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Data Communication and Networking

Dr. Ing. Vo Que Son Email: sonvq@hcmut.edu.vn

Communication and Networking Dr. – Ing. Vo Que Son Email: sonvq@hcmut.edu.vn Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

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Content

Chapter 1: Medium of PHY Layer

Wired and Wireless Media

Physical layer standards: RS232, RS422, RS485 Line Coding Digital modulation/demodulation Channel parameters Gaussian noise and BER

Chapter 2: Data Communication

Asynchronous data transmission

Synchronous data transmission Channel Coding

Data Compression

 Synchronous data transmission  Channel Coding  Data Compression Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

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Wired Media

Guided Media

How can signal be transmitted in wired media

(cables)?

Voltage is sometimes referred to as electromotive force (EMF).

EMF is related to an electrical force, or pressure,

that occurs when electrons and protons are separated

neutron proton
neutron
proton
when electrons and protons are separated neutron proton Electrostatic discharge Force within a atom Static
when electrons and protons are separated neutron proton Electrostatic discharge Force within a atom Static

Electrostatic discharge

Force within a atom

neutron proton Electrostatic discharge Force within a atom Static Electricity Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

Static Electricity

neutron proton Electrostatic discharge Force within a atom Static Electricity Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN
neutron proton Electrostatic discharge Force within a atom Static Electricity Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

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Waves

Waves Sine Wave Square Wave Repeat the same pattern at regular intervals • occur naturally and
Waves Sine Wave Square Wave Repeat the same pattern at regular intervals • occur naturally and

Sine Wave

Square Wave

Repeat the same pattern at regular intervals

occur naturally and change regularly over time

Continuous voltage

Repeat the same pattern at regular intervals.

do not continuously voltage.

Repeat the flat pattern on both the top and bottom of the wave

voltage. Repeat the flat pattern on both the top and bottom of the wave • Telecomm.

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Two-wire open lines

Used in short distance communication with low data

rates

Simple structure Data rate < 19Kbps, max distance L<50m Sensitive with Crosstalk Sensitive with EMI

max distance L<50m  Sensitive with Crosstalk  Sensitive with EMI Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE
max distance L<50m  Sensitive with Crosstalk  Sensitive with EMI Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

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Twisted-Pair Cable

Used in LAN and Telephone

networks

Data or voice transmission UTP, STP, ScTP

Reduce more EMI than two-wire open lines? Reduce Crosstalk? Introduce Skew: delay in video transmission

lines?  Reduce Crosstalk?  Introduce Skew: delay in video transmission Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE
lines?  Reduce Crosstalk?  Introduce Skew: delay in video transmission Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

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UTP - Unshield Twisted Pair

Intrinsic Impedance: 100 Ohm

BW: depending on CAT

Speed: 10,100, 1000 Mbps depending on cable quality/category

Average $ per node: less expensive

Maximum cable length: 100m

Media and connector size: small

expensive  Maximum cable length: 100m  Media and connector size: small Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
expensive  Maximum cable length: 100m  Media and connector size: small Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

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STP - Shield Twisted Pair

Intrinsic Impedance: usually 150 Ohm

Speed: 10,100 Mbps depending on cable

quality/category

Average $ per node: moderately expensive

Maximum cable length: 100m

Media and connector size: medium to large

 Maximum cable length: 100m  Media and connector size: medium to large Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
 Maximum cable length: 100m  Media and connector size: medium to large Telecomm. Dept. Faculty

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ScTP - Screen Twisted Pair

Intrinsic Impedance: usually 100 Ohm

Speed: 10,100, 1000 Mbps depending on cable

quality/category

Average $ per node: less expensive

Maximum cable length: 100m

Media and connector size: small

expensive  Maximum cable length: 100m  Media and connector size: small Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
expensive  Maximum cable length: 100m  Media and connector size: small Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

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Most of common cables

Name

Type

Bandwidth

Applications

Level 1

 

0.4 MHz

Telephone and modem lines

Level 2

 

4 MHz

Older terminal systems, e.g. IBM 3270

Cat3

UTP

16

MHz

10BASE-T and 100BASE-T4 Ethernet

Cat4

UTP

20

MHz

16 Mbit/s Token Ring

Cat5

UTP

100

MHz

100BASE-TX & 1000BASE-T Ethernet

Cat5e

UTP

100

MHz

100BASE-TX & 1000BASE-T Ethernet

Cat6

UTP

250

MHz

10GBASE-T Ethernet

Cat6a

 

500

MHz

10GBASE-T Ethernet

Class F

S/FTP

600 MHz

Telephone, CCTV, 1000BASE-TX in the same cable. 10GBASE-T Ethernet.

Class Fa

 

1000 MHz

Telephone, CATV, 1000BASE-TX in the same cable. 10GBASE-T Ethernet.

MHz Telephone, CATV, 1000BASE-TX in the same cable. 10GBASE-T Ethernet. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

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Cable and connectors

Cable and connectors Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 11
Cable and connectors Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 11

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Cabling Types

Cabling Types  Switch to router  Switch to PC or server  Hub to PC
Cabling Types  Switch to router  Switch to PC or server  Hub to PC

Switch to router

Switch to PC or server

Hub to PC or server

Switch to switch

Switch to hub

Hub to hub

Router to router

PC to PC

Router to PC

to hub  Hub to hub  Router to router  PC to PC  Router

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Co-axial Cable

Speed: 10-100 Mbps

Average $ per node:

inexpensive

Media and connector size:

medium Max cable length: 500m

inexpensive  Media and connector size: medium  Max cable length: 500m Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
inexpensive  Media and connector size: medium  Max cable length: 500m Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
inexpensive  Media and connector size: medium  Max cable length: 500m Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
inexpensive  Media and connector size: medium  Max cable length: 500m Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

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Co-axial Cable (1)

Applications: Computer Networks, Data Systems,

CATV, Private Video Networks

RG-6/RG-59: 75 Ohm, CATV

RG-8/ RG-58: 50 Ohm, Thick and Think Ethernet

LANs

RG-62: 93 Ohm, used in IBM Mainframe

EMI prevention Many kinds of intrinsic impedances: co-axial cables can be used in specific systems

kinds of intrinsic impedances: co-axial cables can be used in specific systems Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

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Optical fiber

The light used in optical fiber networks is one type of

electromagnetic energy.

