output signal with reference to a calibrated pressure range
. The industrial differential pressure transmitters are made of
two housings.Pressure sensing element is housed in the bottom half, and the electronics are
housed at the top half. It will have two pressure ports marked as “High” and “Low”. It is not
compulsory that the high port will be always at high pressure and the low port always at low
pressure. This labeling has its relation to the effect of the port on the output signal.
Direct Pressure sensing element (located in the lower housing): DP Transmitters are
fitted with diaphragm as the pressure sensing element. This diaphragm is a mechanical
device. It is placed in between the two pressure inlet ports. The diaphragm will be deflected
by the applied pressure.
This deflection is converted into an electrical signal. This is normally done by the sensors.
The commonly used sensors are (a) Strain Gauge (b) Differential Capacitance (c) Vibrating
wire. The sensor output is proportional to the applied pressure.
Electronic Unit: The electrical signal generated at the lower chamber by the sensor is in the
range of milli-volt only. This signal is to be amplified to 0-5V or 0-10V range or is to be
converted to 4-20mA for onward transmission to a remote instrument.

2-Wire 4-20mA Current Transmitter: A DC output current is generated which is directly

proportional to the pressure range of the Differential Pressure Transmitter. The lower range is
4mA, and the upper range is 20mA. This controlled current output is not affected by load
impedance variation and supply voltage fluctuations. This 4-20mA output is superimposed
with digital communications of BRAIN or HART FSK protocol.
115.What is the difference between main engine and generator governor?

The one of the difference in generator governor is having speed drop setting. this setting is used to
maintain the speed when the genrator runs parralel and especially during the time of load sharing. a
small fall in the rpm occurs. if this is considered the genrator will run under the motoring effect and
cause black out.to avoid this we have droop speed setting in the gen governor.
Generator governor- load dependent constant speed governor, m/e governor- speed dependent
variable speed.

116.What is droop?

Droop control is a control strategy commonly applied to generators for primary frequency control (and
occasionally voltaqe control) to allow parallel generator operation (e.g. load sharing)

The fuel being admitted to the prime mover of the AC generator is being controlled in response to the
difference between a speed (frequency) reference and the actual speed (frequency) of the prime mover.
The speed of generator connected to infinite bus bar cannot change irrespective of load connected to it.
The throttle control action is proportional to the difference between the speed reference and actual
speed. The frequency/speed reference is increased so that there is a difference between reference
speed and actual speed hence more fuel is allowed to pass. ''Operating Speed" is allowed to ''droop''
below the set speed for a while to increase active power o/p of generator.This is known as droop control.

Droop is the permanent variation in running rpm of an generator when moving from no load to 100 

percent load. It is calculated in percentage by takin no loading rpm as refrence. Droop indicates the
sensitivity of the machine . droop persentage indicates the RPM required to increase the load from
0% to 100%

Droop is defined as a decrease in speed setting with increase in. Without some form of droop, it
would be difficult to control the speed of engine with load changes..

117.Why should you use droop control?

Suppose that a generator is paralleled with the utility grid. If it is considered as an infinite bus, the utility grid
will determine the generator frequency (speed) and voltage. When the speed (and frequency) setpoint is
slightly lower, the speed governor will fully close the fuel supply in attempt to lower the frequency. Is the
setpoint slightly higher, the speed governor will fully open the fuel supply. For the automatic voltage regulator
and the reactive power something similar happens. To solve these problems, we use droop controls

118.What is difference between Isochronous and Droop Speed Control

In the isochronous speed control mode the speed will return to the original speed setpoint after a load has
been applied or rejected. However in parallel operation this would cause instability as explained above.
In the droop speed control mode the speed will decrease by a fixed percentage when the generator is loaded

from no-load to full load. This provides a stable working point for each load in case of parallel operation

119.How is it set?

The frequency (F) of a synchronous generator is directly proportional to its speed (N). When multiple
synchronous generators are connected in parallel to electrical grid, the frequency is fixed by the grid,
since individual power output of each generator will be small compared to the load on a large grid.
Synchronous generators connected to the grid run at various speeds but they all run at the same
frequency because they differ in the number of poles (P).

A speed reference as percentage of actual speed is set in this mode. As the generator is loaded from no
load to base load, the actual speed of the prime mover tend to decrease. In order to increase the power
output in this mode, the prime mover speed reference is increased. Because the actual prime mover
speed is fixed by the grid, this difference in speed reference and actual speed of the prime mover is used
to increase the flow of working fluid (fuel, steam, etc.) to the prime mover, and hence power output is
increased. The reverse will be true for decreasing power output. The prime mover speed reference is
always greater than actual speed of the prime mover. The actual speed of the prime mover is allowed to
"droop" or decrease with respect to the reference, and so the name.

For example, if the turbine is rated at 3000 rpm, and the machine speed reduces from 3000 rpm to 2880
rpm when it is loaded from no load to base load, then the droop % is given by

= (3000 – 2880) / 3000

= 4%

In this case, speed reference will be 104% and actual speed will be 100%. For every 1% change
in the turbine speed reference, the power output of the turbine will change by 25% of rated for a
unit with a 4% droop setting.

Droop is therefore expressed as the percentage change in (design) speed required for 100%
governor action

120.What is MCR and CSR?

Maximum continuous rating- max continuous output at which engine can be run safely and continuously, used
for calculation of strength of engine. CSR- continuous standard rating output at service speed for economical
and efficient operation corresponding to thermal and mechanical load. Maintenance point of view

121. What is PS? What is its relation to kilowatt?

PS german unit for horse power. 1 PS = 0.7355 KW =

0.986 hp

122.What is the difference between “heat” and “temperature”?

heat is a form of energy. Temp is the degree of hotness or coolness of the body

123.What action will you take if Main Engine Piston is about to seize?

Increase cylinder lub and keep turning on turning gear.

124.What is the use of telegraph?

Communication device

125.State remedial measures of a Scavenge fire.

In small fire continue to run engine, cut off fuel to affected

unit, inc cyl oil, keep clear of scavenge door, check parameters, if large fires reduce speed stop engine,

auxiliary blower off, t\c inlet covered, fuel oil shut off, scavenge drains closed, cyl lube shut, introduce

fixed fire fighting, boundry cooling,when temp low enogh , enter ,clean, find outcause and rectify

126.How to start a purifier and stop it?

Fill operating water tank, open steam to heater, start motor, wait till

amperage drops to normal. manual starting...first run the px motor...then supply the bowl closing water for

10 sec...then supply seal water till u see it coming out of sludge port. then supply bowl opening water for 2

sec...then supply closing water again...supply supply water ....confirm no leakage from bowl....then start the

feed of oil

127.What are the action when you receive 2 hour notice for sailing.

Aux gen, lo/ fo/ purifier, propeller clearance, prelube, turning, stering

gear test, control test, t/c drains and main air start line drains shut, top up air bottle, blowers on auto, blow


128.What are the M/E trips??