The wavelength of an electromagnetic wave is

determined by how frequently the electric charge

that generates the wave moves back and forth

frequently the electric charge that generates the wave moves back and forth Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
frequently the electric charge that generates the wave moves back and forth Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

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Reflection and Refraction

Reflection and Refraction  Electromagnetic waves pointing out from the source are called rays  When

Electromagnetic waves

pointing out from the source

are called rays

When a ray of light (the incident ray) strikes the

shiny surface of a flat piece

of glass, some of the light energy in the ray is reflected

of a flat piece of glass, some of the light energy in the ray is reflected

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

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Total internal reflection

Total internal reflection Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 17
Total internal reflection Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 17

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Multi-mode fiber

Subscriber Connector (SC) is used in multimode
Subscriber Connector (SC) is used in
multimode
Multi-mode fiber Subscriber Connector (SC) is used in multimode Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT

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Single-mode fiber

Single-mode fiber Straight Tip (ST) connector is used single mode Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN
Single-mode fiber Straight Tip (ST) connector is used single mode Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

Straight Tip (ST) connector is used single mode

Single-mode fiber Straight Tip (ST) connector is used single mode Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN
Single-mode fiber Straight Tip (ST) connector is used single mode Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

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Attenuation

Attenuation Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 20
Attenuation Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 20

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Optical components

A LED producing infrared light with wavelengths of either

850nm or 1310nm. LEDs are used in multimode

LASER producing a thin beam of intense infrared light usually with wavelengths of 1310nm or 1550 nm. Lasers are used

with single-mode

with wavelengths of 1310nm or 1550 nm. Lasers are used with single-mode Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
with wavelengths of 1310nm or 1550 nm. Lasers are used with single-mode Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

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Fiber-optic cable is not affected by the sources of external

noise

Fiber in a cable does not generate interference that disturbs transmission on any other fiber

The scattering of light, Absorption, Dispersion, manufacturing

irregularities

Expensive and complicated installation

manufacturing irregularities  Expensive and complicated installation Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 22
manufacturing irregularities  Expensive and complicated installation Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 22

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Cabling Evolution

Telephone

Informatics

Unstructured Structured Universal Cabling System Pre-engineered Cabling System

Unstructured Structured Universal Cabling System Pre-engineered Cabling System Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 23

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Cabling Evolution (1)

Telephony

PABX
PABX
Cabling Evolution (1)  Telephony PABX Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 24

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Cabling Evolution (2)

Data networking (80 - 90)

LAN introduction

New cable media

HOST Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN 25 HCMUT
HOST
Telecomm. Dept.
Faculty of EEE
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Cabling Evolution (3)

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet

10 BASE-5

10 BASE-2

1980

Evolution (3) IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 10 BASE-5 10 BASE-2 1980 10BASE-5 SAS FD DI DAS FDDI
Evolution (3) IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 10 BASE-5 10 BASE-2 1980 10BASE-5 SAS FD DI DAS FDDI
Evolution (3) IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 10 BASE-5 10 BASE-2 1980 10BASE-5 SAS FD DI DAS FDDI
Evolution (3) IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 10 BASE-5 10 BASE-2 1980 10BASE-5 SAS FD DI DAS FDDI

10BASE-5

(3) IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 10 BASE-5 10 BASE-2 1980 10BASE-5 SAS FD DI DAS FDDI 10
(3) IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 10 BASE-5 10 BASE-2 1980 10BASE-5 SAS FD DI DAS FDDI 10
SAS FD DI
SAS
FD
DI

DAS

FDDI

10 BASE-Tx

10 BASE-FL

10 BASE-FL

Coxial

10BASE-5 SAS FD DI DAS FDDI 10 BASE-Tx 10 BASE-FL Coxial TP-PMD 10BASE-2 Fiber Distributed Data
10BASE-5 SAS FD DI DAS FDDI 10 BASE-Tx 10 BASE-FL Coxial TP-PMD 10BASE-2 Fiber Distributed Data

TP-PMD

SAS FD DI DAS FDDI 10 BASE-Tx 10 BASE-FL Coxial TP-PMD 10BASE-2 Fiber Distributed Data Interface
SAS FD DI DAS FDDI 10 BASE-Tx 10 BASE-FL Coxial TP-PMD 10BASE-2 Fiber Distributed Data Interface
SAS FD DI DAS FDDI 10 BASE-Tx 10 BASE-FL Coxial TP-PMD 10BASE-2 Fiber Distributed Data Interface
SAS FD DI DAS FDDI 10 BASE-Tx 10 BASE-FL Coxial TP-PMD 10BASE-2 Fiber Distributed Data Interface

10BASE-2

Fiber Distributed Data Interface

1980s

IEEE 802.5 Token Ring

Token Ring 4 mbps 1985 CAT3 Token Ring 16 mbps 1989 UTP IBM Type1 Token
Token Ring 4 mbps
1985
CAT3
Token Ring 16 mbps
1989
UTP
IBM Type1
Token Ring
2-pairSTP
ATM
Token Ring 16 mbps 1989 UTP IBM Type1 Token Ring 2-pairSTP ATM Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

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Legacy cable systems

Unstructured.

Each system had a different kind of transmission medium (UTP, telephone cable, STP, Type-1, coax,

signal cable, fiber

)

Each installed system is non-compatible with other

applications.

Costly moves and changes.

No overview.

Spaghetti cabling.

WHAT A MESS……
WHAT A MESS……
moves and changes.  No overview.  Spaghetti cabling. WHAT A MESS…… Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

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Cabling Evolution (3)

Universal Cabling Two media: copper twisted pair and optical fiber Voice, data, video, control signals Patching Facilities Universal (Generic): application independent

 Patching Facilities  Universal (Generic): application independent Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 28

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Universal Cabling Standards

NORTH AMERICA TIA/EIA 568A Commercial Building Telecommunications Wiring Standard October 1995 EUROPE EN 50173
NORTH AMERICA TIA/EIA 568A Commercial Building Telecommunications Wiring Standard October 1995

NORTH AMERICA TIA/EIA

568A

Commercial Building Telecommunications Wiring Standard

October 1995

Building Telecommunications Wiring Standard October 1995 EUROPE EN 50173 Customer Premises Cabling August 1995
Building Telecommunications Wiring Standard October 1995 EUROPE EN 50173 Customer Premises Cabling August 1995
Building Telecommunications Wiring Standard October 1995 EUROPE EN 50173 Customer Premises Cabling August 1995
Building Telecommunications Wiring Standard October 1995 EUROPE EN 50173 Customer Premises Cabling August 1995