Over speed trip, LO low pressure trip, jacket cooling water low pressure trip, piston cooling ware low
pressure trip, main bearing oil low pressure trip, emergency manual trip

129.How will be the current of motor if discharge of centrifugal pump shut

As centrifugal pump is not positive displacement pump, there is no work done when the discharge
side is closed. That’s why the current will be very low or tend to zero if discharge side is closed

130.What is air compressor safety device

Safety v/v at each stage, pressure gauge, thermometer, lube oil pressure trip (low and high) , final
compressed air temperature trip, motor overheat trip, oil filter

131.What is the function of the weak link of life raft

The weak link of the life raft is to make sure the life raft deploy properly in the emergency situation.
As the ship sinks, the water pressure will activate the hydrostatic release unit, cut the rope which
secured the life raft to the deck, so the liferaft will float free. As the ship sinks, the liferaft painter line
will be stretched and the liferaft starts to inflate. The weak link will then break under strong stretch
and survivors can board the floating liferaft.

132.What is earth fault

The majority of earth faults occur within electrical equipment due to an insulation failure or loose
wire, which allows a live conductor to come into contact with its earthed metal enclosure.

To protect against the dangers of electric shock and fire that may result from earth faults, the metal
enclosures and the other non-current carrying metal parts of electrical equipment must be earthed.

133.What is ISM code and its function

ISM (International Safety Management) Code means the International Management Code for the
Safe operation of ships and for Pollution Prevention. ISM Code aims to ensure safety at sea,
prevention of human injury or loss of life, and avoidance of damage to the environment, particularly
the marine environment, and to the property. ISM emphasises on the essential ingredient of Shipping
Management that, every company should develop, implement and maintain a Safety Management
System (SMS) to the Code. But this does not mean that the code is trying to tell the company how to
go about running their business. It is up to the company how to go about implementing the codes

134.when voltage increases current decreases & vice versa why it is so?

for the same power.p=v*i.this is why as voltage increases current decreases


The definition of power factor is the cosine angle between 

voltage and current.

but maximum cosine value is 1 and minimum is -1.

so power factor above 1 is impossible.
136.. Is it possible to increasing the real power generation by reducing the reactive power in power
generation plants
Yes it is possible.When we bring down the reactive power, there will be some decrease in the load
current of the machine. Hence we get more allowance to get additional load on it which eventually
results in more power output from the machine.
137.Difference between alternating and pulsating field?
Alternating means which attains positive and negative values through zero at regular intervals.
puslating means which is having positive and zero value.
138.Why it is important to earth neutral of 3 phase transformer?
it is done to make the neutral at zero potential coz if there is unbalance in potential the neutral
may shift. when there is a unbalance among the phases due to change in load circulating current
introduced this fault caurrent can be earthed via neutral
139.How much current will be drawn by 3 phase, 415v, 50 hz, 20 ton central ac
one ton = 1250 watts

20 * 1250 = 25KW

P = 1.732 * V *I * Cos phi


140. How can we calculate the cable size??? plz give the formula !!!!
The basic equation is 

P = 1.732VIcosA, where CosA can be taken as 0.85

V = 415 V

P = load

From this u have to find the current I and then using the table select a suitable cable and cable size
which can withstand the current.

141.I have a transformer whose primary operates at 230V, 50Hz for which the secondary voltage will be 12V,
50Hz. What will be the secondary voltage if the primary is fed with 400V, 8KHZ Signal?
Assume that the transformer is typical iron-cored stepdown 


The actual output result will not be 20.86 volts calculated 

with straight ratio and the transformer will likely be 

destroyed due to the following factors:

1. Iron core has lower frequency response and that makes it 

good only for 50-60Hz. 8,000Hz frequency will not get 

transformed properly because the magnetic flux in iron core 

will be saturated. The primary coil will receive 

equivalent to direct current voltage therefore is likely to 


2. The insulation of a 230v transformer will not withstand 

400v therefore ground leakage is very likely.

3. The size of copper wire and number of winding suitable 

for the current rating designed for 230v will draw more 

power into the coil when connected to 400v, again, 

142. Advantages of Induction Motors
induction motors are cheap ,robust easy to maintain there operation is simple

143.Draw and explain working of SCR.


The  SCR  is a four-layer, three-junction and a three-terminal device and is shown in fig.a. The end P-
region is the anode, the end N-region is the cathode and the inner P-region is the gate. The anode to
cathode is connected in series with the load circuit. Essentially the device is a switch. Ideally it remains
off (voltage blocking state), or appears to have an infinite impedance until both the anode and gate
terminals have suitable positive voltages with respect to the cathode terminal. The thyristor then switches
on and current flows and continues to conduct without further gate signals. Ideally the thyristor has zero
impedance in conduction state. For switching off or reverting to the blocking state, there must be no gate
signal and the anode current must be reduced to zero. Current can flow only in one direction.

In absence of external bias voltages, the majority carrier in each layer diffuses until there is a built-in
voltage that retards further diffusion. Some majority carriers have enough energy to cross the barrier
caused by the retarding electric field at each junction. These carriers then become minority carriers and
can recombine with majority carriers. Minority carriers in each layer can be accelerated across each
junction by the fixed field, but because of absence of external circuit in this case the sum of majority and
minority carrier currents must be zero.

1. 1.  Diode Model.  The thyristor is similar to three diodes in series as there are three P-N junctions.
Without gate bias, there is always at least one reverse biased junction to prevent conduction irrespective
of the polarity of an applied voltage between anode and cathode. If the anode is made positive and the
gate is also biased positively with respect to cathode, the P-layer at the gate is flooded by the electrons
from the cathode and loses its identity as a P-layer. Accordingly the thyristor becomes equivalent to a
conducting diode.

2. Two Transistor Model. Imagine the SCR cut along the dotted line, as shown in fig. a. Then we can have
two devices, as shown in fig.b. These two devices can be recognized as two transistors.  The upper left
one is P-N-P transistor and the lower right N-P-N type. Further it can be recognized that the base of the
P-N-P transistor is joined to the collector of the N-P-N transistor while the collector of P-N-P is joined to
the base of N-P-N transistor, as illustrated in fig. c. The gate terminal is brought out from the base of the
N-P-N material. This construction has been conceived merely to explain the working of SCR, otherwise in
physical shape the SCR has four solid layers of P-N-P-N type only.
Now we can see that the two transistors are connected in such a manner that the collector of Q1  is
connected to the base of Q2 i.e. the output collector current of Qt becomes the base current for Q2. In the
similar way the collector of Q2 is joined to the base of Q1 which shows that the output collector current of
Q2 is fed to Q1 as input base current. These are back to back connections of transistors in such a way that
the output of one goes into as input of other transistor and vice-versa. This gives net gain of loop circuit
as β1 x β2 where β1 and β2 are current gains of two transistors respectively.
When the gate current is zero or the gate terminal is open, the only current in circulation is the leakage
current, which is very small in case of silicon device specially and the total current is a little higher than
sum of individual leakage currents. Under these conditions P-N-P-N device is said to be in its forward
blocking or high impedance ‘off state. As soon as a small amount of gate current is given to the base of
transistor Q2  by applying forward bias to its base-emitter junction, it generates the collector current as
β2 times the base current. This collector current of Q2 is fed as input base current to Q: which is further
multiplied by β1 times as ICl which forms input base current of Q2 and undergoes further amplification. In
this way both transistors feedback each other and the collector current of each goes on multiplying. This
process is very quick and soon both the transistors drive each other to saturation. Now the device is said
to be in.on-state. The current through the on-state SCR is controlled by external impedance only.
144.Draw and explain Transistor characteristics

145.How Nox and Sox is controlled onboard?

The two main pollutants from the ship’s emission are Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and Sulphur oxides
(SOx). These gases have adverse effects on the ozone layer in the troposphere area of the earth’s
atmosphere which results in the green house effect and global warming.

As the air mixture is 21 % Oxygen and 78% Nitrogen, nitrogen reacts with oxygen under certain
engine operating conditions to form Nitrogen oxides or NOx.

What Causes NOx in Marine Engines?

• High Cylinder Temperature and Pressure during combustion proce

• Heavy Load on the engine or engine unit.
• Improper air and fuel ratio for combustion.
• High Temperature of intake or scavenge air inside the cylinder.
• Over heated cylinder jacket due to poor heat transfer by jacket cooler.
• Jacket water temperature is on the higher side.
• Bad quality of fuel used for engine.

Annex VI of MARPOL deals with restricting the amount of harmful emissions from ships’ main
propulsion system and provides guidelines for substances such as Sox and NOx. 

The presence of NOx in marine engine’s exhaust emission is due to high combustion temperature
which reacts with nitrogen in the air supplied for combustion.

High Scavenge Pressure and Compression Ratio: With high scavenge pressure and
compression ratio, large amount of air can be introduced inside the cylinder to lower combustion
temperature and NOx emission.

Selective Catalytic reduction: In this method, low sulphur fuel oil is used and exhaust temperature
is maintained above 300 deg C. The exhaust gas is mixed by water solution of urea and then it is
passed through catalytic reactor. The only disadvantage of SCR is its expansive installation and
operating cost.
Two Stage Turbocharger: ABB’s latest two stage turbocharger can reduce the exhaust temperature
in the intercoolers and also the NOx content in the emitted exhaust

 Exhaust Gas Re circulation (EGR): As the name suggests, some amount of engine exhaust gases
are send back to the scavenge space to mix up with the air to be supplied to cylinder for combustion.
This reduces the oxygen content of the air and hence reduces formation of NOx.

 Water Injection and Water emulsion: In this method, water is added to reduce the temperature of
combustion leading to low NOx emission. In water emulsion, fuel is blended with water and in water
injection a separate fresh water injector is mounted in the cylinder head which injects water.

The sulphur oxides emission is due to the presence of sulphur compound in the marine fuels used in
marine engines on board vessel. Better the grade, lower will be the sulphur content as it is removed
by refining of the fuel.
The smoke containing sulphur oxides emitted by the combustion of marine fuel will further oxidise
and in presence of catalyst like NO2, will form sulphuric acid which is a major cause of acid rain.
The sulphur content of any oil used onboard ship must not exceed 3.5 %.

Following are the methods and technologies used to reduce sulphur emission from marine engines:

Use of Low sulphur fuel oil: It is expensive but most commonly used method to comply with Annex
VI of MARPOL while entering emission controlled Area or ECA.

Exhaust Gas Scrubber Technology: The exhaust gas from the engine is passed through the
scrubber tower where a liquid is showered over it. Fresh water blended with caustic soda (NaOH) is
used as a scrubbing liquid which reduces the SOx to 95%. The scrubbing water is then sent to a
water treatment effluent emulsion breaking plant after which it can be discharged overboard.

Cylinder Lubrication: Good quality cylinder lubrication along with efficient control systems such as
Pulse or Alpha lubrication systems can neutralise the sulphur in the fuel and reduce SOx emissions
from the engine.

146.Explain catalytic convertor

Pollutant gases are made of harmful molecules, but those molecules are made from relatively
harmless atoms. So if we could find a way of splitting up the molecules after they leave the Main
engine and before they get pumped out into the air, pollution can be controlled. That's the job that a
catalytic converter does.

A catalyst is simply a chemical that makes a chemical reaction go faster without itself changing in
the process. In a catalytic converter, the catalyst's job is to speed up the removal of pollution. The
catalyst is made from platinum or a similar, platinum-like metal such as palladium or rhodium.

Inside the converter, the gases flow through a dense honeycomb structure made from a ceramic and
coated with the catalysts. The honeycomb structure means the gases touch a bigger area of catalyst
at once, so they are converted more quickly and efficiently.

Typically, there are two different catalysts in a catalytic converter:

• One of them tackles nitrogen oxide pollution using a chemical reaction
called reduction (removing oxygen). This breaks up nitrogen oxides into nitrogen and oxygen
gases (which are harmless, because they already exist in the air around us).
• The other catalyst works by an opposite chemical process called oxidation (adding oxygen) and
turns carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide. Another oxidation reaction turns unburned
hydrocarbons in the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water.
In effect, three different chemical reactions are going on at the same time. That's why we talk
about three-way catalytic converters. (Some, less-effective converters carry out only the
second two (oxidation) reactions, so they're called two-way catalytic converters.) After the
catalyst has done it's job, what emerges from the exhaust is mostly nitrogen, oxygen, carbon
dioxide, and water (in the form of steam).

It has two pipes coming out of it. One of them (the converter's "input") is connected to the engine
and brings in hot, polluted fumes from the engine's cylinders (where the fuel burns and produces
power). The second pipe (the converter's "output") is connected to the exhaust. As the gases
from the engine fumes blow over the catalyst, chemical reactions take place on its surface,
breaking apart the pollutant gases and converting them into other gases that are safe enough to
blow harmlessly out into the air.
147.Draw VFD and explain

Variable frequency drives applied to AC motors are by far the most common. Their basic design consists of four

• Rectifier: the working principle of rectifier is changing the incoming alternating current (AC) supply to direct
current (DC). Different designs are available and these are selected according to the performance required of the
variable frequency drive. The rectifier design will influence the extent to which electrical harmonics are induced
on the incoming supply. It can also control the direction of power flow.
• Intermediate circuit: the rectified DC supply is then conditioned in the intermediate circuit, normally by a
combination of inductors and capacitors. The majority of VFDs currently in the marketplace use a fixed-voltage
DC link.
• Inverter: the inverter converts the rectified and conditioned DC back into an AC supply of variable frequency and
voltage. This is normally achieved by generating a high frequency pulse width modulated signal of variable
frequency and effective voltage. Semiconductor switches are used to create the output; different types are
available, the most common being the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT).
• Control unit: the control unit controls the whole operation of the variable frequency drive; it monitors and controls
the rectifier, the intermediate circuit and the inverter to deliver the correct output in response to an external
control signal.