EUROPE

EN 50173 Customer Premises Cabling August 1995

EN 50173

Customer Premises Cabling

August 1995

EUROPE EN 50173 Customer Premises Cabling August 1995 INTERNATIONAL IS 11801 Generic Cabling for Customer

INTERNATIONAL

IS 11801 Generic Cabling for Customer Premises July 1995

IS 11801

Generic Cabling for Customer Premises

July 1995

50173 Customer Premises Cabling August 1995 INTERNATIONAL IS 11801 Generic Cabling for Customer Premises July 1995
INTERNATIONAL IS 11801 Generic Cabling for Customer Premises July 1995 Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

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Benefits of Structured Cabling

Redundancy at design stage reduces downtime &

repair time

Concealed cabling Ease of fault location & repair

Flexibility, expandability & modular connecting

platform Ease of moves, adds and changes Enhanced end-use understanding and control Continuous product support and warranty Significant long term cost containment

product support and warranty  Significant long term cost containment Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

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Cabling structure

Campus CD ISO11801 Backbone EN50173-1 Cabling BD BD CD Campus Distributor Building Backbone BD Building
Campus
CD
ISO11801
Backbone
EN50173-1
Cabling
BD
BD
CD
Campus Distributor
Building
Backbone
BD
Building Distributor
Cabling
FD
Floor Distributor
FD
FD
FD
FD
FD
FD
CP
Consolidation Point
Telecommunication
Horizontal
TO
Outlet
Cabling
CP
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
Telecomm. Dept.
Faculty of EEE
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HCMUT

Elements of a Structured Cabling System

Elements of a Structured Cabling System Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 32
Elements of a Structured Cabling System Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 32

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Building Distributor - Floor Distributor

Building Distributor - Floor Distributor Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 33
Building Distributor - Floor Distributor Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 33

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Campus Distributor

Campus Distributor < 1500 m Campus Distributor < 1500 m < 1500 m Telecomm. Dept. Faculty

< 1500 m

Campus Distributor < 1500 m Campus Distributor < 1500 m < 1500 m Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
Campus Distributor < 1500 m Campus Distributor < 1500 m < 1500 m Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
Campus Distributor < 1500 m Campus Distributor < 1500 m < 1500 m Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
Campus Distributor < 1500 m Campus Distributor < 1500 m < 1500 m Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
Campus Distributor < 1500 m Campus Distributor < 1500 m < 1500 m Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
Campus Distributor
Campus
Distributor
Campus Distributor < 1500 m Campus Distributor < 1500 m < 1500 m Telecomm. Dept. Faculty

< 1500 m

< 1500 m

Campus Distributor < 1500 m Campus Distributor < 1500 m < 1500 m Telecomm. Dept. Faculty

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Telecom Oulet Horizontal Cable RJ45 (ISO 8877) P2 P3 P1 P4 Telecom Outlet 8 pins
Telecom Oulet
Horizontal Cable
RJ45 (ISO 8877)
P2
P3 P1
P4
Telecom Outlet
8
pins
4
pairs
T568 A-B
8
wires
1 drain wire
Patchcord
4
twisted pairs
pins 4 pairs T568 A-B 8 wires 1 drain wire Patchcord 4 twisted pairs Telecomm. Dept.

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Wireless media

Satellite Microwave

Terrestrial Microwave

Infrared

Wireless media  Satellite Microwave  Terrestrial Microwave  Infrared Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN
Wireless media  Satellite Microwave  Terrestrial Microwave  Infrared Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

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Microwave

Satellite and Terrestrial Microwave Advantages :

No cabling needed between sites

Wide bandwidth

Multichannel transmissions

Disadvantages :

Line of sight requirement .

Expensive towers and repeaters .

Subject to interference -e.g. passing airplanes, rain .

and repeaters .  Subject to interference -e.g. passing airplanes, rain . Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

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Satellite systems

Satellite systems Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 38
Satellite systems Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 38
Satellite systems Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 38

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Satellite Microwave

Satellite is relay station

Receives on one frequency, amplifies or repeats

signal and transmits on another frequency.

Example: uplink 5.925-6.425 GHz & downlink 3.7-4.2 GHz

Typically requires geo-stationary orbit

height of 35,784km

spaced at least 3-4° apart

Typical uses

television

long distance telephone

private business networks

global positioning

long distance telephone  private business networks  global positioning Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

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Satellite frequency bands

Satellite frequency bands  Applications:  Broadcast, TV  Long-haul telephone system  Private business

Applications:

Broadcast, TV

Long-haul telephone system

Private business network

Broadcast, TV  Long-haul telephone system  Private business network Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

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Satellites Microwave

Point-to-Point Satellite Link Connecting remote sites
Point-to-Point Satellite Link
Connecting remote sites
Microwave Point-to-Point Satellite Link Connecting remote sites Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 41

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Broadcast Radio

Radio is 3kHz to 300GHz

use broadcast radio, 30MHz -

 Radio is 3kHz to 300GHz  use broadcast radio, 30MHz - 1GHz, for:  FM

1GHz, for:

FM radio

UHF and VHF television

is omnidirectional

still need line of sight

suffers from multipath

interference

reflections from land, water, other objects

from multipath interference  reflections from land, water, other objects Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

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LEO systems

LEO systems Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 43
LEO systems Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 43

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Terrestrial Microwave

Propagation model

Terrestrial Microwave Propagation model Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 44
Terrestrial Microwave Propagation model Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 44

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Frequency Bands

Frequency Bands Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 45
Frequency Bands Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 45

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Terrestrial Microwave

Applications

Long-haul voice communications

Common carriers Private network

Characteristics:

Using sky-wave Line-of-sight

Frequency band: 2 40GHz

Sensitive to obstacles, environment changes.

Frequency band: 2 – 40GHz  Sensitive to obstacles, environment changes. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

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Terrestrial Microwave: Example

Microwave link in

Cellular networks

Microwave link for

disaster zone

 Microwave link in Cellular networks  Microwave link for disaster zone Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
 Microwave link in Cellular networks  Microwave link for disaster zone Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
 Microwave link in Cellular networks  Microwave link for disaster zone Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

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Infrared

Infrared (IR) light is electromagnetic radiation with

longer wavelengths than those of visible light

Light-of-sight

Applications:

PC-PC, PDA communication

Data communication in small networks

 PC-PC, PDA communication  Data communication in small networks Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN
 PC-PC, PDA communication  Data communication in small networks Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

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Physical layer Standards

Interface standard of Physical layer

Define connector

Define signal

Define protocol

Common standards

RS232

RS422

RS485

 Define protocol  Common standards  RS232  RS422  RS485 Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
 Define protocol  Common standards  RS232  RS422  RS485 Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

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RS232

RS-232 is a popular communications interface for

connecting modems and data acquisition devices (i.e.

GPS receivers, electronic balances, data loggers, computers.

) to

RS-232 can be plugged straight into the computer’s serial

port (know as COM or Comm port).

Components of standard:

Connection must be less than 50 feet

Data represented by voltages between +15v and -15v

25-pin connector, with specific signals such as data, ground and

control assigned to designated pins

Specifies transmission of characters between, e.g., a terminal and a modem

Transmitter never leaves wire at 0v; when idle, transmitter puts

negative voltage (a 1) on the wire

wire at 0v; when idle, transmitter puts negative voltage (a 1) on the wire Telecomm. Dept.

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RS232

RS232 DB-25 Female DB-25 Male  Connectors:  DB25  DB9  Male & Female 

DB-25 Female

RS232 DB-25 Female DB-25 Male  Connectors:  DB25  DB9  Male & Female 

DB-25 Male

Connectors:

DB25

DB9

Male & Female

RS232 signal example:

No Parity

 Male & Female  RS232 signal example: No Parity Even Parity Odd Parity Telecomm. Dept.
 Male & Female  RS232 signal example: No Parity Even Parity Odd Parity Telecomm. Dept.

Even Parity

Odd Parity

Male & Female  RS232 signal example: No Parity Even Parity Odd Parity Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
Male & Female  RS232 signal example: No Parity Even Parity Odd Parity Telecomm. Dept. Faculty

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RS232 Signal

Architecturally RS-232 is a bi-

directional point to point link.

Two independent channels are established for two-way (full- duplex) communications.

RS-232 can also carry additional

signals used for flow control (RTS, CTS) and modem control (DCD,

DTR, DSR, RI).

control (RTS, CTS) and modem control (DCD, DTR, DSR, RI). (serial port - PC side) Telecomm.

(serial port - PC side)

(RTS, CTS) and modem control (DCD, DTR, DSR, RI). (serial port - PC side) Telecomm. Dept.
(RTS, CTS) and modem control (DCD, DTR, DSR, RI). (serial port - PC side) Telecomm. Dept.
(RTS, CTS) and modem control (DCD, DTR, DSR, RI). (serial port - PC side) Telecomm. Dept.
(RTS, CTS) and modem control (DCD, DTR, DSR, RI). (serial port - PC side) Telecomm. Dept.

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RS232 Signal

Common 25 pin D-shell connector

pinout used for asynchronous data

communications.

Pin desciption:

for asynchronous data communications.  Pin desciption: (serial port - PC side) Pin 1 Signal PGND
for asynchronous data communications.  Pin desciption: (serial port - PC side) Pin 1 Signal PGND

(serial port - PC side)

Pin 1
Pin
1
Signal
Signal

PGND Protective Ground

2

TXD Transmit Data

3

RXD Receive Data

4

RTS Ready To Send

5

CTS Clear To Send

6

DSR Data Set Ready

7

SG Signal Ground

8

CD Carrier Detect

20

DTR Data Terminal Ready

22

RI Ring Indicator

Carrier Detect 20 DTR Data Terminal Ready 22 RI Ring Indicator Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

53

RS232 Line Driver

Unbalanced Line Drivers

Each signal appears on the interface connector as a voltage

with reference to a signal ground.

The “idle” state (MARK) has the signal level negative with respect to common whereas the active state (SPACE) has the

signal level positive respect to the same reference.

state (SPACE) has the signal level positive respect to the same reference. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
state (SPACE) has the signal level positive respect to the same reference. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

54

RS232 Line Driver

The maximum speed, according

to the standard, is 20kbit/s.

However, modern equipment can

operate much faster than this.

(i.e. Lynx can reach 115200

baud.) The length of the cable also plays a part in maximum speed. The

longer the cable and the slower the speed at which you can obtain accurate results.

the cable and the slower the speed at which you can obtain accurate results. Telecomm. Dept.
the cable and the slower the speed at which you can obtain accurate results. Telecomm. Dept.

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

55

DTE-DCE connection

DTE-DCE connection Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 56
DTE-DCE connection Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 56

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

56

RS232: Data Transmission

RS232: Data Transmission Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 57
RS232: Data Transmission Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 57

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

57

RS232: Null modem

Null modem is a

RS232: Null modem  Null modem is a communication method to connect two DTEs (computer, terminal,

communication method to

connect two DTEs (computer, terminal, printer etc.) directly using an RS-232 serial cable.

Null modems were commonly

used for file transfer between computers, or remote operation

Types:

No hardware handshaking

Loop back handshaking

Partial handshaking

No hardware handshaking  Loop back handshaking  Partial handshaking Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

58

RS422

RS422  Limitation of RS232:  unbalanced signal  Short distance  RS422  Balanced signal:
RS422  Limitation of RS232:  unbalanced signal  Short distance  RS422  Balanced signal:

Limitation of RS232:

unbalanced signal

Short distance

RS422

Balanced signal: bits

are transmitted on

both lines: Common noise rejection

Long distance: 1500m

are transmitted on both lines: Common noise rejection  Long distance: 1500m Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

59

RS422 Signal

Bit representation:

Bit 1: +V and V

Bit 0: -V and +V

Details:

+6V -6V
+6V
-6V

Physical media: twisted-pair

Topology: P2P, Multi-dropped

Voltage Levels −6V to +6V (maximum differential Voltage)

Maximum Drivers: 10 (1 driver,

10 receivers) Bit rate: 100 kbps 10 Mbps

Drivers: 10 (1 driver, 10 receivers)  Bit rate: 100 kbps – 10 Mbps Telecomm. Dept.

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

60

RS422: P2P and Multi-dropped

Point-to-Point

Multi-dropped

RS422: P2P and Multi-dropped  Point-to-Point  Multi-dropped Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 61
RS422: P2P and Multi-dropped  Point-to-Point  Multi-dropped Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 61
RS422: P2P and Multi-dropped  Point-to-Point  Multi-dropped Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 61

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

61

RS422: extend RS322

RS422: extend RS322 Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 62
RS422: extend RS322 Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 62

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

62

RS485

Limitation of RS232: unbalanced signal and P2P

RS-485 is a EIA standard interface which is very common in the data acquisition world

RS-485 provides balanced transmission line which also can be

shared in Multidrop mode.