Variable frequency drives are typically 92-98% efficient with 2-8% losses being due to additional heat dissipation
caused by the high-frequency electrical switching and the additional power required by the electronic

When operated from a constant frequency power source (typically 60Hz), AC induction motors are fixed
speed devices.
A variable frequency drive controls the speed of an AC motor by varying the frequency supplied to the
The drive also regulates the output voltage in proportion to the output frequency to provide a relatively
constant ratio of voltage to frequency (V/Hz), as required by the characteristics of the AC motor to produce
adequate torque.
The first step in this process is to convert the AC supply voltage into DC by the use of a rectifier. DC power
contains voltage ripples which are smoothed using filter capacitors. This section of the VFD is often referred
to as the DC link.
This DC voltage is then converted back into AC. This conversion is typically achieved through the use of
power electronic devices such as IGBT power transistors using a technique called Pulse Width Modulation
(PWM). The output voltage is turned on and off at a high frequency, with the duration of on-time, or width of
the pulse, controlled to approximate a sinusoidal waveform.
Older drive technologies like Current Source Inverters and Variable Voltage Controllers used SCRs or
Thyristors as control devices. These technologies have now been replaced by the PWM VFD.
The entire process is controlled by a microprocessor which monitors the:
incoming voltage supply,speed set-point,DC link voltage,output voltage and current to ensure operation of
the motor within established parameters.

Circuit diagram for a Pulse Width Modulated Variable Frequency Drive

Graph comparing voltage to current for a Pulse Width Modulated Variable Frequency Drive

Block diagram of a typical PWM VFD

148.What is speed of Purifier?

Rotational speeds vary according to designs and are of the order of 7,000 to 9,000 rpm.

149.What is differential relay and where is it fitted in main switch board?

The differential relay is one that operates when there is a difference between two or more similar
electrical quantities exceeds a predetermined value. In differential relay scheme circuit, there are two
currents come from two parts of an electrical power circuit. These two currents meet at a junction
point where a relay coil is connected. According to Kirchhoff Current Law, the resultant current
flowing through the relay coil is nothing but summation of two currents, coming from two different
parts of the electrical power circuit. If the polarity and amplitude of both currents are so adjusted that
the phasor sum of these two currents, is zero at normal operating condition. Thereby there will be no
current flowing through the relay coil at normal operating conditions. But due to any abnormality in
the power circuit, if this balance is broken, that means the phasor sum of these two currents no
longer remains zero and there will be non-zero current flowing through the relay coil thereby relay

150.What are the protections for motor?

a) Short-circuit: disconnection in case of a short-circuit at the motor terminals or inside the motor
b) Thermal overload: disconnection of motor in case of sustained operation with a torque
exceeding the nominal value. Overload is detected by measurement of excessive stator current or
by using PTC probes.

c) Phase current imbalance: disconnection of the motor in case of high current imbalance,
responsible for increased power losses and overheating.

d) Phase current loss: disconnection of the motor if one phase current is zero, as this is revealing
of cable or connection breaking.

e) Over-current: alarm or disconnection of the motor in case of high phase current, revealing a
shaft over-torque.

f) Ground fault: disconnection in case of a fault between a motor terminal and ground.Even if the
fault current is limited, a fast action could avoid a complete destruction of the motor. It can be
measured with the sum of the 3 phases if the accuracy required is not high (~ 30%). If high
accuracy is required then it must be measured with a ground CT (0.01A accuracy).

g) Long start (stall): disconnection in case of a starting time longer than normal (due to mechanical
problem or voltage sag) in order to avoid overheating of the motor.

h) Jam: disconnection in order to avoid overheating and mechanical stress if motor is blocked while
running because of congestion.

i) Undercurrent: alarm or disconnection of the motor in case a low current value is detected,
revealing a no-load condition (e.g.: pump drain, cavitation, broken shaft, …)

j) Phase current reversal: disconnection when a wrong phase current sequence is detected

k) Motor temperature (by sensors): alarm or disconnection in case of high temperature detected
by probes.

l) Rapid cycle lock-out: prevent connection and avoid overheating due to too frequent start-up.

m) Load shedding: disconnection of the motor when a voltage drop is detected, in order to reduce
the supply load and return to normal voltage.

n) Phase voltage imbalance: disconnection of the motor in case of high voltage imbalance,
responsible for increased power losses and overheating.

o) Phase voltage loss: disconnection of motor if one phase of the supply voltage is missing. This is
necessary in order to avoid a single-phase running of a three-phase motor, which results in a
reduced torque, increased stator current, and inability to start.

p) Phase voltage reversal: prevent the connection and avoid the reverse rotation of the motor in
case of a wrong cabling of phases to the motor terminals, which could happen during
maintenance for example.

q) Under-voltage: prevent the connection of the motor or disconnection of the motor, as a reduced
voltage could not ensure a correct operation of the motor.

r) Over-voltage: prevent the connection of the motor or disconnection of the motor, as an increased
voltage could not ensure a correct operation of the motor.

151.How does a oil mist detector work”

Accumulation of dense Mist in the crankcase of an engine can lead to fire or an explosion. It
is important to keep this oil mist under control and for that reason Oil Mist detectors are used.
Oil Mist is created in the crankcase when the lubricating oil is splashed by moving and
rotating parts of the engine. This oil mist reduces the flash point of the oil, allowing it to catch
fire in presence of a hot spot. It is important that this concentration of oil is kept under control
and incase its presence is detected, the engine should be stopped or the speed lowered. But
how will an engine detect that the level of oil mist has increased in the crankcase? Oil Mist
detectors are used for this purpose. Crankcase of each cylinder is connected to the OMD,
which continuously checks the air sample from each cylinder.

It uses a photo electric cell to measure small increases in oil density. A motor driven fan
continuously draws sample of oil mist from the crank case through a measuring tube, In case
a sample contains excessive mist when compared to either clean air or to other crank case
compartments, then an alarm will be sounded which may result in an engine slowdown or

The arrangement of OMD consist of two tubes of equal sizes. Both these tubes are places
parallel to each other. At one end of each tube, a photo-electric cell is fixed. Photo-electric
cells generate an electric current when light falls on their surface. The amount of electric
current generated is directly proportional to the intensity of light falling on it. The other ends of
both the tubes are sealed by fitting lens that allow light to pass through them.

Out of the two tubes, one is called the reference tube and the other is called the measuring tube.
Measuring tube has a connection for oil mist, which is extracted from the crankcase with the help of an
electric extractor fan. The reference tube is filled with clean air and is used as a reference for
measuring the level of mist in the measuring tube. Samples from each cylinder is monitored by using a
rotating selector valve, which connects each cylinder in sequence to the OMD.
Equal intensity of light is reflected on the photo-electric cells using a lamp. Light passes through the lenses after
being reflected by mirrors. If
the concentration of Oil mist in the measuring tube rises, the intensity of
light reaching the photo-electric cell reduces. Now as both the tubes are electrically connected,
reduction in the generation of electric current will induce an electrical imbalance between the two
cells, which will lead to ringing of the alarm.
When Oil mist is detected, the rotating selector valve immediately stops to indicate the cylinder with
high concentration of mist.On indication of an alarm, the engine should be slowed down or stopped to
prevent damage or explosion.
152.Briefly explain working of 15ppm sensor.

It utilizes a photo sensor that measures the amount of light hitting it. When oil or sediment
travels between the light and the photo sensor, it reduces the amount of light hitting the
sensor and causes the monitor to display a PPM of contaminate in the water. 