It allows high data rates communications over long distances in real world environments.

RS-485 was designed for greater distance and higher

baudrates than RS-232.

According to the standard, 100kbit/s is the maximum speed and distance up to 4000 feet (1200 meters) can be achieved.

the maximum speed and distance up to 4000 feet (1200 meters) can be achieved. Telecomm. Dept.

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

63

RS485 Line Driver

Bus topology

Point-to-Point

Multi-drop

Multi-point

Slave devices: 255

Physical media:

Balanced Interconnecting Cable

Full-duplex: 4 wires

Half-duplex: 2 wires

Interconnecting Cable  Full-duplex: 4 wires  Half-duplex: 2 wires Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN
Interconnecting Cable  Full-duplex: 4 wires  Half-duplex: 2 wires Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN
Interconnecting Cable  Full-duplex: 4 wires  Half-duplex: 2 wires Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

64

RS485 Line Driver

Balanced Line Drivers

Voltage produced by the driver

appears across a pair of signal wires

that transmit only one signal. Both wires are driven opposite.

RS-485 driver has always the

“Enable” direction control signal.

Differential system provides noise immunity, because much of the common mode signal can be rejected by the receiver. So ground

shifts and induced noise signals can

be nullified.

by the receiver. So ground shifts and induced noise signals can be nullified. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
by the receiver. So ground shifts and induced noise signals can be nullified. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

65

RS485 Network

RS-485 provides Half- Duplex, Multidrop

communications over

a single twisted pair cable.

The standard

specifies up to 32

drivers and 32 receivers can share a multidrop network

Terminator resistors avoid reflected signal

can share a multidrop network  Terminator resistors avoid reflected signal Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE
can share a multidrop network  Terminator resistors avoid reflected signal Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

66

RS485 Network

 RS-485 provides full- duplex: multipoint communication
 RS-485 provides full-
duplex: multipoint
communication
RS485 Network  RS-485 provides full- duplex: multipoint communication Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

67

RS485 hub

RS485 hub  Expand network Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 68

Expand network

RS485 hub  Expand network Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 68
RS485 hub  Expand network Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 68

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

68

Line coding

In this section, we see how we can represent digital data by

using digital signals. The conversion involves three techniques:

line coding, block coding, and scrambling.

Line coding is always needed; block coding and scrambling may or may not be needed.

coding is always needed; block coding and scrambling may or may not be needed. Telecomm. Dept.
coding is always needed; block coding and scrambling may or may not be needed. Telecomm. Dept.

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

69

Digital Transmission

1 signal element=1

symbol

Data element: bit 1 or bit 0

Baseband transmission

Although the actual

bandwidth of a digital signal is infinite, the effective bandwidth is

finite.

r is the number of data elements carried by one signal element

finite.  r is the number of data elements carried by one signal element Telecomm. Dept.
finite.  r is the number of data elements carried by one signal element Telecomm. Dept.

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

70

Effect of lack of synchronization

In a digital transmission, the receiver clock is 0.1 percent

faster than the sender clock. How many extra bits per second

does the receiver receive if the data rate is 1 kbps? How many if the data rate is 1 Mbps?

Solution

- At 1 kbps, the

receiver receives

1001 bps instead of 1000 bps.

- At 1 Mbps, the

receiver receives

1,001,000 bps instead of 1,000,000 bps.

- At 1 Mbps, the receiver receives 1,001,000 bps instead of 1,000,000 bps. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
- At 1 Mbps, the receiver receives 1,001,000 bps instead of 1,000,000 bps. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

71

Line coding schemes

Signal Spectrum: no high frequency components, no DC component

Clock Synchronization between Tx and Rx, external clock or self-clock

synchronization

Complexity and cost

Interference and Noise immunity

synchronization  Complexity and cost  Interference and Noise immunity Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN
synchronization  Complexity and cost  Interference and Noise immunity Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

72

Unipolar NRZ

Non Return to Zero

Bit 1: positive voltage, bit 0: 0V

Constant voltage in bit duration Lack of clock synchronization Having DC component

Easy for deployment

Lack of clock synchronization  Having DC component  Easy for deployment Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
Lack of clock synchronization  Having DC component  Easy for deployment Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

73

Polar NRZ-L and NRZ-I schemes

Using 2 voltage levels: +V, -V

Bit 1: -V, bit 0: +V

NRZ-I: Bit 1: inverted voltage, Bit 0: keep same voltage as previous level

Synchronization:

Clock-Edge: bit 1, No clock-Edge: bit 0

level  Synchronization:  Clock-Edge: bit 1, No clock-Edge: bit 0 Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE
level  Synchronization:  Clock-Edge: bit 1, No clock-Edge: bit 0 Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

74

Polar NRZ

In NRZ-L the level of the voltage determines the value of the

bit. In NRZ-I the inversion or the lack of inversion determines

the value of the bit.

NRZ-L and NRZ-I both have an average signal rate of N/2 data rate

Advantages:

Simple implementation

Efficiency of using bandwidth

Disadvantages:

Having DC component

Lack of synchronization

Applications: in magnetic recorder, not used in transmission

 Applications: in magnetic recorder, not used in transmission Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

75

Polar RZ

Return to Zero: 3 voltage levels

Bit 1: +V0, bit 0: -V0

Voltage level changes in bit duration

Good clock synchronization

Need more bandwidth

changes in bit duration  Good clock synchronization  Need more bandwidth Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
changes in bit duration  Good clock synchronization  Need more bandwidth Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

76

Bi-phase

In Manchester and differential Manchester encoding,

the transition at the middle of the bit is used for

synchronization. The minimum bandwidth of Manchester and

differential Manchester is 2 times that of NRZ.

Manchester: bit 1 V+V, bit 0: +V-V Differential Manchester:

Same as Manchester

Next bit is bit 1: no inversion of voltage Next bit is bit 0: inversion of voltage

is bit 1: no inversion of voltage  Next bit is bit 0: inversion of voltage

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

77

Bi-phase

Bi-phase Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 78
Bi-phase Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 78

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

78

Bi-phase

Advantages:

Synchronization: using clock-edge at the middle of bit

No DC component Error detection: unexpected clock-edge happens

Disadvantages:

Bandwidth: 2 times of NRZ

unexpected clock-edge happens  Disadvantages:  Bandwidth: 2 times of NRZ Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

79

Bipolar schemes: AMI and pseudoternary

AMI (Alternate Mark Inversion)

Bit 0: 0V

Bit 1: Alternate Mark inversion: +V, -V

Advantages:

Do not loose the clock sync if there is a continuous sequence of bit 1s, but loose the clock sync if there is a long sequence of bit 0s

No DC component

Require lower bandwidth

is a long sequence of bit 0s  No DC component  Require lower bandwidth Telecomm.
is a long sequence of bit 0s  No DC component  Require lower bandwidth Telecomm.