Most instruments of this type depend on transmission of a beam of light. A sample of water
leaving the OWS is drawn off automatically and passed through a detector cell. A low power
light shines a beam through a window in the side of the detector. This is transmitted through
the water sample and picked up by a detector on the far side of the cell. Pure water will only
have a slight attenuating effect on the beam, whereas, oil will absorb the light, reducing the
intensity reaching the detector and causing the OCM to sound the alarm. But soot, rust and
other non-oil contaminants of the bilge water will also have their affect on the light beam. As
each solid particle acts as a minute mirror such material may cause false alarms.
The degree to which a beam of light will be scattered (diffused) while passing through liquid
containing a concentration of finely divided particles, such as soot or rust. Oil tends to absorb
light rather than scatter it. By judicious design, the difference between light scatter by rust/
soot and absorption by oil can be accounted for and the OCM can be relied on to react to oil
but not to solid contaminants.

Normally the un-attenuated light beam will pass directly to the ‘transmit’ photocell. Oil
droplets in the water will absorb light and diminish the beam reaching the transmit photocell,
thus sounding the alarm. But when the beam is scattered by solid particles rather than
absorbed by oil, light will simultaneously reach the ‘occluded’ or ‘scatter’ photocell and be
diminished at the transmit photocell. The alarm will not sound for this situation, except when
the software incorporated into the system detects the simultaneous presence of oil and solid
particles because of a mismatch between the degree to which light diminishes at the transmit
cell and increases at the scatter cell.

153.Draw and explain zener how it works?

When forward-biased, zener diodes behave much the same as standard rectifying diodes:
they have a forward voltage drop which follows the “diode equation” and is about 0.7 volts.
In reverse-bias mode, they do not conduct until the applied voltage reaches or exceeds the
socalled zener voltage, at which point the diode is able to conduct substantial current, and in
doing so will try to limit the voltage dropped across it to that zener voltage point. So long as
the power dissipated by this reverse current does not exceed the diode’s thermal limits, the
diode will not be harmed.
 Zener diode is a P-N junction diode specially designed to operate in the reverse biased mode. It
is acting as normal diode while forward biasing. It has a particular voltage known as break down
voltage, at which the diode break downs while reverse biased. In the case of normal diodes the
diode damages at the break down voltage. But zener diode is specially designed to operate in the
reverse breakdown region.
 The basic principle of zener diode is the zener breakdown. When a diode is heavily doped, it’s
depletion region will be narrow. When a high reverse voltage is applied across the junction, there
will be very strong electric field at the junction. And the electron hole pair generation takes place.
Thus heavy current flows. This is known as Zener break down.
 So a zener diode, in a forward biased condition acts as a normal diode. In reverse biased mode,
after the break down of junction current through diode increases sharply. But the voltage across it
remains constant
▪ In the forward bias direction, the zener diode behaves like an ordinary silicon
▪ In the reverse bias direction, there is practically no reverse current flow until the breakdown voltage
is reached. When this occurs there is a sharp increase in reverse current.
▪ Varying amount of reverse current can pass through the diode without damaging it. The breakdown
voltage or zener voltage (VZ) across the diode remains relatively constant.
▪ The maximum reverse current is limited, however, by the wattage rating of the diode.

▪ Manufacturers rate zener diodes according to their Vz value and the maximum Power Dissipation
(PD) at 25ºC. This gives an indication of the maximum reverse current(IR)that a diode an safely
▪ For example, a 1W, 15V zener diode can conduct an IR of 0.066A(P=VI).
▪ Zener diodes are available in a wide range of breakdown voltages (VZ = 1.4V to 200V).
▪ Each VZ value is generally specified at minimum zener current(IZ).
▪ In the reverse direction, once this value has been reached, the VZ remains constant over a wide
range of IZ.

154.What is zener break down?

 When a diode is heavily doped, it’s depletion region will be narrow. When a high reverse voltage
is applied across the junction, there will be very strong electric field at the junction. And the
electron hole pair generation takes place. Thus heavy current flows. This is known as Zener break
155.Purpose of zener in rectifier out put circuit. 

The circuit shown in figure above generates a DC voltage of 12-volts and ground
across the two terminals marked ! and ! . Your requirement however, is a 5 volt
supply. We can step down this 12 voltage voltage to a 5 voltage voltage in several
ways. One method is to use a Zener diode to clamp the voltage at 5 volts. A zener
diode is a diode whose breakdown voltages has been designed to sit at a specific
voltage level. The circuit shown in figure below performs this function. The resistor
in series with the diode is used to limit the output current, typical values are on the
order of 100-500 ohms.

156.Zener barrier diagram and how it works

A Zener barrier is an associated equipment that is installed in the safe area. It is designed to
limit the amount of energy that could appear in an electrical circuit passes

Zener Diode Voltage Regulator

through the hazardous area despite the connection before the barrier. A barrier consists of:

Resistors to limit the current

Zener diodes to limit the voltage

Fuses to protect the components

As any intrinsic safety equipment, the Zener barrier allows cables to short circuit to each other
or to metallic parts connected to ground without danger.
Figure above illustrates an intrinsic safety equipment (A) connected to a circuit (C) through a Zener
barrier (B) that limits the current, the voltage and the power.

If a fault voltage occurs between the terminals (m) and (n), the Zener diode (protected by a fuse)
limits the voltage that risks appearing in the hazardous area and the resistor limits the current to an
acceptable value.

If a fault voltage occurs between the terminal (m) or (n) and the ground, the voltage of the wires (e)
and (f) relative to ground will not exceed Vz provided that the Zener barrier is correctly grounded at

The Zener barrier permits wires (e) and (f) to be short circuited without danger.
However, if point (n) accidentally reaches a high potential relative to ground, a ground
fault at (f) risks causing a dangerous spark.

To ensure the safety of such a wiring, point T1 must be connected to ground as
illustrated in Fig.below. So, in the event of a fault between (m) and (n), the voltage
between (e) and (f) will not exceed Vz, the short circuit current between (e) and (f) will
not exceed Vz/R, and the ground fault current will be zero for point (f), and equal to
Vz/R for point (e).

157.What is an Optocoupler?
An optical coupler, also called opto-isolator, optocoupler, opto coupler, photocoupler or optical isolator, is a passive optical
component , an electronic device which is designed to transfer electrical signals by using light waves in order to provide
coupling with electrical isolation between its input and output.

The main purpose of an optocoupler is to prevent rapidly changing voltages or high voltages on one side of a circuit from
distorting transmissions or damaging components on the other side of the circuit. An optocoupler contains a light source
often near an LED which converts electrical input signal into light, a closed optical channel and a photosensor, which
detects incoming light and either modulates electric current flowing from an external power supply or generates electric
energy directly. The sensor can either be a photoresistor, a silicon-controlled rectifier, a photodiode, a phototransistor or
a triac.

Transformers isolate the primary input voltage from the secondary output voltage using electromagnetic
coupling by means of a magnetic flux circulating within the iron laminated core. But we can also provide
electrical isolation between an input source and an output load using just light by using a very common and
valuable electronic component called an Optocoupler.

An Optocoupler, also known as an Opto-isolator or Photo-coupler, is an electronic components that

interconnects two separate electrical circuits by means of a light sensitive optical interface.

The basic design of an Optocoupler consists of an LED that produces infra-red light and a
semiconductor photo-sensitive device that is used to detect the emitted infra-red beam. Both the LED
and photo-sensitive device are enclosed in a light-tight body or package with metal legs for the
electrical connections as shown.
An optocoupler or opto-isolator consists of a light emitter, the LED and a light sensitive receiver which can be a
single photo-diode, photo-transistor, photo-resistor, photo-SCR, or a photo-TRIAC and the basic operation of
an optocoupler is very simple to understand.

Phototransistor Optocoupler

Assume a photo-transistor device as shown. Current from the source signal passes through the input LED
which emits an infra-red light whose intensity is proportional to the electrical signal.

This emitted light falls upon the base of the photo-transistor, causing it to switch-ON and conduct in a similar
way to a normal bipolar transistor.

The base connection of the photo-transistor can be left open for maximum sensitivity or connected to ground
via a suitable external resistor to control the switching sensitivity making it more stable.

When the current flowing through the LED is interrupted, the infra-red emitted light is cut-off, causing the
photo-transistor to cease conducting. The photo-transistor can be used to switch current in the output circuit.

158.Purifier Starting principle.

The starting current of an induction motor is six to eight times the full load current. When such a
motor is used as a prime mover for these high inertia machines, some special arrangements are to
be incorporated. The instant load on the electric motor at start-up is not as big as the separator is
driven by the means of centrifugal clutch. At first, the motor attains the rated full speed, making the
torque on the friction pads increase. This causes the bowl to gradually achieve its rated speed. Thus
it is necessary to use a motor which can withstand the initial start-up overload.

The drive system is specially designed with gear and friction clutch arrangements.
The purifier bowl is mounted upon the vertical shaft. The most important point is that the bowl is
driven on a keyless taper secured by a lock nut on the vertical shaft. The vertical shaft is supported
on the upper part by a bearing to take up vibration in the horizontal direction. The lower end of the
vertical shaft is supported by a ball bearing to take up the vertical thrust.
Between the upper bearing and the lower bearing, a worm gear is located on the vertical shaft. This
worm gear is exactly in mesh with the worm wheel on the horizontal shaft. The horizontal shaft is
supported on both the ends by simple ball bearings just to support and allow rotation. One end of the
horizontal shaft has the friction block, which also acts as a brake drum.

Friction Clutch Arrangement

The purifier bowl and its associated bowl parts are really heavy when assembled together. Thus the
inertia is huge enough that the machine cannot be started in the same manner like other pumps or
blowers. If such heavy machinery is started with direct coupling, the motor will trip on overload or may
cause severe damage to the worm gear arrangement due to sudden load on the gears. In order to avoid
such disaster, a friction clutch is mounted on the horizontal shaft. The motor shaft has two or
more friction pads mounted on it, which is contained within the friction drum. Thus as the motor starts,
the friction pads move out due to centrifugal force, thus causing a friction on the internal surface of the
friction drum. This friction starts to drive the horizontal shaft, gradually increasing its speed.
Friction Block and Pads

The friction block is circular in shape having a provision to accommodate the friction pads within it.
Thus the motor shaft having the friction pads on it fits inside the friction block. These friction pads
have a curved surface and may vary from 2 to 6 in number with each having a special Ferodo lining.
These pads, when rotating along with the motor shaft, fall out and touch the inner surface of the
friction drum. It actually does slip when rotating so that a gradual acceleration of the horizontal shaft
is achieved.

Functions of the Centrifugal Clutch

Apart from the main function of driving the bowl (by friction and slipping), it also acts as a safety
device. If there is any mechanical obstruction on the bowl or on the drive assembly, the clutch will
slip preventing very severe damage. Since the purifier bowl assembly has very high inertia, it takes
some time to stop. To stop the purifier immediately, there is a brake assembly provided, which when
engaged rubs against the outer surface of the friction block. Take care not to start the purifier with its
brake on.
Points to be observed during Operation:
1. The current (amperes) during starting remains elevated till the bowl speed attains the rated
2. When the separator discharges sludge, the speed of the separator drops momentarily and the
amperage goes up till the bowl attains the rated speed.
3. The amperage shows a slight increase during the discharge cycle, when sealing water is added
to the bowl.
4. After sludge discharge, when the oil is fed into the bowl, the amperage slightly increases and
reaches back normal value.
The above points are evident from the graph which shows the current versus speed characteristics
of the purifier and its prime mover. The reason for the increase in current during discharge cycle is
not clear, however it is assumed that as the bowl separates into two different parts, there is a change
in moment of inertia, which causes the mass of the rotating bowl to increase and thus increase in

The motor starting circuit has a special arrangement for allowing the motor to consume high current
only during starting.The circuit has a special timer, which keeps the overload circuit out of action for
the initial starting period. Once the timer has reached its limit, the main circuit takes over the control
with its overload protection. The starter circuit remains isolated till the next starting sequence. The
usual timer setting is for 10 minutes and it can be varied depending upon the type of purifier.
159.Purifier operating principle
The main operating principle is separation of two liquids with different specific gravities. The
dirty fuel or lube oil is fed into the purifier bowl. The water and sludge particles with higher
density move outward compared to the less dense oil. Thus with the help of the gravity disc,
the clean oil and water interface is maintained. The clean oil is taken out of the bowl and
pumped into the service tanks for consumption by the engine. The waste water and sludge
get accumulated and are discharged into the sludge tank for disposal. When the oil is at
room temperature and kept in a tank, it is difficult to separate oil and water. But as the
temperature is increased, the settling of water takes place comparatively faster in the still
tank. But in a purifier, the separation efficiency is improved eight times more by the action
of centrifugal force and elevated temperature. However, the recent modern purifiers are
capable of separating high density oils, care to be taken not to exceed 100 degrees as water
will start boiling and thus the interface will not exist and thus causes oil overflow.

160.Water ingress system.


Bulk carriers must be fitted with an approved water ingress detection system, such as BulkSafe, to comply with the SOLAS
XII Regulation 12.
In each cargo hold, giving audible and visual alarms, one when the water level above the inner bottom in any hold reaches
a height of 0.5m and another at a height not less than 15% of the depth of the cargo hold but not more than 2.0 m. On bulk
carriers to which regulation 9.2 applies, only the latter alarm need be installed. The water level detectors shall be fitted in
the aft end of the cargo holds. For cargo holds which are used for water ballast, an alarm overriding device may be
installed. The visual alarms shall clearly discriminate between the two different level detectors in each hold.

system consists of a main alarm panel with cabinet and level sensor operated by detecting the
conductivity in a liquid when present. The sensor and the alarm panel are connected together with
intrinsically safe barrier. When the presence of water has reached the detecting points (ref. rule
requirement) of level sensor installed at the preset level in the cargo hold or other space, the electric
signals which are activated on the level switches are transmitted to the main alarm panel. At the same
time, the audible and visual alarms are activated on the main alarm panel. The system has also all
necesarry functions like loop monitoring of sensors and power failure.There is also overriding device
for which the alarm can be deactivated or reactivated for the detector installed in the tank and holds
used for carriage of water ballast according to the SOLAS regulation XIII 12.1. The main power and
standby power are prepared in such way that if the main power failes, the standby power will make
sure that the alarm panel will be supplied continuously. An alarm will be given under such condition.