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

80

mBnL scheme

In mBnL schemes, a pattern of m data elements is

encoded as a pattern of n signal elements in which

2 m ≤ L n . Increase data rate

Decrease required bandwidth

Definitions:

m: length of binary pattern

B: binary data

n: length of signal pattern L: number of levels in the signaling

data  n: length of signal pattern  L: number of levels in the signaling Telecomm.

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

81

Multilevel: 2B1Q scheme

Used in DSL technology

Multilevel: 2B1Q scheme  Used in DSL technology Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 82
Multilevel: 2B1Q scheme  Used in DSL technology Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 82

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

82

Multilevel: 8B6T scheme

Number of binary patterns: 2 8 =256

Number of signal level: 3 6 =478

Redundant: 222

Clock synchronization

Error detection

DC balance

Redundant: 222  Clock synchronization  Error detection  DC balance Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE
Redundant: 222  Clock synchronization  Error detection  DC balance Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

83

Block and Scrambling coding

Block coding

Block coding is normally referred to as mB/nB coding; it

replaces each m-bit group with an n-bit group. Error detection

Increase bit rate

m-bit group with an n-bit group.  Error detection  Increase bit rate Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
m-bit group with an n-bit group.  Error detection  Increase bit rate Telecomm. Dept. Faculty

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

84

Block coding

Example of block coding:

4B5B

8B10B

Block coding  Example of block coding:  4B5B  8B10B Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE
Block coding  Example of block coding:  4B5B  8B10B Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

85

Scrambling

Biphase schemes that are suitable for dedicated links between

stations in a LAN are not suitable for long-distance

communication because of their wide bandwidth requirement.

The combination of block coding and NRZ line coding is not

suitable for long-distance encoding either, because of the DC

component. Bipolar AMI encoding, on the other hand, has a

narrow bandwidth and does not create a DC component.

However, along sequence of 0s upsets the synchronization. If we can find a way to avoid a long sequence of 0s in the

original stream, we can use bipolar AMI for long distances

Two techniques: B8ZS and HDB3

Scrambling do not change the bit rate while balancing DC level

and HDB3  Scrambling do not change the bit rate while balancing DC level Telecomm. Dept.

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

86

B8ZS

Bipolar with 8-Zero Substitution (B8ZS)

Replace 8 consecutive zeros by 000VB0VB

V: denoted for violation: breaks the AMI rule (opposite polarity from the previous)

B: denoted for bipolar (follows the AMI rule)

from the previous)  B : denoted for bipolar (follows the AMI rule) Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
from the previous)  B : denoted for bipolar (follows the AMI rule) Telecomm. Dept. Faculty

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

87

HDB3

High-Density Bipolar 3-zero(HDB3)

HDB3 substitutes four consecutive zeros with 000V or B00V depending on

the number of nonzero pulses after the last substitution.

B00V depending on the number of nonzero pulses after the last substitution. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
B00V depending on the number of nonzero pulses after the last substitution. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

88

Digital Modulation/Demodulation

Digital-to-analog conversion is the process of changing one of

the characteristics of an analog signal based on the

information in digital data.

Types:

of an analog signal based on the information in digital data.  Types: Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
of an analog signal based on the information in digital data.  Types: Telecomm. Dept. Faculty

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

89

Digital Modulation/Demodulation

Basic principle

Why do we need modulation?

Why do we use analog signal for modulation?

Bit rate is the number of bits per second. Baud rate is the number of signal elements per second. In the analog transmission of digital data, the baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate.

of digital data, the baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate. Telecomm.
of digital data, the baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate. Telecomm.

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

90

Example

An analog signal carries 4 bits per signal element. If

1000 signal elements are sent per second, find the

bit rate (c=1)

Solution: In this case, r = 4, S = 1000, and N is

unknown. We can find the value of N from

this case, r = 4, S = 1000, and N is unknown. We can find the
this case, r = 4, S = 1000, and N is unknown. We can find the

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

91

Example

An analog signal has a bit rate of 8000 bps and a

baud rate of 1000 baud. How many data elements

are carried by each signal element? How many signal elements do we need?

Solution: In this example, S = 1000, N = 8000, and r

and L are unknown. We find first the value of r and then the value of L.

and r and L are unknown. We find first the value of r and then the
and r and L are unknown. We find first the value of r and then the

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

92

Binary amplitude shift keying

Waveform:

Binary amplitude shift keying  Waveform:  Simple implementation  Used in telematics Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
Binary amplitude shift keying  Waveform:  Simple implementation  Used in telematics Telecomm. Dept. Faculty

Simple implementation

Used in telematics

shift keying  Waveform:  Simple implementation  Used in telematics Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

93

OOK: On-Off Keying

OOK: On-Off Keying Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 94
OOK: On-Off Keying Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 94
OOK: On-Off Keying Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 94

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

94

Binary amplitude shift keying

Implementation of Binary ASK

Binary amplitude shift keying  Implementation of Binary ASK Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT
Binary amplitude shift keying  Implementation of Binary ASK Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

95

Example

We have an available bandwidth of 100 kHz which spans from

200 to 300 kHz. What are the carrier frequency and the bit

rate if we modulated our data by using ASK with d = 1?

Solution: The middle of the bandwidth is located at 250 kHz.

This means that our carrier frequency can be at fc = 250 kHz.