Sensors can be float type, Water sensor type, Reed Type, Capacitance type.
161.Types of Explosive zones.

Zone 0: Area where an explosive mixture of gas and air is present continuously or for a long period
of time
Zone 1: Area where where an explosive mixture of gas and air is likely to occur for a short time
during Operation

Zone 2: Area where an explosive mixture of gas and air is is not likely to occur, and if it occurs it will
only exist for a very short time due to an abnormal condition.

162.What are the different types of Explosion protection???

Ex d Flameproof (Explosion proof) Enclosure 1, 2

Ex e Increased Safety 1, 2

Ex ia Intrinsically Safe 0, 1, 2
Ex ib Intrinsically Safe 1, 2
Ex o Oil Immersion 2
Ex p Pressurized Apparatus (Purged Apparatus) 1, 2
Ex q Powder Filling (Sand Filling) 2
Ex m Encapsulation 1, 2
Ex n or
Non incentive or/and normally no sparking circuits 2
Ex N

Flameproof (Explosion proof) Enclosure

All electrical circuits are enclosed in a house strong enough to contain any explosion or fire
that may take place on the inside.
Increased Safety
Electrical circuits incorporates special measures to reduce the probability of excessive
temperatures and the occurrence of arcs and sparks in normal service.
Intrinsically Safety
The electrical energy available in circuits and equipment, is limited to a level to low to ignite
the most easily ignitable mixtures in a hazardous area.
Intrinsically safe barriers, as Zener, are installed in the circuit to limit current and voltage in
the hazardous areas to avoid sparks or hot spots under fault conditions.
163.What is Floating Neutral?

▪ If the Star Point of Unbalanced Load is not joined to the Star Point of its Power Source (Distribution
Transformer or Generator) then Phase voltage do not remain same across each phase but its vary
according to the Unbalanced of the load.
▪ As the Potential of such an isolated Star Point or Neutral Point is always changing and not fixed so
it’s called Floating Neutral.

164.Effects of Neutral floating.

A floating neutral can be a serious problem. Suppose we have a breaker panel with 3 Pole Breaker for Three Phase and
Bus bar for Neutral for 3 Phase inputs and a neutral (Here we have not used 4 Pole Breaker). The voltage between each
Phase is 440 and the voltage between each Phase and the neutral is 230. We have single breakers feeding loads that
require 230Volts. These 230Volt loads have one line fed by the breaker and a neutral.
Now suppose the Neutral gets loose or oxidized or somehow disconnected in the panel or maybe even out where the
power comes from. The 440Volt loads will be unaffected however the 230V loads can be in serious trouble. With this
Floating neutral condition you will discover that one of the two lines will go from 230Volts up to 340 or 350 and the other
line will go down to 110 or 120 volts. Half of your 230Volt equipment will go up in high due to overvoltage and the other half
will not function due to a low voltage condition. So, be careful with floating neutrals.

165.How to detect Floating Neutral Condition??

Condition (1): Neutral is not Floating

Whether the Neutral is grounded the voltages remain the same 240V between phase & Neutral and 440V between phases.
The Neutral is not Floating.

Condition (2): Neutral is Floating

All Appliances are connected: If the Neutral wire for a circuit becomes disconnected from the household’s main power
supply panel while the Phase wire for the circuit still remains connected to the panel and the circuit has appliances plugged
into the socket outlets. In that situation, if you put a voltage Tester with a neon lamp onto the Neutral wire it will glow just as
if it was Live, because it is being fed with a very small current coming from the Phase supply via the plugged-in
appliance(s) to the Neutral wire.
All Appliances are Disconnected: If you unplug all appliances, lights and whatever else may be connected to the circuit,
the Neutral will no longer seem to be Live because there is no longer any path from it to the Phase supply.
Phase to Phase Voltage: The meter indicates 440V AC. (No any Effect on 3 Phase Load)
Phase to Neutral Voltage: The meter indicates 110V AC to 330V AC.
Neutral to Ground Voltage: The meter indicates 110V.
Phase to Ground Voltage: The meter indicates 120V.
This is because the neutral is “floats” above ground potential (110V + 120V = 230VAC). As a result the output is isolated
from system ground and the full output of 230V is referenced between line and neutral with no ground connection.

166.How to Eliminate Neutral Floating??

a) Use ELCB, RCBO or 4 Pole Circuit Breaker as income in the 3ph supply system since if neutral opens it will trip the
complete supply without damaging to the system.

b) Using Voltage Stabilizer:

▪ Whenever neutral fails in three phase system, the connected loads will get connected between phases owing to floating
neutral. Hence depending on load resistance across these phases, the voltage keeps varying between 230V to 400V.A
suitable servo stabilizer with wide input voltage range with high & low cutoff may help in protecting the equipments.
c) Good workmanship & Maintenance :
▪ Give higher Priority on Maintenance of LV network . Tight or apply adequate Torque for tightening of Neutral conductor
in LV system
167. Dangers of Floating Neutral.
A Floating Neutral (Disconnected Neutral) fault condition is VERY UNSAFE because If Appliance is
not working and someone who does not know about the Neutral Floating could easily touch the
Neutral wire to find out why appliances does not work when they are plugged into a circuit and get a
bad shock. Single phase Appliances are design to work its normal Phase Voltage when they get Line
Voltage Appliances may Damage .Disconnected Neutral fault is a very unsafe condition and should
be corrected at the earliest possible by troubleshooting of the exact wires to check and then connect

168.Motor overhaul procedure.

In motor construction, the air gap between the stator and the rotor is very less. If there is a little
deviation in the shaft rotation, the rotor will slowly start touching the stator (In this condition, you can
feel much more vibrations in the motor), which can lead to short circuit and burning of windings.
The scheduled maintenance of motor should be carried out in such a way that the motor does not
reach this stage. Thus, proper overhauling of the motor is of great importance.

i. Checking the insulation of the stator winding

ii. Marking of both motor housing and connection wires
iii. Check direction of rotation
iv. Take out the motor from the place and keep it in a horizontal position
v. Open the motor from any one side
vi. If it’s a small motor take out the rotor
vii.If it’s a huge motor keep the rotor inside and open the bearings using a good bearing
viii.Clean the shaft on both ends and heat the new bearing up to 70 deg. C to avoid tight
insertion of the bearing in the shaft. Do this for both sides.
ix. Wait for 20 minutes, let the bearing cool down, and after that insert the bearing housing cover
from one side.
x. Box back the motor

Box up to be done as per the markings

Take up the rotor with one side cover (If bearing locking nut were there in one of the sides,
prefer that to be the first to assemble) and push it inside the stator
Lock with one side nut bolts, slowly insert the other side cover, do the hammering slowly by
wooden hammer, insert and lock with nut and bolts, and the rotor will now apply load on the
Gently tighten the bolts using opposite tightening method. Insert the cooling fan and
protection cover, and once again verify the tightness of the bolts
xi. Fix in place the motor as per the marking and give the connections accordingly.
xii. Try out and check the Amperage. Compare with rated amperage and before overhaul
xiii.Note: Check the direction of rotation after overhauling. If it indicates opposite direction, it
means the connection done is wrong.

169.What is air gap in a motor? Why should it be small?


The airgap of motor below 2h.p. is 0.5mm. The air gap should be low as possible so the magnetic flux will cut
more and it will give allowance for bearing play so that rotor will not touch stator.

The air gap should be small to minimise reluctance. But air gap length also affects the stability of the machine.
More the air gap length, more is the stability. So an optimum amount of air gap is to be maintained to ensure

170. How does airgap effect a machine? why air gap in synchronous machines is large with respect to
induction ones?

The main source of low power factor at which induction motor operates is the air gap between the stator
and the rotor. This air gap increases the reluctance between the stator and the rotor, which enhances the
magnetizing current for production of the given mutual flux between the stator and the rotor for a given
supply voltage. Therefore, the no-load current of an induction motor becomes 30 to 40 per cent of full-
load current, which is remarkably larger than the no-load current of a transformer for a given kVA rating.
The air gap in an induction motor should be made small so that the induction motor gives better

Being self-excited a synchronous machine is a source of reactive power. This reactive power is a function
of the air-gap and a larger air-gap or low synchronous / magnetising reactance allows the synchronous
machine to deliver and absorb higher levels of reactive power. This is very important as reactive power is
required for establishing and maintaining the EM fields in a power system network and voltage stability.

The IM machine on the other hand is self excited and must draw its reactive power from the supply. To
limit the reactive power drawn from the supply one requires a high magnetising reactance which is
achieved by using a smaller air-gap.

Thus the SM has a large air gap for low magnetising reactance to allow higher reactive and active power
to be delivered whereas the IM has a small air gap for higher magnetising reactance to limit the reactive
power drawn.

Simply put. The magnetizing field in an IM has to jump the gap, the bigger the gap, the harder it is to get
the flux induced in the rotor cage, and the more current it takes to get the job done i.e. loss of efficiency.
Synchronous machines have a separately excited field in the rotor, it is fed through other means and
does not have to jump across the air gap, so the gap is bigger to facilitate manufacturing.

In Induction Motors the EMF induced in the Rotor Winding is Mutually Induced EMF.Induction Motor can
be treated as a Rotating Transformer as the E.M.F induced in the rotor is by Mutual Induction.If the air
gap is more the Leakage Flux will be more and the Mutual Flux gets reduced,reducing Rotor Emf,Current
and Torque.

In Synchronous Machine the Magnetic Flux is set up separately by Field Winding.The Emf induced in the
Stator Armature Winding is not by Mutual Induction.It is a Dynamically induced Emf due to relative motion
between the Field and Conductors.

171. What are the causes of motor failure

There are six main causes of electric motor failures:

• Over-Current - In different operating conditions, electrical devices will sometimes start to draw more
current than their overall capacity. This unpredictable event will happen very suddenly
and will greatly impact the motor.
• Low Resistance - Most motor failures occur due to low insulation resistance.
• Over heating - Excessive heat in motors can cause a number of performance problems. Overheating
causes the motorwinding insulation to deteriorate quickly. For every
ten centigrade rise in temperature, the insulation life is cut in half. It has been
concluded that more than 55% of the insulating failures are caused by over heating.
• Dirt - Dirt is one of the major sources that cause damage to the electric motors. It can damage the
motor by blocking the cooling fan which causes its temperature to raise. It can also affect
the insulating value of the winding insulation if it settles on the motor windings.
• Moisture - It greatly contributes in the corrosion of the motor shafts, bearings and rotors. This can lead to an
insulation failure also. The motor inventory should be kept dry all the time.
• Vibration - There are a number of possible causes of vibration, such as misalignment ofthe motor. Corrosion of
parts can also cause the motor to vibrate. The alignment of the motor should be checked to eliminate
this issue.
172.What is EPIRB.. explain everything you know about it. why two frequencies given. Where do each of
these frequencies interact with.How does the signal reach the search parties

An Emergency Position Indicating RadioBeacon (EPIRB) is a device used in the maritime

sector to alert rescue authorites and indicate the location and the identity of a vessel in
distress. When activated, the EPIRB starts to emit a signal that is detectable by
the COSPAS-SARSAT satellite network anywhere in the world. The network passes the alert
to the nearest rescue authority.

Most EPIRB's operate in the 406 MHz band. There are two types of 406 MHz EPIRB's. A
category I EPIRB is automatically activated when a ship sinks. These category I EPIRBs are
housed in a special bracket equiped with a hydrostatic release. This mechanism releases
the EPIRB at a water depth of 1 - 3 meter. The EPIRB floats to the surface and starts
transmitting. Category I EPIRBS can also be activated manually. A category II EPIRB has to
be activated manually.
! The satellite system can detect the location of the EPIRB with an
accuracy of 2 to 5 km. There are also 406 MHz EPIRB's available with an integrated GPS
navigation receiver. These EPIRB's will transmit an accurate location.

Both categories of the 406 MHz EPIRBs also transmit a low-power (0,25 W) "homing" signal on
121.5 MHz. This allows rescue forces to home in on a beacon as soon as they are in the

An 406 MHz EPIRB transmits a 5 W signal once every 50 seconds. The message is either a
"short message" of 122-bit in length or a "long message" of 144-bit in length. Both messages
contain a 49 bit field for identification and position information. The MMSI number is used to
identify the vessel in distress.

The 406 MHz channel is 170 kHz wide with a center frequency at 406.05 MHz.

A 406 MHz EPIRB is part of the requirements for GMDSS.

173.Working and application of thermistor.

A thermistor is a temperature sensor constructed of semiconductor material that exhibits a

large modification in resistance in proportion to a tiny low modification in temperature.
Thermistors are inexpensive, rugged, reliable and responds quickly. Because of these qualities
thermistors are used to measure simple temperature measurements, but not for high
temperatures. Thermistor is easy to use, cheap, durable and respond predictably to a change in
temperature. Thermistors are mostly used in digital thermometers and home appliances such
as refrigerator, ovens, and so on.

174.How much is minimum ohms required to run a motor??

IR Value in MΩ

IR (Min) = kV+1 For most windings made before about 1970, all field windings, and others not described

IR (Min) = 100 MΩ For most dc armature and ac windings built after about 1970 (form wound coils)

IR (Min) = 5 MΩ For most machines with random -wound stator coils and form-wound coils rated below

Example-1: For 11KV, Three Phase Motor.

IR Value =11+1=12 MΩ but as per IEEE43 It should be 100 MΩ

Example-2: For 415V,Three Phase Motor

IR Value =0.415+1=1.41 MΩ but as per IEEE43 It should be 5 MΩ.