We can use the formula for bandwidth to find the bit rate

(with d = 1 and r = 1).

can use the formula for bandwidth to find the bit rate (with d = 1 and
can use the formula for bandwidth to find the bit rate (with d = 1 and

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

96

Binary ASK: full-duplex

In data communications, we normally use full-duplex links

with communication in both directions. We need to divide the

bandwidth into two with two carrier frequencies, as shown in Figure 5.5. The figure shows the positions of two carrier frequencies and the bandwidths. The available bandwidth for

each direction is now 50 kHz, which leaves us with a data rate

of 25 kbps in each direction.

is now 50 kHz, which leaves us with a data rate of 25 kbps in each
is now 50 kHz, which leaves us with a data rate of 25 kbps in each

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

97

Binary frequency shift keying

Waveform:

Binary frequency shift keying  Waveform: v f s k (t) = binary FSK waveform V

v fsk (t) = binary FSK waveform V c = peak analog carrier amplitude (volts) f c = analog carrier center frequency (hertz) ∆f = peak change (shift) in the analog carrier frequency (hertz) v m (t) = binary input (modulating) signal (volts)

frequency (hertz) v m (t) = binary input (modulating) signal (volts) Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE
frequency (hertz) v m (t) = binary input (modulating) signal (volts) Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

98

Binary frequency shift keying

More complicated than ASK

Difficult in synchronization

Used in Data Communication Modems (CCITT V21, CCITT V23, BELL 103, BELL 113, BELL 202) and digital radio

Lower BER than ASK: why?

BELL 103, BELL 113, BELL 202) and digital radio  Lower BER than ASK: why? Telecomm.
BELL 103, BELL 113, BELL 202) and digital radio  Lower BER than ASK: why? Telecomm.

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

99

Binary frequency shift keying

BFSK implementation

Using VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator)

Variations: Multi-level FSK

Using multiple frequencies for FSK

 Variations: Multi-level FSK  Using multiple frequencies for FSK Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN
 Variations: Multi-level FSK  Using multiple frequencies for FSK Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

100

Binary frequency shift keying

BFSK demodulation using

PLL

BFSK coherent demodulation

BFSK non-coherent

demodulation

using PLL  BFSK coherent demodulation  BFSK non-coherent demodulation Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN
using PLL  BFSK coherent demodulation  BFSK non-coherent demodulation Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN
using PLL  BFSK coherent demodulation  BFSK non-coherent demodulation Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

101

BFSK: Example

We have an available bandwidth of 100 kHz which spans from

200 to 300 kHz. What should be the carrier frequency and the

bit rate if we modulated our data by using FSK with d = 1?

Solution: This problem is similar to Example 5.3, but we are modulating by using FSK. The midpoint of the band is at 250

kHz. We choose 2Δf to be 50 kHz; this means

midpoint of the band is at 250 kHz. We choose 2Δf to be 50 kHz; this
midpoint of the band is at 250 kHz. We choose 2Δf to be 50 kHz; this

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

102

Multi-level FSK

We need to send data 3 bits at a time at a bit rate of 3 Mbps. The carrier frequency is 10 MHz. Calculate the number of levels

(different frequencies), the baud rate, and the bandwidth.

Solution: We can have L = 2 3 = 8. The baud rate is S = 3 Mbps/3 = 1 MHz. This means that the carrier frequencies must be 1 MHz apart (2Δf = 1 MHz). The bandwidth is B = 8 × 1000 = 8000. Figure 5.8

shows the allocation of frequencies and bandwidth.

× 1000 = 8000. Figure 5.8 shows the allocation of frequencies and bandwidth. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
× 1000 = 8000. Figure 5.8 shows the allocation of frequencies and bandwidth. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

103

Binary phase shift keying

Angle modulated signal, constant-amplitude

modulation

Waveform

v

BPSK

( t ) A.d( t ).cos( t  )

o

 Waveform v BPSK ( t )  A . d ( t ).cos(  t
 Waveform v BPSK ( t )  A . d ( t ).cos(  t

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

104

Binary phase shift keying

Medium complex circuit

Used in digital radio

BPSK implementation:

Medium complex circuit  Used in digital radio  BPSK implementation: Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE
Medium complex circuit  Used in digital radio  BPSK implementation: Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE
Medium complex circuit  Used in digital radio  BPSK implementation: Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

105

Quadrature PSK

The binary input data are combined into groups of two bits, called

dibits. In the modulator, each dibit code generates one of the four

possible output phases (+45°, +135°, -45°, and -135°).

Quadrature amplitude modulation is a combination of ASK and PSK.

 Quadrature amplitude modulation is a combination of ASK and PSK. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE
 Quadrature amplitude modulation is a combination of ASK and PSK. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

106

QPSK

Demodulation scheme:

QPSK  Demodulation scheme: Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 107
QPSK  Demodulation scheme: Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 107

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

107

Constellation Diagram

Description:

Error rate?

Constellation Diagram  Description:  Error rate? Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 108
Constellation Diagram  Description:  Error rate? Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 108
Constellation Diagram  Description:  Error rate? Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 108

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

108

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

Phase and Amplitude Increase bit rate

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation  Phase and Amplitude  Increase bit rate Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation  Phase and Amplitude  Increase bit rate Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation  Phase and Amplitude  Increase bit rate Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

DCN

HCMUT

109

Channel Parameters

Roundtrip Time (RTT): measured by a factor a a= T p /T x

T p : propagation time = S / V T x : transmission time = N / R

sender receiver first packet bit transmitted, t = 0 last packet bit transmitted, t =
sender
receiver
first packet bit transmitted, t = 0
last packet bit transmitted, t = N / R
RTT
first packet bit arrives
last packet bit arrives, send ACK
ACK arrives, send next
packet, t = RTT + N / R
packet bit arrives, send ACK ACK arrives, send next packet, t = RTT + N /

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Delay Example

A data frame of 1000 bits is transmitted between 2

DTE. Determine RTT depending on which kind of delay (T p or T x ) in the following cases:

2 DTEs are connected by twisted-pair cable with a distance

of 100m, R=10 Kbps

2 DTEs are connected by co-axial cable with a distance of 10km, R=1 Mbps 2 DTEs are connected via free space with a distance of

5000km, R=10 Mbps Given v=2.10 8 m/s

via free space with a distance of 5000km, R=10 Mbps Given v=2.10 8 m/s Telecomm. Dept.

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Channel

Dedicated medium: Baseband transmission of a digital signal

that preserves the shape of the digital signal is possible only if

we have a low-pass channel with an infinite or very wide bandwidth.

In baseband transmission, the required bandwidth is

proportional to the bit rate; if we need to send bits faster, we

need more bandwidth.

to the bit rate; if we need to send bits faster, we need more bandwidth. Telecomm.
to the bit rate; if we need to send bits faster, we need more bandwidth. Telecomm.

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Baseband transmission

An example of a dedicated channel where the entire

bandwidth of the medium is used as one single channel is a

LAN. Almost every wired LAN today uses a dedicated channel for two stations communicating with each other. In a bus topology LAN with multipoint connections, only two stations

can communicate with each other at each moment in time

(timesharing); the other stations need to refrain from sending data. In a star topology LAN, the entire channel between each station and the hub is used for communication between these

two entities

each station and the hub is used for communication between these two entities Telecomm. Dept. Faculty

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Bandpass channel

If the available channel is a bandpass channel, we cannot

send the digital signal directly to the channel; we need to

convert the digital signal to an analog signal before transmission.

need to convert the digital signal to an analog signal before transmission. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of
need to convert the digital signal to an analog signal before transmission. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

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Bandpass channel

An example of broadband transmission using modulation is

the sending of computer data through a telephone subscriber

line, the line connecting a resident to the central telephone office. These lines are designed to carry voice with a limited bandwidth. The channel is considered a bandpass channel.

We convert the digital signal from the computer to an analog

signal, and send the analog signal. We can install two converters to change the digital signal to analog and vice

versa at the receiving end. The converter, in this case, is called

a modem

versa at the receiving end. The converter, in this case, is called a modem Telecomm. Dept.

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Transmission Impairment

Signals travel through transmission media, which are not

perfect. The imperfection causes signal impairment. This

means that the signal at the beginning of the medium is not the same as the signal at the end of the medium. What is sent is not what is received. Three causes of impairment are

attenuation, distortion, and noise.

received. Three causes of impairment are attenuation, distortion, and noise. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN
received. Three causes of impairment are attenuation, distortion, and noise. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN

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Attenuation

Suppose a signal travels through a transmission medium and

its power is reduced to one-half. This means that P2 is

(1/2)P1. In this case, the attenuation (loss of power) can be calculated as

case, the attenuation (loss of power) can be calculated as  A loss of 3 dB

A loss of 3 dB (3 dB) is equivalent to losing one-half the power.

 A loss of 3 dB ( – 3 dB) is equivalent to losing one-half the
 A loss of 3 dB ( – 3 dB) is equivalent to losing one-half the

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Impairment

Distortion

Noise

Impairment  Distortion  Noise Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 118
Impairment  Distortion  Noise Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 118
Impairment  Distortion  Noise Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE DCN HCMUT 118

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Example

The loss in a cable is usually defined in decibels per kilometer

(dB/km). If the signal at the beginning of a cable with −0.3

dB/km has a power of 2 mW, what is the power of the signal at 5 km?

Solution: The loss in the cable in decibels is 5 × (−0.3) = −1.5

dB. We can calculate the power as

in decibels is 5 × (−0.3) = −1.5 dB. We can calculate the power as Telecomm.
in decibels is 5 × (−0.3) = −1.5 dB. We can calculate the power as Telecomm.

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

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119

Example

The power of a signal is 10 mW and the power of the noise is 1 μW; what are the values of SNR and SNR dB ?

Solution: The values of SNR and SNR dB can be calculated as follows:

Solution: The values of SNR and SNR d B can be calculated as follows: Telecomm. Dept.
Solution: The values of SNR and SNR d B can be calculated as follows: Telecomm. Dept.

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SNR

Two cases of SNR: a high SNR and a low SNR

SNR  Two cases of SNR: a high SNR and a low SNR Telecomm. Dept. Faculty
SNR  Two cases of SNR: a high SNR and a low SNR Telecomm. Dept. Faculty

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Data rate limit

A very important consideration in data communications is

how fast we can send data, in bits per second, over a channel.

Data rate depends on three factors:

1. The bandwidth available

2. The level of the signals we use

3. The quality of the channel (the level of noise)

Increasing the levels of a signal may reduce the reliability of

the system.

The Shannon capacity gives us the upper limit

C = B.log 2 (1+S/N)

(bps)

The Nyquist formula tells us how many signal levels (symbols) we need (Why is there such a limitation?):

R = 2B.log 2 L

(bps)

we need ( Why is there such a limitation? ): R = 2B.log 2 L (bps)

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Example

We need to send 265 kbps over a noiseless channel with a

bandwidth of 20 kHz. How many signal levels do we need?

Solution: We can use the Nyquist formula as shown:

 Solution: We can use the Nyquist formula as shown:  Since this result is not

Since this result is not a power of 2, we need to either

increase the number of levels or reduce the bit rate. If we

have 128 levels, the bit rate is 280 kbps. If we have 64 levels, the bit rate is 240 kbps.

the bit rate is 280 kbps. If we have 64 levels, the bit rate is 240

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

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Example

Consider an extremely noisy channel in which the value of the

signal-to-noise ratio is almost zero. In other words, the noise

is so strong that the signal is faint. For this channel the capacity C is calculated as

is faint. For this channel the capacity C is calculated as  This means that the

This means that the capacity of this channel is zero regardless

of the bandwidth. In other words, we cannot receive any data

through this channel.

bandwidth. In other words, we cannot receive any data through this channel. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

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Example

We can calculate the theoretical highest bit rate of a regular

telephone line. A telephone line normally has a bandwidth of

3000. The signal-to-noise ratio is usually 3162. For this channel the capacity is calculated as

usually 3162. For this channel the capacity is calculated as  This means that the highest

This means that the highest bit rate for a telephone line is

34.860 kbps. If we want to send data faster than this, we can

either increase the bandwidth of the line or improve the signal-to-noise ratio.

increase the bandwidth of the line or improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

Telecomm. Dept. Faculty of EEE

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Example

Consider an example that relates the Nyquist and Shannon formulations. Suppose the spectrum of a channel is between 3 MHz and 4 MHz, and SNRdB = 24dB. So,

B = 4 MHz 3 MHz = 1 MHz SNR dB = 24 dB = 10 log10(SNR) SRN = 251

Using Shannon’s formula, the capacity limit C is:

C = 10 6 x 1og 2 (1+251) ≈ 8 Mbps.

If we want to achieve this limit, how many signaling levels are required at least?

By Nyquist’s formula:

C = 2Blog 2 M

We have:

8 x 10 6 = 2 x 10 6 x log 2 M M = 16.

2 M We have: 8 x 10 6 = 2 x 10 6 x log 2

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Bandwidth-Delay product

In networking, we use the term bandwidth in two contexts.

The first, bandwidth in hertz, refers to the range of

frequencies in a composite signal or the range of frequencies that a channel can pass.

The second, bandwidth in bits per second, refers to the speed

of bit transmission in a channel or link.

per second, refers to the speed of bit transmission in a channel or link. Telecomm. Dept.
per second, refers to the speed of bit transmission in a channel or link. Telecomm. Dept.